Abstract

We demonstrate epitaxially integrated nanoscale superconductor tunnel diodes, realized using NbN on GaN thin films. Tuning the growth conditions leads to reduced interface defect density and to the emergence of the superconducting coherence peaks in the interface tunneling characteristics. The degree of disorder in the superconductor is correlated with the variance in the order parameter value of different domains. Epitaxial integration of the nanoscale layers allowed precise control on the quality of the superconductor at the interface, and, by extension, the variance in the order parameter value. The numerical calculations taking a normal distribution of superconducting order parameter at the interface with a fixed variance in its order parameter values closely match the measured interface transport characteristics at different temperatures. Strong sub-gap nonlinearity observed in the differential conductivity measurements were subsequently shown to be sensitive to photon incidence, thereby acting as a photodetector. Usage of superconducting interfaces with semiconducting layers such as GaN permit sensitivity tunability and enable large scale device fabrication and integration.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  6. D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
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    [Crossref]
  9. D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
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  14. R. Yan, G. Khalsa, S. Vishwanath, Y. Han, J. Wright, S. Rouvimov, D. S. Katzer, N. Nepal, B. P. Downey, and D. A. Muller and others, “GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures,” Nature 555(7695), 183–189 (2018).
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  21. K. Buttig, H. Liemersdorf, H. Kinder, and K. Reichelt, “Superconductivity transition temperatures of rf reactively sputtered NbN Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 5069–5071 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen, and H. Morkoc, “Low resistance ohmic contacts on wide band-gap GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(8), 1003–1005 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Bouadim, Y. L. Loh, M. Randeria, and N. Trivedi, “Single-and two-particle energy gaps across the disorder-driven superconductor–insulator transition,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 884–889 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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  26. P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, and T. S. Jespersen, “Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 400–406 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. D. Dzhafarov, “Atomic diffusion in semiconductor epitaxial structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42(1), 11–45 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  28. T. Zheleva, K. Jagannadham, and J. Narayan and, “Epitaxial growth in large-lattice-mismatch systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(2), 860–871 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. I. Larkin and Y. N. Ovchinnikov, “Density of States in a Homogeneous Superconductor,” Soviet Physics JETP 34(5), 1144–1150 (1972).
  30. M. V. Feigel’man and M. A. Skvortsov, “Universal Broadening of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Coherence Peak of Disordered Superconducting Fil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147002 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. C. Dynes, V. Narayanamurti, and J. Garno, “Direct Measurement of Quasiparticle-Lifetime Broadening in a Strong-Coupled Superconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(21), 1509–1512 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  32. A. Banerjee, R. M. Heath, D. Morozov, D. Hemakumara, U. Nasti, I. Thayne, and R. H. Hadfield, “Optical properties of refractory metal based thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2072 (2018).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (5)

D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Cayao, A. M. Black-Schaffer, E. Prada, and R. Aguado, “Andreev spectrum and supercurrents in nanowire-based SNS junctions containing Majorana bound states,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 9, 1339–1357 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Yan, G. Khalsa, S. Vishwanath, Y. Han, J. Wright, S. Rouvimov, D. S. Katzer, N. Nepal, B. P. Downey, and D. A. Muller and others, “GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures,” Nature 555(7695), 183–189 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Banerjee, R. M. Heath, D. Morozov, D. Hemakumara, U. Nasti, I. Thayne, and R. H. Hadfield, “Optical properties of refractory metal based thin films,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(8), 2072 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

N. A. Güsken, T. Rieger, P. Zellekens, B. Bennemann, E. Neumann, M. I. Lepsa, T. Schäpers, and D. Grützmacher, “MBE growth of Al/InAs and Nb/InAs superconducting hybrid nanowire structures,” Nanoscale 9(43), 16735–16741 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, and T. S. Jespersen, “Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 400–406 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. D’Ambrosio, M. Meissner, C. Blanc, A. Ronzani, and F. Giazotto, “Normal metal tunnel junction-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 113110 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Kamlapure, T. Das, S. C. Ganguli, J. B. Parmar, S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2979 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. V. Feigel’man and M. A. Skvortsov, “Universal Broadening of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Coherence Peak of Disordered Superconducting Fil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147002 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Bouadim, Y. L. Loh, M. Randeria, and N. Trivedi, “Single-and two-particle energy gaps across the disorder-driven superconductor–insulator transition,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 884–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Friedrich, “Superconducting tunnel junction photon detectors: Theory and applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151(1-2), 277–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Akazaki, H. Yamaguchi, J. Nitta, and H. Takayanagi, “Superconductor semiconductor superconductor junctions using NbN,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 901–903 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Peacock, P. Verhoeve, N. Rando, A. v. Dordrecht, C. E. B. G. Taylor, M. A. C. Perryman, and J. R. Venn, “On the detection of single optical photons with superconducting tunnel junction,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(11), 7641–7646 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Peacock, P. Verhoeve, N. Rando, A. Dordrecht, B. G. Taylor, C. Erd, M. A. C. Perryman, R. Venn, J. Howlett, D. J. Goldie, J. Lumley, and M. Wallis, “Single optical photon detection with a superconducting tunnel junction,” Nature 381(6578), 135–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (4)

A. A. Golubov, E. P. Houwman, J. G. Gijsbertsen, J. Flokstra, H. Rogalla, J. B. Le Grand, and P. A. J. Korte, “Quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneling times in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction with spatially inhomogeneous electrodes,” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12953–12968 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Nguyen, H. Kroemer, and E. L. Hu, “Contact resistance of superconductor-semiconductor interfaces: The case of Nb-InAs/AlSb quantum-well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(1), 103–105 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen, and H. Morkoc, “Low resistance ohmic contacts on wide band-gap GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(8), 1003–1005 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. Zheleva, K. Jagannadham, and J. Narayan and, “Epitaxial growth in large-lattice-mismatch systems,” J. Appl. Phys. 75(2), 860–871 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

M. Kurakado, “Developments in superconducting tunnel junction detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 314(2), 252–262 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. H. Williams, “Surface Defects on Semiconductors,” Surf. Sci. 132(1-3), 122–142 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. Kurakado, “Possibility of high resolution detectors using superconducting tunnel junctions,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 196(1), 275–277 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. C. Dynes, V. Narayanamurti, and J. Garno, “Direct Measurement of Quasiparticle-Lifetime Broadening in a Strong-Coupled Superconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(21), 1509–1512 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

T. D. Dzhafarov, “Atomic diffusion in semiconductor epitaxial structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42(1), 11–45 (1977).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

K. Buttig, H. Liemersdorf, H. Kinder, and K. Reichelt, “Superconductivity transition temperatures of rf reactively sputtered NbN Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 5069–5071 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (3)

A. I. Larkin and Y. N. Ovchinnikov, “Density of States in a Homogeneous Superconductor,” Soviet Physics JETP 34(5), 1144–1150 (1972).

M. Tinkham, “Tunneling generation, relaxation, and tunneling detection of hole-electron imbalance in superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 6(5), 1747–1756 (1972).
[Crossref]

M. Tinkham and J. Clarke, “Theory of pair-quasiparticle potential difference in nonequilibrium superconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(21), 1366–1369 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

J. W. Garland, K. H. Bennemann, and F. M. Mueller, “Effect of Lattice Disorder on the Superconducting Transition Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(18), 1315–1319 (1968).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

D. N. Langenberg, D. J. Scalapino, and B. N. Taylor, “Josephson-type superconducting tunnel junctions as generators of microwave and submillimeter wave radiation,” Proc. IEEE 54(4), 560–575 (1966).
[Crossref]

Aguado, R.

J. Cayao, A. M. Black-Schaffer, E. Prada, and R. Aguado, “Andreev spectrum and supercurrents in nanowire-based SNS junctions containing Majorana bound states,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 9, 1339–1357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akazaki, T.

T. Akazaki, H. Yamaguchi, J. Nitta, and H. Takayanagi, “Superconductor semiconductor superconductor junctions using NbN,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 901–903 (1999).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, S. M.

P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, and T. S. Jespersen, “Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 400–406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, L. H.

M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen, and H. Morkoc, “Low resistance ohmic contacts on wide band-gap GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(8), 1003–1005 (1994).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, K.

D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

Bennemann, B.

N. A. Güsken, T. Rieger, P. Zellekens, B. Bennemann, E. Neumann, M. I. Lepsa, T. Schäpers, and D. Grützmacher, “MBE growth of Al/InAs and Nb/InAs superconducting hybrid nanowire structures,” Nanoscale 9(43), 16735–16741 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bennemann, K. H.

J. W. Garland, K. H. Bennemann, and F. M. Mueller, “Effect of Lattice Disorder on the Superconducting Transition Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(18), 1315–1319 (1968).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, S.

A. Kamlapure, T. Das, S. C. Ganguli, J. B. Parmar, S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2979 (2013).
[Crossref]

Black-Schaffer, A. M.

J. Cayao, A. M. Black-Schaffer, E. Prada, and R. Aguado, “Andreev spectrum and supercurrents in nanowire-based SNS junctions containing Majorana bound states,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 9, 1339–1357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Blanc, C.

S. D’Ambrosio, M. Meissner, C. Blanc, A. Ronzani, and F. Giazotto, “Normal metal tunnel junction-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 113110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouadim, K.

K. Bouadim, Y. L. Loh, M. Randeria, and N. Trivedi, “Single-and two-particle energy gaps across the disorder-driven superconductor–insulator transition,” Nat. Phys. 7(11), 884–889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bouscher, S.

D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Buttig, K.

K. Buttig, H. Liemersdorf, H. Kinder, and K. Reichelt, “Superconductivity transition temperatures of rf reactively sputtered NbN Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(11), 5069–5071 (1973).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

Cayao, J.

J. Cayao, A. M. Black-Schaffer, E. Prada, and R. Aguado, “Andreev spectrum and supercurrents in nanowire-based SNS junctions containing Majorana bound states,” Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 9, 1339–1357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chand, M.

S. P. Chockalingam, M. Chand, J. Jesudasan, V. Tripathi, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Evolution of superconducting properties with disorder in epitaxial NbN films,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, (2009).

Chang, W.

P. Krogstrup, N. L. B. Ziino, W. Chang, S. M. Albrecht, M. H. Madsen, E. Johnson, J. Nygård, C. M. Marcus, and T. S. Jespersen, “Epitaxy of semiconductor–superconductor nanowires,” Nat. Mater. 14(4), 400–406 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chockalingam, S. P.

S. P. Chockalingam, M. Chand, J. Jesudasan, V. Tripathi, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Evolution of superconducting properties with disorder in epitaxial NbN films,” in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, (2009).

Claeson, T.

T. Claeson, “Superconducting Tunnel Junctions in High Frequency Radiation Detectors,” in Advances in SuperconductivityB. Deaver and J. Ruvalds, eds. (Springer US, 1983), pp. 241–277
[Crossref]

Clarke, J.

M. Tinkham and J. Clarke, “Theory of pair-quasiparticle potential difference in nonequilibrium superconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 28(21), 1366–1369 (1972).
[Crossref]

Cohen, S.

D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, S.

S. D’Ambrosio, M. Meissner, C. Blanc, A. Ronzani, and F. Giazotto, “Normal metal tunnel junction-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 113110 (2015).
[Crossref]

Das, T.

A. Kamlapure, T. Das, S. C. Ganguli, J. B. Parmar, S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2979 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dordrecht, A.

A. Peacock, P. Verhoeve, N. Rando, A. Dordrecht, B. G. Taylor, C. Erd, M. A. C. Perryman, R. Venn, J. Howlett, D. J. Goldie, J. Lumley, and M. Wallis, “Single optical photon detection with a superconducting tunnel junction,” Nature 381(6578), 135–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dordrecht, A. v.

A. Peacock, P. Verhoeve, N. Rando, A. v. Dordrecht, C. E. B. G. Taylor, M. A. C. Perryman, and J. R. Venn, “On the detection of single optical photons with superconducting tunnel junction,” J. Appl. Phys. 81(11), 7641–7646 (1997).
[Crossref]

Downey, B. P.

R. Yan, G. Khalsa, S. Vishwanath, Y. Han, J. Wright, S. Rouvimov, D. S. Katzer, N. Nepal, B. P. Downey, and D. A. Muller and others, “GaN/NbN epitaxial semiconductor/superconductor heterostructures,” Nature 555(7695), 183–189 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dynes, R. C.

R. C. Dynes, V. Narayanamurti, and J. Garno, “Direct Measurement of Quasiparticle-Lifetime Broadening in a Strong-Coupled Superconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(21), 1509–1512 (1978).
[Crossref]

Dzhafarov, T. D.

T. D. Dzhafarov, “Atomic diffusion in semiconductor epitaxial structures,” Phys. Status Solidi A 42(1), 11–45 (1977).
[Crossref]

Erd, C.

A. Peacock, P. Verhoeve, N. Rando, A. Dordrecht, B. G. Taylor, C. Erd, M. A. C. Perryman, R. Venn, J. Howlett, D. J. Goldie, J. Lumley, and M. Wallis, “Single optical photon detection with a superconducting tunnel junction,” Nature 381(6578), 135–137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z. F.

M. E. Lin, Z. Ma, F. Huang, Z. F. Fan, L. H. Allen, and H. Morkoc, “Low resistance ohmic contacts on wide band-gap GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(8), 1003–1005 (1994).
[Crossref]

Feigel’man, M. V.

M. V. Feigel’man and M. A. Skvortsov, “Universal Broadening of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer Coherence Peak of Disordered Superconducting Fil,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(14), 147002 (2012).
[Crossref]

Flokstra, J.

A. A. Golubov, E. P. Houwman, J. G. Gijsbertsen, J. Flokstra, H. Rogalla, J. B. Le Grand, and P. A. J. Korte, “Quasiparticle lifetimes and tunneling times in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction with spatially inhomogeneous electrodes,” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12953–12968 (1994).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, S.

S. Friedrich, “Superconducting tunnel junction photon detectors: Theory and applications,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 151(1-2), 277–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ganguli, S. C.

A. Kamlapure, T. Das, S. C. Ganguli, J. B. Parmar, S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2979 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garland, J. W.

J. W. Garland, K. H. Bennemann, and F. M. Mueller, “Effect of Lattice Disorder on the Superconducting Transition Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(18), 1315–1319 (1968).
[Crossref]

Garno, J.

R. C. Dynes, V. Narayanamurti, and J. Garno, “Direct Measurement of Quasiparticle-Lifetime Broadening in a Strong-Coupled Superconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 41(21), 1509–1512 (1978).
[Crossref]

Giazotto, F.

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D. Panna, K. Balasubramanian, S. Bouscher, Y. Wang, P. Yu, X. Chen, and A. Hayat, “Nanoscale High-Tc YBCO/GaN Super-Schottky Diode,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5597 (2018).
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A. Kamlapure, T. Das, S. C. Ganguli, J. B. Parmar, S. Bhattacharyya, and P. Raychaudhuri, “Emergence of nanoscale inhomogeneity in the superconducting state of a homogeneously disordered conventional superconductor,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2979 (2013).
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D. Panna, S. Bouscher, K. Balasubramanian, V. Perepelook, S. Cohen, D. Ritter, and A. Hayat, “Andreev Reflection in a Superconducting Light-Emitting Diode,” Nano Lett. 18(11), 6764–6769 (2018).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. a) Stack information. b) Symmetric XRD plot showing crystalline GaN and NbN thin films. Surfaces of both the samples were smooth with a roughness of about 1.2 nm. c) Transmission length measurement for contact resistance and sheet resistance extraction at 3 K.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a) Normalized tunneling conductance of sample S1 at various temperatures showing a dip in the conductivity sub superconducting gap. Inset shows the measurement schematics. b) Normalized tunneling conductance of sample S2 with improved interface due to lower growth temperature showing the emergence of coherence peaks. In both the figures, black arrows are indicative of the superconducting gap energies where peaks in conductivity are typically observed.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. a) Calculated conductance of sample S1 showing significantly reduced coherence peaks. b) Conductance of sample S2 demonstrating emergence of coherence peaks. The corresponding mean and variance in the superconducting order parameter values are also provided.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic representation of the setup for optical measurements. Pulsed laser operating at 80 MHz was used to avoid spurious heating effects and an optical chopper set up was used to modulate the external signal for lock-in detection.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. a) Differential conductivity vs laser power at various bias voltages showing the influence of photon incidence. Dotted line show the superconductor gap edges and the red dash-dot line shows the vanishing photo current at bias voltages above the gap b) Linear fit to the change in the differential conductance at Vbias = 0 V following Eq. (5).

Equations (6)

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ρ S ( E ) = { 0 , E < Δ ρ 0 ( E E 2 Δ 2 ) , o t h e r w i s e
I = A ρ N ( E ) ρ S ( E + e V ) ( F ( E ) F ( E + e V ) ) d E
ρ ( E ) = 0 ρ ( E , Δ ) W ( Δ 1 , Δ 1 2 ) d Δ
W ( Δ ) = 1 2 π Δ 1 2 exp ( Δ 1 2 2 Δ 1 2 ) ; Δ 1 = Δ Δ , Δ = m e a n ( Δ )
N = E γ 1.7 Δ
R I = η e 1.7 Δ