Abstract

In this work, the fabrication of a porous silicon Bragg reflector and vertical cavity on P+ silicon substrate is investigated for applications in spectroscopic sensing in the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength range. The complex refractive index of porous silicon layers is measured. Optical vertical devices are then fabricated and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. This work demonstrates the use of electrochemically prepared Bragg reflectors with reflectance as high as 99% and vertical cavity based on porous silicon layers operating in the mid-IR spectral region (up to 8 µm). Experimental reflectance spectra of the vertical cavity structures are recorded as a function of air exposure duration after thermal annealing under nitrogen flux (N2) and results demonstrate that these structures could be used for spectroscopic sensing applications in the mid-IR (2-8 µm) by grafting specific biomolecules on the porous silicon internal surface.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

S. Arshavsky-Graham, N. Massad-Ivanir, E. Segal, and S. Weiss, “Analytical Chemistry Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Biosensors,” Current Status and Emerging Applications 91(1), 441–467 (2019).

2018 (1)

2017 (5)

C. T. Zheng, W. L. Ye, N. P. Sanchez, C. G. Li, L. Dong, Y. D. Wang, R. J. Griffinf, and F. K. Tittel, “Development and field deployment of a mid-infrared methane sensor without pressure control using interband cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators, B 244, 365–372 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Song, C. T. Zheng, W. H. Yan, W. L. Ye, Y. D. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “Interband cascade laser based mid-infrared methane sensor system using a novel electrical-domainself-adaptive direct laser absorption spectroscopy (SA-DLAS),” Opt. Express 25(25), 31876–31888 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Lochbaum, Y. Fedoryshyn, A. Dorodnyy, U. Koch, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “On-Chip Narrowband Thermal Emitter for Mid-IR Optical Gas Sensing,” ACS Photonics 4(6), 1371–1380 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. TalebiFard, S. Schmidt, W. Shi, W. Wu, N. A. Jaeger, E. Kwok, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “Optimized sensitivity of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) strip waveguide resonator sensor,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 500–511 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, G. Y. Lee, R. Kennard, G. Barillaro, R. H. Bisiewicz, N. A. Cortez Lemus, X. C. Cao, E. J. Anglin, J. S. Park, A. Potocny, D. Bernhard, J. Li, and M. Sailor, “Engineering the Properties of Polymer Photonic Crystals with Mesoporous Silicon Templates,” Chem. Mater. 29(3), 1263–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

B. Kumari, A. Barh, R. K. Varshney, and B. P. Pal, “Silicon-on-nitride slot waveguide: A promising platform as mid-IR trace gas sensor,” Sens. Actuators, B 236, 759–764 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Singh, A. Casas-Bedoya, D. D. Hudson, A. Read, E. Mägi, and B. Eggleton, “Mid-IR absorption sensing of heavy water using a silicon-on-sapphire waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 41(24), 5776–5779 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Li, C. T. Zheng, H. F. Liu, Q. X. He, W. L. Ye, Y. Zhang, J. Q. Pan, and Y. D. Wang, “Development and measurement of a near-infrared CH4 detection system using 1.654 μm wavelength-modulated diode laser and open reflective gas sensing probe,” Sens. Actuators, B 225, 188–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass, D. Rhonehouse, D. Gibson, C. C. McClain, R. Thapa, V. Q. Nguyen, S. S. Bayya, R. J. Weiblen, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Infrared glass-based negative-curvature anti-resonant fibers fabricated through extrusion,” Opt. Express 24(22), 25697–25703 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, “Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 88(11), 5562–5573 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

V. Singh, P. T. Lin, N. Patel, H. Lin, L. Li, Y. Zou, F. Deng, C. Ni, J. Hu, and J. Giammarco, “Mid-infrared materials and devices on a Si platform for optical sensing,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15(1), 014603 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Bui, T. Van Nguyen, T. A. Nguyen, T. Binh Pham, Q. T. Dang, T. Chi Do, Q. Minh Ngo, R. Coisson, and V. Hoi Pham, “A Vapor Sensor Based on a Porous Silicon Microcavity for the Determination of Solvent Solutions,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 18(4), 301–306 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Van Hoi, V. Nguyen Thuy, N. The Anh, P. Van Dai, and B. Huy, “Nano porous silicon microcavity sensor for determination organic solvents and pesticide in water,” Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5(4), 045003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sieger, F. Balluff, X. Wang, S.-S. Kim, L. Leidner, G. Gauglitz, and B. Mizaikoff, “On-chip integrated mid-infrared GaAs/AlGaAs Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Anal. Chem. 85(6), 3050–3052 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Mizaikoff, “Waveguide-enhanced mid-infrared chem/bio sensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(22), 8683–8699 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

K.-H. Kim, S. Ara Jahan, and E. Kabir, “A review of breath analysis for diagnosis of human health,” Trends Anal. Chem. 33, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chang, V. Paeder, L. Hvozdara, J.-M. Hartmann, and H. P. Herzig, “Low-loss germanium strip waveguides on silicon for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2883–2885 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier, P. Pirasteh, Y. G. Boucher, and M. Gadonna, “Bragg reflector formed on oxidized porous silicon,” Micro Nano Lett. 7(2), 105–108 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Najar, J. Charrier, P. Pirasteh, and R. Sougrat, “Ultra-Low Reflection Porous Silicon Nanowires for Solar Cell Applications,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16861–16870 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

N. Lorrain, M. Hiraoui, M. Guendouz, and L. Haji, “Functionalization control of porous silicon optical structures using reflectance spectra modeling for bio sensing applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 176(14), 1047–1053 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Martin, C. Taleb Bendiab, L. Massif, G. Palestino, V. Agarwal, F. Cuisinier, and C. Gergely, “Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies,” Physica Status Solidi C 8(6), 1888–1892 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 141–148 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Charrier and M. Dribek, “Merit factor theoretical study of optical biosensors based on porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044905 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Densmore, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J.H Schmid, “Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 596–598 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Zinoviev, L. G. Carrascosa, J. Sánchez, B. del Río, C. Sepúlveda, L. M. Domínguez, and Lechuga, “Silicon photonic biosensors for lab-on-a-chip applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, 1–6 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Pirasteh, J. Charrier, Y. Dumeige, S. Haesaert, and P. Joubert, “Optical loss studies of porous silicon and oxidized porous silicon planar waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(8), 083110 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller, and P. M. Fauchet, “Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1851–1859 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. De Stefano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, and A. M. Rossi, “Quantitative optical sensing in two-component mixtures using porous silicon,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 201(5), 1011–1016 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. De Stefano, I. Rendina, L. Moretti, S. Tundo, and A. M. Rossi, “Smart optical sensors for chemical substances based on porous silicon technology,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 167–172 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

L. De Stefano, L. Moretti, I. Rendina, and A. M. Rossi, “Porous silicon microcavities for optical hydrocarbons detection,” Sens. Actuators, A 104(2), 179–182 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, “Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(47), 11797–11798 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. W. Theiss, “Optical properties of porous silicon,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 29(3-4), 91–192 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 9(11), 1002–1004 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abajo, F. J. G.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, V.

M. Martin, C. Taleb Bendiab, L. Massif, G. Palestino, V. Agarwal, F. Cuisinier, and C. Gergely, “Matrix metalloproteinase sensing via porous silicon microcavity devices functionalized with human antibodies,” Physica Status Solidi C 8(6), 1888–1892 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

D. Rodrigo, O. Limaj, D. Janner, D. Etezadi, F. J. G. Abajo, V. Pruneri, and H. Altug, “Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene,” Science 349(6244), 165–168 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anglin, E. J.

J. Wang, G. Y. Lee, R. Kennard, G. Barillaro, R. H. Bisiewicz, N. A. Cortez Lemus, X. C. Cao, E. J. Anglin, J. S. Park, A. Potocny, D. Bernhard, J. Li, and M. Sailor, “Engineering the Properties of Polymer Photonic Crystals with Mesoporous Silicon Templates,” Chem. Mater. 29(3), 1263–1272 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ara Jahan, S.

K.-H. Kim, S. Ara Jahan, and E. Kabir, “A review of breath analysis for diagnosis of human health,” Trends Anal. Chem. 33, 1–8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arshavsky-Graham, S.

S. Arshavsky-Graham, N. Massad-Ivanir, E. Segal, and S. Weiss, “Analytical Chemistry Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Biosensors,” Current Status and Emerging Applications 91(1), 441–467 (2019).

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
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Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

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Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

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Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Chem. Mater. (1)

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Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

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Current Status and Emerging Applications (1)

S. Arshavsky-Graham, N. Massad-Ivanir, E. Segal, and S. Weiss, “Analytical Chemistry Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Biosensors,” Current Status and Emerging Applications 91(1), 441–467 (2019).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental Mid-IR reflectance spectra of the PSi layer of high and low porosities and of the Si substrate. (b) Experimental and fitted reflectance spectra of the low porosity PSi layer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Spectral dependances of (a) PSi refractive index and (b) PSi extinction coefficient as a function of the wavelength for the high and low porosity layers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SEM micrographs (cross sections) of (a) single layer of PSi, (b) Bragg reflector structure and (c,d) vertical micro-cavity at some different scales.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Experimental reflectance spectra of (a) Bragg reflector and (b) vertical micro-cavity structures.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Evolution of the experimental reflectance spectra of the same micro-cavity structure as a function of exposure duration to air after annealing at 300°C of the structure under N2. (b) Magnification of spectra around the resonance wavelength.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Physical parameters of the lower and higher PSi layers

Equations (5)

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λ o = 2 ( n L P . t L P + n H P . t H P )
Δ λ = 2 λ o Δ n π n
Δ n = n L P n H P
n = n L P + n H P 2
Q = λ o Δ λ = 2 n o L π λ o R exp ( α L / 2 ) 1 R exp ( α L )