Abstract

White, well-crystallized and strongly persistent luminescent CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ powders were obtained by electron-beam annealing. The electron-beam annealing resulted in a full reduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+, based on the luminescence spectra. Considerable grain growth was observed and the annealed powder crystallized in the monoclinic phase of calcium aluminate. The afterglow intensity was about three times this of commercially available powder and the afterglow duration extended to 10 hours, considering the 0.32mcd/m2 photopic threshold level.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (5)

2011 (3)

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato, “Novel luminescent photocatalytic deNO(x) activity of CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd)/TiO2-xNy composite,” Appl. Catal. B106(3-4), 586–591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

S. W. Choi and S. H. Hong, “Size and morphology control by planetary ball milling in CaAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by Pechini method and their luminescence properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B171(1-3), 69–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express17(1), 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Zawrah and N. M. Khalil, “Synthesis and characterization of calcium aluminate nanoceramics for new applications,” Ceram. Int.33(8), 1419–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(7), H107–H110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aitasalo, T.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, Y.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Avci, N.

Bao, S. P.

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bessodes, M.

Bierman, A.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Botterman, J.

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brito, H. F.

Bullough, J. D.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. K.

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. Y.

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi and S. H. Hong, “Size and morphology control by planetary ball milling in CaAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by Pechini method and their luminescence properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B171(1-3), 69–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clabau, F.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deniard, P.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(7), H107–H110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, A.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gourier, D.

Hanzawa, H.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, H. Q.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

Holsa, J.

H. F. Brito, J. Holsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, and L. C. V. Rodrigues, “Persistent luminescence mechanisms: human imagination at work,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 371–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hölsa, J.

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. H.

S. W. Choi and S. H. Hong, “Size and morphology control by planetary ball milling in CaAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by Pechini method and their luminescence properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B171(1-3), 69–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, T.

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. S.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ji, P. T.

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L.

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jobic, S.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jungner, H.

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khalil, N. M.

M. F. Zawrah and N. M. Khalil, “Synthesis and characterization of calcium aluminate nanoceramics for new applications,” Ceram. Int.33(8), 1419–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kijima, N.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kirm, M.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korthout, K.

N. Avci, K. Korthout, M. A. Newton, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Valence states of europium in CaAl2O4:Eu phosphors,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 321–330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laamanen, T.

H. F. Brito, J. Holsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, and L. C. V. Rodrigues, “Persistent luminescence mechanisms: human imagination at work,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 371–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lastusaari, M.

H. F. Brito, J. Holsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, and L. C. V. Rodrigues, “Persistent luminescence mechanisms: human imagination at work,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 371–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Le Mercier, T.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, B.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato, “Novel luminescent photocatalytic deNO(x) activity of CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd)/TiO2-xNy composite,” Appl. Catal. B106(3-4), 586–591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

Z. W. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 58–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. H.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Z.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Y.

Z. W. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 58–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Machida, K.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maldiney, T.

Malkamaki, M.

H. F. Brito, J. Holsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, and L. C. V. Rodrigues, “Persistent luminescence mechanisms: human imagination at work,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 371–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D. L.

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzawa, T.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, Y.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nan, C. W.

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Newton, M. A.

Niittykoski, J.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitenko, S.

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. W.

Z. W. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 58–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parkkinen, M.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Piao, X. Q.

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, D. Poelman, and M. P. Hehlen, “Focus issue introduction: persistent phosphors,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 452–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Maldiney, G. Sraiki, B. Viana, D. Gourier, C. Richard, D. Scherman, M. Bessodes, K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “In vivo optical imaging with rare earth doped Ca2Si5N8 persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 261–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Avci, K. Korthout, M. A. Newton, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Valence states of europium in CaAl2O4:Eu phosphors,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 321–330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express17(1), 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raud, J.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richard, C.

Rocquefelte, X.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigues, L. C. V.

Sato, T.

H. H. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato, “Novel luminescent photocatalytic deNO(x) activity of CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd)/TiO2-xNy composite,” Appl. Catal. B106(3-4), 586–591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherman, D.

Shimomura, Y.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smet, P. F.

T. Maldiney, G. Sraiki, B. Viana, D. Gourier, C. Richard, D. Scherman, M. Bessodes, K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “In vivo optical imaging with rare earth doped Ca2Si5N8 persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 261–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Smet, D. Poelman, and M. P. Hehlen, “Focus issue introduction: persistent phosphors,” Opt. Mater. Express2(4), 452–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Avci, K. Korthout, M. A. Newton, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Valence states of europium in CaAl2O4:Eu phosphors,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 321–330 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Poelman, N. Avci, and P. F. Smet, “Measured luminance and visual appearance of multi-color persistent phosphors,” Opt. Express17(1), 358–364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sraiki, G.

Takeuchi, N.

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. L.

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teng, X. M.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valtonen, R.

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van den Eeckhout, K.

T. Maldiney, G. Sraiki, B. Viana, D. Gourier, C. Richard, D. Scherman, M. Bessodes, K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “In vivo optical imaging with rare earth doped Ca2Si5N8 persistent luminescence nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. Express2(3), 261–268 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

Welter, E.

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Whangbo, M. H.

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

H. H. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato, “Novel luminescent photocatalytic deNO(x) activity of CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd)/TiO2-xNy composite,” Appl. Catal. B106(3-4), 586–591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ying, W. J.

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yun, B. G.

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zajac, D. A.

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zawrah, M. F.

M. F. Zawrah and N. M. Khalil, “Synthesis and characterization of calcium aluminate nanoceramics for new applications,” Ceram. Int.33(8), 1419–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. T.

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, W. D.

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Catal. B (1)

H. H. Li, S. Yin, and T. Sato, “Novel luminescent photocatalytic deNO(x) activity of CaAl2O4:(Eu, Nd)/TiO2-xNy composite,” Appl. Catal. B106(3-4), 586–591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Int. (1)

M. F. Zawrah and N. M. Khalil, “Synthesis and characterization of calcium aluminate nanoceramics for new applications,” Ceram. Int.33(8), 1419–1425 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

F. Clabau, X. Rocquefelte, S. Jobic, P. Deniard, M. H. Whangbo, A. Garcia, and T. Le Mercier, “Mechanism of phosphorescence appropriate for the long-lasting phosphors Eu2+-doped SrAl2O4 with codopants Dy3+ and B3+,” Chem. Mater.17(15), 3904–3912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (2)

J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Persistent luminescence of Eu2+ doped alkaline earth aluminates, MAl2O4: Eu2+,” J. Alloy. Comp.323-324, 326–330 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Sol-gel processed Eu2+-doped alkaline earth aluminates,” J. Alloy. Comp.341(1-2), 76–78 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (3)

P. Dorenbos, “Mechanism of persistent luminescence in Eu2+ and Dy3+ codoped aluminate and silicate compounds,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(7), H107–H110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuzawa, Y. Aoki, N. Takeuchi, and Y. Murayama, “New long phosphorescent phosphor with high brightness, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+,” J. Electrochem. Soc.143(8), 2670–2673 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Lei, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, H. Hanzawa, N. Kijima, Y. Shimomura, and H. Yamamoto, “Reddish-Orange Long-Lasting Phosphorescence of Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,Tm3+ Phosphor,” J. Electrochem. Soc.157(6), J196–J201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

Y. H. Lin, Z. L. Tang, Z. T. Zhang, and C. W. Nan, “Influence of co-doping different rare earth ions on the luminescence of CaAl2O4-based phosphors,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.23(1), 175–178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (3)

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent luminescence in rare-earth codoped Ca2Si5N8:Eu2+,” J. Lumin.129(10), 1140–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Piao, K. Machida, T. Horikawa, and B. G. Yun, “Acetate reduction synthesis of Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ phosphor and its luminescence properties,” J. Lumin.130(1), 8–12 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Teng, Y. H. Liu, Y. Z. Liu, Y. S. Hu, H. Q. He, and W. D. Zhuang, “Luminescence properties of Tm3+ co-doped Sr2Si5N8:Eu2+ red phosphor,” J. Lumin.130(5), 851–854 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Aitasalo, J. Hölsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Thermoluminescence study of persistent luminescence materials: Eu2+- and R3+-doped calcium aluminates, CaAl2O4:Eu2+,R3+.,” J. Phys. Chem. B110(10), 4589–4598 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lighting Res. Tech. (1)

M. S. Rea, J. D. Bullough, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and A. Bierman, “A proposed unified system of photometry,” Lighting Res. Tech.36(2), 85–111 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. K. Chang, J. Xu, L. Jiang, D. L. Mao, and W. J. Ying, “Luminescence of long-lasting CaAl2O4: Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor by co-precipitation method,” Mater. Chem. Phys.98(2-3), 509–513 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, and J. Niittykoski, “Comparison of sol-gel and solid-state prepared Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates,” Mater. Sci.20, 15–20 (2002).

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

S. W. Choi and S. H. Hong, “Size and morphology control by planetary ball milling in CaAl2O4:Eu2+ phosphors prepared by Pechini method and their luminescence properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B171(1-3), 69–72 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

K. Van den Eeckhout, P. F. Smet, and D. Poelman, “Persistent Luminescence in Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials3(4), 2536–2566 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

Z. W. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr3+-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater.11(1), 58–63 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (2)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, M. Parkkinen, and R. Valtonen, “Eu2+ doped calcium aluminates prepared by alternative low temperature routes,” Opt. Mater.26(2), 113–116 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Y. Chen, Z. Li, S. P. Bao, and P. T. Ji, “Porous MAl2O4:Eu2+ (Eu3+), Dy3+ (M = Sr, Ca, Ba) phosphors prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method: The effect of solvents,” Opt. Mater.34(1), 48–55 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

K. Korthout, K. Van den Eeckhout, J. Botterman, S. Nikitenko, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Luminescence and x-ray absorption measurements of persistent SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy powders: Evidence for valence state changes,” Phys. Rev. B84(8), 085140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

T. Aitasalo, J. Holsa, M. Kirm, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, J. Raud, and R. Valtonen, “Persistent luminescence and synchrotron radiation study of the Ca2MgSi2O7:Eu2+, R3+ materials,” Radiat. Meas.42(4-5), 644–647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Hölsa, T. Laamanen, M. Lastusaari, M. Malkamaki, E. Welter, and D. A. Zajac, “Valence and environment of rare earth ions in CaAl2O4: Eu2+, R3+ persistent luminescence materials,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc.65(4), 301–305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized PL emission spectra of CaAl2O4:Eu (1%) heat-treated at 1000°C before (blue and black lines) and after (red line) post-annealing using electron beam. The emission spectra are recorded at room temperature at an excitation wavelength of 260nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction pattern (black line) for e-beam annealed CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd. The reference pattern for monoclinic CaAl2O4 (01-070-0134) is indicated in red.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron microscopy image of CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd, before (top) and after (middle) the e-beam annealing, using back-scattered electrons. (bottom) Enlarged area of the e-beam annealed powder, showing a line scan on across a grain boundary and a mapping of the rare earth elements using EDX.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission intensity monitored at 450nm for benchmark CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd (blue line) and e-beam annealed CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd (red line). The samples are excited at 350nm for 360s. The excitation ended at time t = 0 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute luminance of CaAl2O4:Eu,Nd and SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy persistent phosphors measured after excitation for 10 minutes with 1000 lux of unfiltered light from a Xe arc source. (bm): benchmark phosphor, (e-beam): phosphor prepared in this work using e-beam annealing.

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