Abstract

Current work is dedicated to theoretical and experimental studies on YAG single crystals performance with non-homogeneous activator ion distribution. Improved lasing characteristics are described and quantified theoretically. The first crystals with such a distribution have been obtained as a result of several growth attempts using Horizontal Direct Crystallization method (Bagdassarov’s method). Extracted from the as-grown boules, samples have been optically treated and studied further. The preparatory phase, growth process and equipment as well as post-growth studies of the extracted samples are equally presented in this paper. Energy-dispersive X-ray analyses were used to quantify the doping distribution values in the grown crystals. Optical transmission experiments were performed to verify the optical characteristics of the as-grown crystals.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.-C. Chanteloup, D. Albach, G. Bourdet, P. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Impact of variable doped gain medium on HiPER multiple kJ / ~10Hz diode pumped beam lines design,” Advanced Solid State Photonics Topical Meeting and Tabletop Exhibit (ASSP), Denver, Colorado, USA, 1–4 Feb. 2009.
  3. D. Albach, M. Arzakantsyan, G. Bourdet, J.-C. Chanteloup, Ph. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Current status of the Lucia laser system,” Sixth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2009), San Francisco, USA, 6–11 September 2009.
  4. W. R. Meier, “Systems Modeling for a Laser-Driven IFE Power Plant using Direct Conversion,” The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007) IOP Publishing, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2008), Vol. 112.
  5. J.-C. Chanteloup, K. Ertel, J. Hein, and B. J. Le Garrec, “Multi kJ Level Laser Concepts for HiPER facility,” Sixth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2009), 6–11 September 2009, San Francisco, USA.
  6. http://www-lmj.cea.fr/html/rubrique231.html
  7. X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Kh. S. Bagdasarov, Vysokotemperaturnaya kristallizatsiya iz rasplava. M.: Fizmatlit, 2004.
  9. Kh. S. Bagdasarov and L. A. Goryainov, Teplo- i massoperenos pri vyrashchivanii monokristallov napravlennoi kristallizatsiei. M.: Fizmatlit, 2007.

2006 (1)

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deng, P.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dunne, M.

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, P. X.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Z.

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

X. Xu, Z. Zhao, G. Zhao, P. X. Song, J. Xu, and P. Deng, “Comparison of Yb:YAG crystals grown by CZ and TGT method,” J. Cryst. Growth 257(3-4), 297–300 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J.-C. Chanteloup, D. Albach, G. Bourdet, P. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Impact of variable doped gain medium on HiPER multiple kJ / ~10Hz diode pumped beam lines design,” Advanced Solid State Photonics Topical Meeting and Tabletop Exhibit (ASSP), Denver, Colorado, USA, 1–4 Feb. 2009.

D. Albach, M. Arzakantsyan, G. Bourdet, J.-C. Chanteloup, Ph. Hollander, and B. Vincent, “Current status of the Lucia laser system,” Sixth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2009), San Francisco, USA, 6–11 September 2009.

W. R. Meier, “Systems Modeling for a Laser-Driven IFE Power Plant using Direct Conversion,” The fifth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA2007) IOP Publishing, Journal of Physics: Conference Series (2008), Vol. 112.

J.-C. Chanteloup, K. Ertel, J. Hein, and B. J. Le Garrec, “Multi kJ Level Laser Concepts for HiPER facility,” Sixth International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (IFSA 2009), 6–11 September 2009, San Francisco, USA.

http://www-lmj.cea.fr/html/rubrique231.html

Kh. S. Bagdasarov, Vysokotemperaturnaya kristallizatsiya iz rasplava. M.: Fizmatlit, 2004.

Kh. S. Bagdasarov and L. A. Goryainov, Teplo- i massoperenos pri vyrashchivanii monokristallov napravlennoi kristallizatsiei. M.: Fizmatlit, 2007.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pumping, extraction and cooling axis configurations in 2 cases for large/thin laser gain medium (pink): left, the active-mirror approach and right the slab architecture. ASE favoured directions are also shown in grey arrows inside the gain media. Yellow is cladding for ASE management.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Stored energy distribution for a single side pumped active mirror with uniform doping distribution (left and dotted curve) and variable doping distribution (right and red curve). Pumping originates from the left (green arrows) whereas cooling takes place on the opposite side (blue arrows).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Small signal gain distribution for a single side pumped active mirror with uniform doping distribution (dotted curve) and variable doping distribution (red curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Requested volumes to reach a similar extractible energy density (~6J/cm2) in absence of ASE for three different doping distributions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The top left sketch displays the respective positions of the heater and the crucible and the nature of its content during the crystallization phase. The other drawings gives the starting material Yb3+ concentration distribution used prior starting growth process for the three boules.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Second grown boule with extracted samples, b) Third grown boule with extracted reference slices.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

First boule extracted sample absorption spectrum recorded at 4 different locations and resulting doping distribution.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Doping distributions measured with EDX for the second and third boules. Four zones labeled 1 to 4 are displayed for the 2nd boule graph (left), defining the centimer long extracted samples. 1.76 at.%.cm−1 and 3 at.%.cm−1 doping gradients are measured.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Birefringence and interferometric measurements of first (left) and second (right) boule samples.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence measurement experience revealing the presence of a gradient in Yb doping concentration.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental and simulated (smooth curves) fluorescence distribution of the 1 cm long crystal sample 2 extracted from the second boule.

Equations (1)

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{ dβ dt ={ σ abs ( σ em + σ abs )β } I hν β τ fluo dI dz = N tot { ( σ em + σ abs )β σ abs }I ,

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