Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) tungsten diselenide (WSe2) nanosheets were transferred onto indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides. Two such 2D WSe2-covered ITO glass slides were placed together to fabricate an electro-optic liquid crystal (LC) cell. A nematic LC inside this WSe2-based device obtains uniform planar-alignment. The coherent overlay of the LC molecules along the armchair direction on the WSe2 lattice leads to this planar-alignment at the molecular scale. This WSe2-based LC device exhibits the typical electro-optical effect on the application of an electric field. A sharp Fréedericksz transition of the nematic director from this electro-optical effect confirms that the 2D WSe2 provides sufficient planar anchoring energy in the device. Finally, the WSe2/ITO slide exhibits more optical transparency than a standard polyimide alignment layer/ITO slide.

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2019 (4)

2018 (4)

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, J. Liu, K. Xu, E. K. C. Chow, and W. Zhu, “Material synthesis and device aspects of monolayer tungsten diselenide,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5221 (2018).
[Crossref]

T-Z Shen, S-H Hong, J-H Lee, S-G Kang, B. Lee, D. Whang, and J-K Song, “Selectivity of threefold symmetry in epitaxial alignment of liquid crystal molecules on macroscale single-crystal graphene,” Adv. Mater. 30(40), 1802441 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Gupta, S. N. Shirodkar, A. Kutana, and B. I. Yakobson, “In Pursuit of 2D materials for maximum optical response,” ACS Nano 12(11), 10880–10889 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. Yang, X. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Ren, M. Liu, and Z. Qi, “Anharmonicity of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2: A Raman study under high pressure and elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 093108 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Basu and S. Shalov, “Graphene as transmissive electrodes and aligning layers for liquid-crystal-based electro-optic devices,” Phys. Rev. E 96(1), 012702 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Basu and A. Lee, “Ion trapping by the graphene electrode in a graphene-ITO hybrid liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 161905 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. A. Shehzad, S. Hussain, J. Lee, J. Jung, N. Lee, G. Kim, and Y. Seo, “Study of grains and boundaries of molybdenum diselenide and tungsten diselenide using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1474–1481 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

B. Fallahazad, H. C. P. Movva, K. Kim, S. Larentis, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, S. K. Banerjee, and E. Tutuc, “Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of high-mobility holes in monolayer and bilayer WSe2: Landau level degeneracy, effective mass, and negative compressibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 086601 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. W. Kim, J. M. Ok, W.-B. Jung, J.-S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. O. Choi, Y. H. Kim, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct observation of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, domains by using a liquid crystalline texture method,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 229–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C.-H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Photostability of liquid crystals and alignment layers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(9), 805–811 (2005).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

N. A. J. M. Van Aerle, “Influence of polyimide orientation layer material on the liquid crystal resistivity in LCDs,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol., Sect. A 257(1), 193–208 (1994).
[Crossref]

Akhtar, I.

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Atwood, L. J.

Banerjee, S. K.

B. Fallahazad, H. C. P. Movva, K. Kim, S. Larentis, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, S. K. Banerjee, and E. Tutuc, “Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of high-mobility holes in monolayer and bilayer WSe2: Landau level degeneracy, effective mass, and negative compressibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 086601 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Basu, R.

Bertoni, R.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electro-optic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

Börner, J.

Borysiak, M.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Böttger, P.

Bratschitsch, R.

Cacho, C.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Calizo, I.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chapman, R. T.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, G.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

M. Yang, X. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Ren, M. Liu, and Z. Qi, “Anharmonicity of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2: A Raman study under high pressure and elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 093108 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

L. M. Blinov and V. G. Chigrinov, Electro-optic Effects in Liquid Crystal Materials (Springer-Verlag, 1996).

V. G. Chigrinov, V. M. Kozenkov, and H.-S. Kwok, Photoalignment of Liquid Crystalline Materials: Physics and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008).

Choi, H. O.

D. W. Kim, J. M. Ok, W.-B. Jung, J.-S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. O. Choi, Y. H. Kim, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct observation of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, domains by using a liquid crystalline texture method,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 229–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. E.

Y. J. Lim, Y. E. Choi, S.-W. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y.-B. Hahn, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals with zinc oxide nanorods,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chow, E. K. C.

Z. Yao, J. Liu, K. Xu, E. K. C. Chow, and W. Zhu, “Material synthesis and device aspects of monolayer tungsten diselenide,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5221 (2018).
[Crossref]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Giovannini, U.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eom, J.

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ernstorfer, R.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fallahazad, B.

B. Fallahazad, H. C. P. Movva, K. Kim, S. Larentis, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, S. K. Banerjee, and E. Tutuc, “Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of high-mobility holes in monolayer and bilayer WSe2: Landau level degeneracy, effective mass, and negative compressibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 086601 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

C.-H. Wen, S. Gauza, and S.-T. Wu, “Photostability of liquid crystals and alignment layers,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 13(9), 805–811 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gordan, O.

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, S. N. Shirodkar, A. Kutana, and B. I. Yakobson, “In Pursuit of 2D materials for maximum optical response,” ACS Nano 12(11), 10880–10889 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hacker, C. A.

X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hahn, Y.-B.

Y. J. Lim, Y. E. Choi, S.-W. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y.-B. Hahn, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals with zinc oxide nanorods,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, B.

X. Li, Y. Zhu, W. Cai, M. Borysiak, B. Han, D. Chen, R. D. Piner, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Transfer of large-area graphene films for high-performance transparent conductive electrodes,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4359–4363 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, M.

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

Hasegawa, R.

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

Hoesch, M.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hong, S-H

T-Z Shen, S-H Hong, J-H Lee, S-G Kang, B. Lee, D. Whang, and J-K Song, “Selectivity of threefold symmetry in epitaxial alignment of liquid crystal molecules on macroscale single-crystal graphene,” Adv. Mater. 30(40), 1802441 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hübener, H.

R. Bertoni, C. W. Nicholson, L. Waldecker, H. Hübener, C. Monney, U. De Giovannini, M. Puppin, M. Hoesch, E. Springate, R. T. Chapman, C. Cacho, M. Wolf, A. Rubio, and R. Ernstorfer, “Generation and evolution of spin-, valley-, and layer-polarized excited carriers in inversion-symmetric WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117(27), 277201 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hussain, S.

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Shehzad, S. Hussain, J. Lee, J. Jung, N. Lee, G. Kim, and Y. Seo, “Study of grains and boundaries of molybdenum diselenide and tungsten diselenide using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1474–1481 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hwang, C.

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

Itoh, N.

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technology and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

Jung, H.-T.

D. W. Kim, J. M. Ok, W.-B. Jung, J.-S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. O. Choi, Y. H. Kim, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct observation of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, domains by using a liquid crystalline texture method,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 229–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jung, J.

M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. A. Shehzad, S. Hussain, J. Lee, J. Jung, N. Lee, G. Kim, and Y. Seo, “Study of grains and boundaries of molybdenum diselenide and tungsten diselenide using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1474–1481 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jung, W.-B.

D. W. Kim, J. M. Ok, W.-B. Jung, J.-S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. O. Choi, Y. H. Kim, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct observation of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, domains by using a liquid crystalline texture method,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 229–234 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.-W.

Y. J. Lim, Y. E. Choi, S.-W. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y.-B. Hahn, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals with zinc oxide nanorods,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, S-G

T-Z Shen, S-H Hong, J-H Lee, S-G Kang, B. Lee, D. Whang, and J-K Song, “Selectivity of threefold symmetry in epitaxial alignment of liquid crystal molecules on macroscale single-crystal graphene,” Adv. Mater. 30(40), 1802441 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. F.

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M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
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M. A. Shehzad, S. Hussain, J. Lee, J. Jung, N. Lee, G. Kim, and Y. Seo, “Study of grains and boundaries of molybdenum diselenide and tungsten diselenide using liquid crystal,” Nano Lett. 17(3), 1474–1481 (2017).
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Y. J. Lim, Y. E. Choi, S.-W. Kang, D. Y. Kim, S. H. Lee, and Y.-B. Hahn, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals with zinc oxide nanorods,” Nanotechnology 24(34), 345702 (2013).
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X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
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D. W. Kim, J. M. Ok, W.-B. Jung, J.-S. Kim, S. J. Kim, H. O. Choi, Y. H. Kim, and H.-T. Jung, “Direct observation of molybdenum disulfide, MoS2, domains by using a liquid crystalline texture method,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 229–234 (2015).
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M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
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X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
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H. C. P. Movva, A. Rai, S. Kang, K. Kim, B. Fallahazad, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, E. Tutuc, and S. K. Banerjee, “High-mobility holes in dual-gated WSe2 field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(10), 10402–10410 (2015).
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M. Yang, X. Cheng, Y. Li, Y. Ren, M. Liu, and Z. Qi, “Anharmonicity of monolayer MoS2, MoSe2, and WSe2: A Raman study under high pressure and elevated temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(9), 093108 (2017).
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M. A. Shehzad, J. Lee, S. H. Park, I. Akhtar, M. F. Khan, S. Hussain, J. Eom, J. Jung, G. Kim, C. Hwang, and Y. Seo, “Dynamics of liquid crystal on hexagonal lattice,” 2D Mater. 5(4), 045021 (2018).
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B. Fallahazad, H. C. P. Movva, K. Kim, S. Larentis, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, S. K. Banerjee, and E. Tutuc, “Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations of high-mobility holes in monolayer and bilayer WSe2: Landau level degeneracy, effective mass, and negative compressibility,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116(8), 086601 (2016).
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X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
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X. Liang, B. A. Sperling, I. Calizo, G. Cheng, C. A. Hacker, Q. Zhang, Y. Obeng, K. Yan, H. Peng, Q. Li, X. Zhu, H. Yuan, A. R. H. Walker, Z. Liu, L.-M. Peng, and C. A. Richter, “Toward clean and crackless transfer of graphene,” ACS Nano 5(11), 9144–9153 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic representation of the monolayer WSe2 crystal structure. (b) Schematic representation of the planar alignment of the LC along the armchair direction the monolayer WSe2 nanostructure. (c) The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of WSe2 on a TEM grid. (d) Raman spectroscopy of monolayer WSe2 on ITO; inset: photoluminescence (PL) emission of monolayer WSe2 on ITO.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Picture of the monolayer WSe2 on an ITO substrate. (b) Crossed-polarized micrograph of unaligned LC on the bare ITO substrate. (c), (d) Crossed-polarized micrograph and its 45° rotated state, respectively, of the LC on the WSe2/ITO substrate revealing uniform planar-alignment of the LC on the monolayer WSe2 film and unaligned LC on the bare ITO region. (e), (f) Crossed-polarized micrograph and its 45° rotated state, respectively, of the same LC sample at a different edge of the monolayer WSe2 film on the ITO substrate.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a), (b) Crossed-polarized micrograph and its 45° rotated state, respectively, of the WSe2-based LC cell showing uniform planar-alignment of the LC in the WSe2 region and unaligned LC in the bare ITO region. (c), (d), and (e) Micrographs of the dark, intermediate, and bright states, respectively, as the WSe2-based LC cell was rotated under the crossed-polarized optical microscope. (f) Normalized transmitted intensity through the WSe2-based LC cell as a function of angle θ. (g) The picture of the WSe2-based LC cell.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The transmittance, I/Io of LC E7 (T = 22° C) in the WSe2-based LC device as a function of applied ac voltage (f = 1000 Hz). A smaller voltage range of the same transmittance curve is shown in the inset, where six maxima can be clearly counted. (b) Twelve separate micrographs of the WSe2-based LC cell under the crossed-polarized optical microscope at different applied voltages.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Optical transmission spectroscopy for WSe2/ITO slide and PI/ITO slide. The color band on the x-axis shows the visible wavelength range.

Equations (1)

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$$I = {I_O}{\sin ^2}\left( {\frac{{\pi d\left\langle {\varDelta n} \right\rangle }}{\lambda }} \right)$$