Abstract

Various Er/Ce co-doped SiO2-Al2O3-CaO glasses are prepared by the melt-quenching method. The radiation resistance of Er/Ce co-doped glasses is investigated under 5 kGy gamma-ray irradiation. The absorption spectra, up-conversion spectra, fluorescence intensity and lifetime of Er/Ce co-doped glasses before and after irradiation are measured and analyzed in details. The radiation induced absorption (RIA) of the Er/Ce co-doped silicate glasses can be suppressed due to Ce ions co-doping. The fluorescence intensity and lifetime of Er/Ce co-doped glasses have no apparent change after irradiation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of Ce effect on the radiation resistance improvement is discussed. The result indicates that Er doped glasses with an optimal Ce concentration introduction can be used as active medias for radiation-resistant materials in harsh radiation environments.

© 2012 OSA

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2010 (3)

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys.43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys.37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Askins, C. G.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baccaro, S.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berne, O.

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, S.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blackmore, E. W.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boukenter, A.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brichard, B.

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bussjager, R. J.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cadier, B.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caussanel, M.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cecilia, A.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crochet, P.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, S.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Duval, H.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Felix, J. A.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferlet-Cavrois, V.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fox, B. P.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Friebele, E. J.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fukue, K.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gilard, O.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gingerich, M. E.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goutaland, F.

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerra, A.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, D.

Gusarov, A.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayduk, M. J.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Higashihata, M.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iurlaro, G.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johns, S. T.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, R.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manupriya, S.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, J. P.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihokova, E.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mohan, H.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mulholland, M.

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nitsch, K.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ou, Y.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paillet, P.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A.

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Polato, P.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Qian, G.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quadri, G.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Regnier, E.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robin, T.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rose, T. S.

Schwank, J. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaneyfelt, M. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shuanglong, Y.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sikora, E.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Simmons-Potter, K.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh,

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K.

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stroud, J. S.

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys.43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys.37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, E. W.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, L. R.

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomes, W. J.

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tortech, B.

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Van Uffelen, M.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

West, R. H.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. V.

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xiaoluan, L.

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, T.

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M. S.

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zanella, G.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, R.

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres,” Electron. Lett.28(19), 1816–1818 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Lewis, E. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, and S. Dowling, “Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.28(17), 1589–1591 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, and O. Gilard, “A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(10), 2227–2229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (4)

B. P. Fox, K. Simmons-Potter, W. J. Thomes, and D. Kliner, “Gamma-radiation-induced photodarkening in unpumped optical fibers doped with rare-earth constituents,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.57(3), 1618–1625 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, and F. Berghmans, “Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.51(5), 2763–2769 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fiber devices: sources, amplifiers, and passive measurements,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.45(3), 1531–1536 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton- and gamma-induced effects on erbium-doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the optical properties of PbO–B2O3–SiO2 and Bi2O3–B2O3–SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

O. Gilard, M. Caussanel, H. Duval, G. Quadri, and F. Reynaud, “New model for assessing dose, dose rate, and temperature sensitivity of radiation-induced absorption in glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.108(9), 093115 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Meng, T. Yoshimura, K. Fukue, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, and T. Okada, “Large improvement in quantum fluorescence yield of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and fluoroindate glasses by Ce3+ codoping,” J. Appl. Phys.88(5), 2187–2190 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. S. Stroud, “Color-Center Kinetics in Cerium-Containing Glass,” J. Chem. Phys.43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys.37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Paul, M. Mulholland, and M. S. Zaman, “Ultraviolet absorption of cerium (III) and cerium (IV) in some simple glasses,” J. Mater. Sci.11(11), 2082–2086 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. Tortech, Y. Ouerdane, S. Girard, J. P. Meunier, A. Boukenter, T. Robin, B. Cadier, and P. Crochet, “Radiation effects on Yb-and Er/Yb-doped optical fibers: A micro-luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids355(18-21), 1085–1088 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

S. Baccaro, A. Cecilia, E. Mihokova, M. Nikl, K. Nitsch, P. Polato, G. Zanella, and R. Zannoni, “Radiation damage induced by γ irradiation on Ce3+-doped phosphate and silicate scintillating glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A476(3), 785–789 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

G. Qian, S. Baccaro, A. Guerra, L. Xiaoluan, Y. Shuanglong, G. Iurlaro, and G. Chen, “Gamma irradiation effects on ZnO-based scintillating glasses containing CeO2 and/or TiO2,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B262(2), 276–280 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. L. Griscom, M. E. Gingerich, and E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-induced defects in glasses: origin of power-law dependence of concentration on dose,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(7), 1019–1022 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. J. Bussjager, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, L. R. Taylor, and E. W. Taylor, “Gamma-ray-induced damage and recovery behavior in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” Proc. SPIE4547, 126–133 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, “Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers,” Proc. SPIE2811, 30–36 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Sharma, K. Singh, S. Manupriya, H. Mohan, Singh, and S. Bindra, “Effects of gamma irradiation on optical and structural properties of PbO–Bi2O3–B2O3 glasses,” Radiat. Phys. Chem.75(9), 959–966 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. Brichard, A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, and F. Berghmans, “Study of the radiation-induced optical sensitivity in erbium and aluminium doped fibres,” in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems, 2003, RADECS 2003 (Citeseer, 2003), pp. 35–38.

Y. Q. Wei, A. Harsh, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, S. Shen, and A. Jha, “Er/Ce codoped tellurite fibre amplifier for high-gain and low-noise operation,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Vol. 1–8 (Optical Society of America, 2008), pp. 2496–2498.

Z. Chen, K. Zhou, and C. Jiang, “Modeling of Er3+-Ce3+-doped Telluride Fiber Amplifier,” in Photonics and Optoelectronic (SOPO), 2010 Symposium on (2010), pp. 1–3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The photography of the Er-0.5 mol% Ce co-doped glasses (a, pristine; b, irradiated), and the single Er-doped glasses (c, pristine; d, irradiated).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV–visible absorption spectra of host, single Er-doped, and Er/Ce co-doped glasses (a) before irradiation (b) after irradiation. Inset: absorption spectra at 980 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The radiation induced absorption (RIA) spectra and (b) up-conversion spectra of the typical glass samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fluorescence spectra of single Er-doped, and Er/Ce co-doped glasses, pristine (solid curve) and 5 kGy irradiated (dashed curve); (b) luminescence (1535 nm) intensity of Er-doped glasses as a function of Ce concentration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay curve of Er ions transition (a) doped with different Ce concentrations (b) doped Ce in non- and 5 kGy-irradiated glass.

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