Abstract

The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond undergoes stochastic charge state transitions between the negatively charged state (NV) and the neutral charged state (NVo) upon optical illumination. While the negative charge state is normally preferred for magnetic sensing, optically-controlled switching between charges states is often desirable, for example in super-resolution imaging. The concentration of electron donor impurities in (bulk/nano) diamond crystals determine how much optical control can be exercised over the NV and NVo charge states. Here we report how the growth speed of nanodiamonds (NDs) can control the concentration of substitutional nitrogen (P1) donors, ranging from highly pure to highly doped diamond. Hence by growth temperature, it is possible to tune the stability of the NV charge state to optimally match the intended application. This work has many promising bio-sensing applications, especially for super-resolution magnetic-sensing with the NV color center.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

R. P. Roberts, M. L. Juan, and G. Molina-Terriza, “Spin-dependent charge state interconversion of nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds,” Phys. Rev. B 99(17), 174307 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Alkahtani, J. Lang, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, “Growth of high-purity low-strain fluorescent nanodiamonds,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1266–1271 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

M. Spohn, M. H. A. Alkahtani, R. Leiter, H. Qi, U. Kaiser, P. Hemmer, and U. Ziener, “Poly(1-vinyladamantane) as a template for nanodiamond synthesis,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(11), 6073–6080 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Mittiga, S. Hsieh, C. Zu, B. Kobrin, F. Machado, P. Bhattacharyya, N. Z. Rui, A. Jarmola, S. Choi, D. Budker, and N. Y. Yao, “Imaging the local charge environment of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(24), 246402 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. H. Alkahtani, F. Alghannam, L. Jiang, A. A. Rampersaud, R. Brick, C. L. Gomes, M. O. Scully, and P. R. Hemmer, “Fluorescent nanodiamonds for luminescent thermometry in the biological transparency window,” Opt. Lett. 43(14), 3317–3320 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Brandenburg, R. Nagumo, K. Saichi, K. Tahara, T. Iwasaki, M. Hatano, F. Jelezko, R. Igarashi, and T. Yatsui, “Improving the electron spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by near-field etching,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 15847 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ruan, D. A. Simpson, J. Jeske, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. W. M. Lau, H. Ji, B. C. Johnson, T. Ohshima, S. Afshar V, L. Hollenberg, A. D. Greentree, T. M. Monro, and B. C. Gibson, “Magnetically sensitive nanodiamond-doped tellurite glass fibers,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1268 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

2016 (1)

Y. Doi, T. Fukui, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, T. Tashima, H. Morishita, S. Miwa, F. Jelezko, Y. Suzuki, and N. Mizuochi, “Pure negatively charged state of the nv center in n-type diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 93(8), 081203 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. Bray, R. Previdi, B. C. Gibson, O. Shimoni, and I. Aharonovich, “Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4869–4874 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

R. Schirhagl, K. Chang, M. Loretz, and C. L. Degen, “Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: nanoscale sensors for physics and biology,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 65(1), 83–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (8)

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Bernien, B. Hensen, W. Pfaff, G. Koolstra, M. S. Blok, L. Robledo, T. H. Taminiau, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, L. Childress, and R. Hanson, “Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres,” Nature 497(7447), 86–90 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339(6119), 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Fang, H. Ohfuji, and T. Irifune, “A novel technique for the synthesis of nanodiamond powder,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Staudacher, F. Shi, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Du, C. A. Meriles, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a (5-nanometer)3 sample volume,” Science 339(6119), 561–563 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Photo-induced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Siyushev, H. Pinto, M. Vörös, A. Gali, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optically controlled switching of the charge state of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond at cryogenic temperatures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167402 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336(6086), 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. van der Sar, Z. H. Wang, M. S. Blok, H. Bernien, T. H. Taminiau, D. M. Toyli, D. A. Lidar, D. D. Awschalom, R. Hanson, and V. V. Dobrovitski, “Decoherence-protected quantum gates for a hybrid solid-state spin register,” Nature 484(7392), 82–86 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Han, S. K. Kim, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Metastable dark states enable ground state depletion microscopy of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond with diffraction-unlimited resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3199–3203 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, and J.-F. Roch, “Experimental realization of wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment,” Science 315(5814), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, R. Jones, and S. Sque, “Donor and acceptor states in diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 13(4-8), 684–690 (2004).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. E. Kozlov, K. Yase, N. Minami, P. Fons, H. A. Durand, A. N. Obraztsov, K. Nozaki, and M. Tokumoto, “Observation of diamond crystallites in thin films prepared by laser ablation of hard fullerene-based carbon,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(3), 929–933 (1996).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

G. Davies, M. F. Hamer, and W. C. Price, “Optical studies of the 1.945 ev vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abe, H.

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Afshar V, S.

Y. Ruan, D. A. Simpson, J. Jeske, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. W. M. Lau, H. Ji, B. C. Johnson, T. Ohshima, S. Afshar V, L. Hollenberg, A. D. Greentree, T. M. Monro, and B. C. Gibson, “Magnetically sensitive nanodiamond-doped tellurite glass fibers,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1268 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aharonovich, I.

K. Bray, R. Previdi, B. C. Gibson, O. Shimoni, and I. Aharonovich, “Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4869–4874 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alghannam, F.

Al-Hmoud, M.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alkahtani, M.

M. Alkahtani, J. Lang, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, “Growth of high-purity low-strain fluorescent nanodiamonds,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1266–1271 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Alkahtani, L. Jiang, R. Brick, P. Hemmer, and M. Scully, “Nanometer-scale luminescent thermometry in bovine embryos,” Opt. Lett. 42(23), 4812–4815 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alkahtani, M. H.

Alkahtani, M. H. A.

M. Spohn, M. H. A. Alkahtani, R. Leiter, H. Qi, U. Kaiser, P. Hemmer, and U. Ziener, “Poly(1-vinyladamantane) as a template for nanodiamond synthesis,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(11), 6073–6080 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arai, K.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aslam, N.

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Photo-induced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aspect, A.

V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, and J.-F. Roch, “Experimental realization of wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment,” Science 315(5814), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339(6119), 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

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V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, and J.-F. Roch, “Experimental realization of wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment,” Science 315(5814), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trifonov, A. S.

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
[Crossref]

Twamley, J.

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Twitchen, D. J.

H. Bernien, B. Hensen, W. Pfaff, G. Koolstra, M. S. Blok, L. Robledo, T. H. Taminiau, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, L. Childress, and R. Hanson, “Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres,” Nature 497(7447), 86–90 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336(6086), 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

van der Sar, T.

T. van der Sar, Z. H. Wang, M. S. Blok, H. Bernien, T. H. Taminiau, D. M. Toyli, D. A. Lidar, D. D. Awschalom, R. Hanson, and V. V. Dobrovitski, “Decoherence-protected quantum gates for a hybrid solid-state spin register,” Nature 484(7392), 82–86 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vörös, M.

P. Siyushev, H. Pinto, M. Vörös, A. Gali, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optically controlled switching of the charge state of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond at cryogenic temperatures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waldherr, G.

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Photo-induced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. H.

T. van der Sar, Z. H. Wang, M. S. Blok, H. Bernien, T. H. Taminiau, D. M. Toyli, D. A. Lidar, D. D. Awschalom, R. Hanson, and V. V. Dobrovitski, “Decoherence-protected quantum gates for a hybrid solid-state spin register,” Nature 484(7392), 82–86 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willig, K. I.

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wojcik, A.

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wrachtrup, J.

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Staudacher, F. Shi, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Du, C. A. Meriles, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a (5-nanometer)3 sample volume,” Science 339(6119), 561–563 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Siyushev, H. Pinto, M. Vörös, A. Gali, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optically controlled switching of the charge state of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond at cryogenic temperatures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167402 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Photo-induced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Zapata, N. Bennett, V. Struzhkin, Y. Fei, F. Jelezko, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, R. Reuter, J. Wrachtrup, and F. A. Ghannam, “Organic nanodiamonds,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.06854 (2017).

Wu, E.

V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, and J.-F. Roch, “Experimental realization of wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment,” Science 315(5814), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yacoby, A.

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, S.

Y. Doi, T. Fukui, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, T. Tashima, H. Morishita, S. Miwa, F. Jelezko, Y. Suzuki, and N. Mizuochi, “Pure negatively charged state of the nv center in n-type diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 93(8), 081203 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, N. Y.

T. Mittiga, S. Hsieh, C. Zu, B. Kobrin, F. Machado, P. Bhattacharyya, N. Z. Rui, A. Jarmola, S. Choi, D. Budker, and N. Y. Yao, “Imaging the local charge environment of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(24), 246402 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336(6086), 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yase, K.

M. E. Kozlov, K. Yase, N. Minami, P. Fons, H. A. Durand, A. N. Obraztsov, K. Nozaki, and M. Tokumoto, “Observation of diamond crystallites in thin films prepared by laser ablation of hard fullerene-based carbon,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(3), 929–933 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yatsui, T.

F. Brandenburg, R. Nagumo, K. Saichi, K. Tahara, T. Iwasaki, M. Hatano, F. Jelezko, R. Igarashi, and T. Yatsui, “Improving the electron spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by near-field etching,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 15847 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zaiser, S.

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zapata, T.

T. Zapata, N. Bennett, V. Struzhkin, Y. Fei, F. Jelezko, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, R. Reuter, J. Wrachtrup, and F. A. Ghannam, “Organic nanodiamonds,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.06854 (2017).

Zibrov, A. S.

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ziener, U.

M. Spohn, M. H. A. Alkahtani, R. Leiter, H. Qi, U. Kaiser, P. Hemmer, and U. Ziener, “Poly(1-vinyladamantane) as a template for nanodiamond synthesis,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(11), 6073–6080 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zu, C.

T. Mittiga, S. Hsieh, C. Zu, B. Kobrin, F. Machado, P. Bhattacharyya, N. Z. Rui, A. Jarmola, S. Choi, D. Budker, and N. Y. Yao, “Imaging the local charge environment of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(24), 246402 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (1)

M. Spohn, M. H. A. Alkahtani, R. Leiter, H. Qi, U. Kaiser, P. Hemmer, and U. Ziener, “Poly(1-vinyladamantane) as a template for nanodiamond synthesis,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(11), 6073–6080 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. Alkahtani, J. Lang, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, and P. Hemmer, “Growth of high-purity low-strain fluorescent nanodiamonds,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1266–1271 (2019).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

R. Schirhagl, K. Chang, M. Loretz, and C. L. Degen, “Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: nanoscale sensors for physics and biology,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 65(1), 83–105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diamond Relat. Mater. (1)

J. P. Goss, P. R. Briddon, R. Jones, and S. Sque, “Donor and acceptor states in diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 13(4-8), 684–690 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Nanomater. (1)

L. Fang, H. Ohfuji, and T. Irifune, “A novel technique for the synthesis of nanodiamond powder,” J. Nanomater. 2013, 1–4 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

M. E. Kozlov, K. Yase, N. Minami, P. Fons, H. A. Durand, A. N. Obraztsov, K. Nozaki, and M. Tokumoto, “Observation of diamond crystallites in thin films prepared by laser ablation of hard fullerene-based carbon,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 29(3), 929–933 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

K. Y. Han, S. K. Kim, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Metastable dark states enable ground state depletion microscopy of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond with diffraction-unlimited resolution,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3199–3203 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Han, K. I. Willig, E. Rittweger, F. Jelezko, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Three-dimensional stimulated emission depletion microscopy of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond using continuous-wave light,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3323–3329 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

K. Bray, R. Previdi, B. C. Gibson, O. Shimoni, and I. Aharonovich, “Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with phenol-ionic complexes,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4869–4874 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. P. McGuinness, Y. Yan, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, L. T. Hall, D. Maclaurin, S. Prawer, P. Mulvaney, J. Wrachtrup, F. Caruso, R. E. Scholten, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(6), 358–363 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Sted microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Neumann, R. Kolesov, B. Naydenov, J. Beck, F. Rempp, M. Steiner, V. Jacques, G. Balasubramanian, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Twamley, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum register based on coupled electron spins in a room-temperature solid,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 249–253 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (7)

E. Togan, Y. Chu, A. S. Trifonov, L. Jiang, J. Maze, L. Childress, M. V. G. Dutt, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit,” Nature 466(7307), 730–734 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Waldherr, Y. Wang, S. Zaiser, M. Jamali, T. Schulte-Herbrüggen, H. Abe, T. Ohshima, J. Isoya, J. F. Du, P. Neumann, and J. Wrachtrup, “Quantum error correction in a solid-state hybrid spin register,” Nature 506(7487), 204–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. van der Sar, Z. H. Wang, M. S. Blok, H. Bernien, T. H. Taminiau, D. M. Toyli, D. A. Lidar, D. D. Awschalom, R. Hanson, and V. V. Dobrovitski, “Decoherence-protected quantum gates for a hybrid solid-state spin register,” Nature 484(7392), 82–86 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Bernien, B. Hensen, W. Pfaff, G. Koolstra, M. S. Blok, L. Robledo, T. H. Taminiau, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, L. Childress, and R. Hanson, “Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres,” Nature 497(7447), 86–90 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. R. Maze, P. L. Stanwix, J. S. Hodges, S. Hong, J. M. Taylor, P. Cappellaro, L. Jiang, M. V. G. Dutt, E. Togan, A. S. Zibrov, A. Yacoby, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond,” Nature 455(7213), 644–647 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Balasubramanian, I. Y. Chan, R. Kolesov, M. Al-Hmoud, J. Tisler, C. Shin, C. Kim, A. Wojcik, P. R. Hemmer, A. Krueger, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions,” Nature 455(7213), 648–651 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Le Sage, K. Arai, D. R. Glenn, S. J. DeVience, L. M. Pham, L. Rahn-Lee, M. D. Lukin, A. Yacoby, A. Komeili, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optical magnetic imaging of living cells,” Nature 496(7446), 486–489 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

N. Aslam, G. Waldherr, P. Neumann, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Photo-induced ionization dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy defect in diamond investigated by single-shot charge state detection,” New J. Phys. 15(1), 013064 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, P. Delaney, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and L. C. L. Hollenberg, “The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond,” Phys. Rep. 528(1), 1–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

Y. Doi, T. Fukui, H. Kato, T. Makino, S. Yamasaki, T. Tashima, H. Morishita, S. Miwa, F. Jelezko, Y. Suzuki, and N. Mizuochi, “Pure negatively charged state of the nv center in n-type diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 93(8), 081203 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. P. Roberts, M. L. Juan, and G. Molina-Terriza, “Spin-dependent charge state interconversion of nitrogen vacancy centers in nanodiamonds,” Phys. Rev. B 99(17), 174307 (2019).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. Siyushev, H. Pinto, M. Vörös, A. Gali, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optically controlled switching of the charge state of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond at cryogenic temperatures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(16), 167402 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Mittiga, S. Hsieh, C. Zu, B. Kobrin, F. Machado, P. Bhattacharyya, N. Z. Rui, A. Jarmola, S. Choi, D. Budker, and N. Y. Yao, “Imaging the local charge environment of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 121(24), 246402 (2018).
[Crossref]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

G. Davies, M. F. Hamer, and W. C. Price, “Optical studies of the 1.945 ev vibronic band in diamond,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 348(1653), 285–298 (1976).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

F. Brandenburg, R. Nagumo, K. Saichi, K. Tahara, T. Iwasaki, M. Hatano, F. Jelezko, R. Igarashi, and T. Yatsui, “Improving the electron spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds by near-field etching,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 15847 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Ruan, D. A. Simpson, J. Jeske, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. W. M. Lau, H. Ji, B. C. Johnson, T. Ohshima, S. Afshar V, L. Hollenberg, A. D. Greentree, T. M. Monro, and B. C. Gibson, “Magnetically sensitive nanodiamond-doped tellurite glass fibers,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 1268 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (5)

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, and M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature quantum bit memory exceeding one second,” Science 336(6086), 1283–1286 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339(6119), 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Staudacher, F. Shi, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, J. Du, C. A. Meriles, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a (5-nanometer)3 sample volume,” Science 339(6119), 561–563 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Childress, M. V. Gurudev Dutt, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Zibrov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Coherent dynamics of coupled electron and nuclear spin qubits in diamond,” Science 314(5797), 281–285 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. Jacques, E. Wu, F. Grosshans, F. Treussart, P. Grangier, A. Aspect, and J.-F. Roch, “Experimental realization of wheeler’s delayed-choice gedanken experiment,” Science 315(5814), 966–968 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. Zapata, N. Bennett, V. Struzhkin, Y. Fei, F. Jelezko, J. Biskupek, U. Kaiser, R. Reuter, J. Wrachtrup, and F. A. Ghannam, “Organic nanodiamonds,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.06854 (2017).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) An illustration showing how nitrogen impurity concentration is expected to depend on growth temperature. The growth mix consisting of 1-Adamantylamine, Heptamethylnonane, Tetracosane and Tetramethyhydrazine was exposed to a high pressure (10 GPa) and then either low or high temperature in diamond anvil cell (DAC) for 24h. (b) Proposed physical mechanism for or exclusion or inclusion of nitrogen impurities in a diamond crystal at different growth speeds. (c) A schematic drawing of a confocal microscope used to observe the NVs. It is equipped with a 100x microscope objective, CW (blue, green, and red) lasers, a microwave wire, a photon counter, and a spectrometer.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The NV optical spectra in FNDs grown slowly, at low temperature (400 $^{o}$C), is shown in (a-c) and grown quickly, at high temperature (650 $^{o}$C) in (d-f). (a) Optical spectrum shows the characteristic NV center spectrum with $NV^{o}$ and $NV^{-}$ zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) centered at 575 nm and 637 nm, respectivily upon green (532 nm) laser. (b) Partially ionized NV center emission under blue (473 nm) laser. (c) Compeletely ionized NV- optical spectrum under red (637 nm) laser. Any NVo spectrum is blocked by a 650 nm long-pass filter which filters out the 637 nm laser. (d-f) show the corresponding optical spectra in FNDs grown rapidly at 650 $^{o}$C. The data suggests that the negtively charged NV center is stablized by electron donors (P1 center) expected to have higher concentration if the fast-grown FNDs grown at high temperature.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Optical spectrum of FNDs grown slowly, at low temperature, shows the characteristic NV center spectrum with $NV^{o}$ and $NV^{-}$ zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) centered at 575 nm and 637 nm, respectively, upon green (532 nm) laser illumination. (b) The corresponding optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) spectrum of the FNDs described in part (a), again under a green (532 nm) excitation laser. The high-contrast (11%) and zero-field splitting free ODMR spectrum indicate high-purity FNDs which resembles good quality NVs in a bulk crystal. (c) The NV center emission of FNDs grown rapidly, at high-temperature. (d) ODMR spectrum of FNDs grown at high temperature shows lower (4.7%) contrast and clear zero-field splitting which is in a good agreement with commercial FNDs. This clear splitting in the ODMR spectrum could be attributed to local electrical fields caused by electron donors (presumably P1 centers) present in much higher concentration in fast grown (high temperature) FNDs.

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