Abstract

In recent years, metasurfaces have provided a tempting path to replace conventional optical components where an abrupt phase change is imposed on an incident wave using a periodic array of unit cells. Till date, highly efficient dielectric metasurfaces have been demonstrated in infrared and visible domains. However, due to the lower bandgap of typical dielectric materials, such metasurfaces present strong absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) domain, and thus, hamper their realization at shorter wavelengths. In this paper, we utilize a large bandgap dielectric material, niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5), to construct an ultra-thin and compact transmission-type metasurface that manipulates the phase of an incident wave using an array of Nb2O5 nano-cylinder. By the virtue of numerical optimization, complete 2π phase coverage along with the high transmission efficiency (around 88.5%) is achieved at 355nm. Such efficient control over the phase of the incident wave enabled us to realize the polarisation insensitive self-accelerating parabolic, reciprocal, and logarithmic Airy beams (ABs) generating metasurfaces with the efficiency of 70%, 72% and 77%, respectively. In addition to this, we also demonstrate auto focusing Airy optical vortex (AFAOV) generators where the metasurfaces are designed to combine the phase profiles of an abruptly focusing Airy (AFA) beam and that of spiral phase plate (SPP). The AFAOV is generated with efficiency of 70% (for l = 3) and 72% (for l = 5).

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (1)

M. A. Ansari, I. Kim, I. Rukhlenko, M. Zubair, S. Yerci, T. Tauqeer, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Engineering Spin and Antiferromagnetic Resonances to Realize Efficient Direction-multiplexed Visible Meta-hologram,” Nanoscale Horiz 5(1), 57 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (11)

H. Ren, G. Briere, X. Fang, P. Ni, R. Sawant, S. Héron, S. Chenot, S. Vézian, B. Damilano, and V. Brändli, “Metasurface orbital angular momentum holography,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2986 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Z. Zhang, X. Ren, Z. Huang, and X. Wu, “A broadband electronically mode-reconfigurable orbital angular momentum metasurface antenna,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 18(7), 1482–1486 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Ding, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. Feng, “Dual-Helicity Decoupled Coding Metasurface for Independent Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(4), 044043 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. R. Akram, M. Q. Mehmood, T. Tauqeer, A. S. Rana, I. D. Rukhlenko, and W. Zhu, “Highly efficient generation of bessel beams with polarization insensitive metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9467–9480 (2019).
[Crossref]

D.-C. Chen, X.-F. Zhu, D.-J. Wu, and X.-J. Liu, “Broadband Airy-like beams by coded acoustic metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(5), 053504 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, G. Zhai, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Band Terahertz Auto-Focusing Airy Beam Based on Single-Layer Geometric Metasurfaces with Independent Complex Amplitude Modulation at Each Wavelength,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2(7), 1900071 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Ahmed, M. M. Ali, A. Ullah, A. A. Rahim, H. Maab, and M. Khan, “An Ultra-Thin Beam Splitter Design Using a-Si: H Based on Phase Gradient Metasurfaces,” J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 14(9), 1339–1343 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. L. Holsteen, A. F. Cihan, and M. L. Brongersma, “Temporal color mixing and dynamic beam shaping with silicon metasurfaces,” Science 365(6450), 257–260 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Mahmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, M. Zubair, A. Akbar, M. Saleem, M. S. Anwar, F. A. Tahir, and J. Rho, “Twisted non-diffracting beams through all dielectric meta-axicons,” Nanoscale, 11(43), 20571–20578 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Huang, J. Deng, H. S. Leong, S. L. K. Yap, R. B. Yang, J. Teng, and H. Liu, “Ultraviolet Metasurfaces of≈ 80% Efficiency with Antiferromagnetic Resonances for Optical Vectorial Anti-Counterfeiting,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(5), 1800289 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Y. Huang, X. Li, M. Pu, P. Gao, J. Jin, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Polarization-Controlled Broadband Accelerating Beams Generation by Single Catenary-Shaped Metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(18), 1900503 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

S. Colburn, A. Zhan, and A. Majumdar, “Metasurface optics for full-color computational imaging,” Sci. Adv. 4(2), eaar2114 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Deng, X. Wang, Z. Gong, K. Dong, S. Lou, N. Pégard, K. B. Tom, F. Yang, Z. You, and L. Waller, “All-Silicon Broadband Ultraviolet Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(38), 1802632 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Ou, G. Li, T. Li, H. Yang, F. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhao, G. Cao, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “High efficiency focusing vortex generation and detection with polarization-insensitive dielectric metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(40), 19154–19161 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Ozer, N. Yilmaz, H. Kocer, and H. Kurt, “Polarization-insensitive beam splitters using all-dielectric phase gradient metasurfaces at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4350–4353 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Mahmood, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, A. Akbar, D. Lee, M. Saleem, M. Zubair, M. S. Anwar, and F. A. Tahir, “Polarisation insensitive multifunctional metasurfaces based on all-dielectric nanowaveguides,” Nanoscale 10(38), 18323–18330 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, and J. Rho, “Tungsten-based ultrathin absorber for visible regime,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2443 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Kim, S. So, A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Thermally robust ring-shaped chromium perfect absorber of visible light,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1827–1833 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

H. H. Hsiao, C. H. Chu, and D. P. Tsai, “Fundamentals and applications of metasurfaces,” Small Methods 1(4), 1600064 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. C. Wu, W.-Y. Tsai, W. T. Chen, Y.-W. Huang, T.-Y. Chen, J.-W. Chen, C. Y. Liao, C. H. Chu, G. Sun, and D. P. Tsai, “Versatile polarization generation with an aluminum plasmonic metasurface,” Nano Lett. 17(1), 445–452 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J.-W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y.-C. Lan, and C.-H. Kuan, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Controlling the sign of chromatic dispersion in diffractive optics with dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4(6), 625–632 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, S. M. Kamali, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Multiwavelength polarization-insensitive lenses based on dielectric metasurfaces with meta-molecules,” Optica 3(6), 628–633 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-insensitive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, “Subwavelength-thick lenses with high numerical apertures and large efficiency based on high-contrast transmitarrays,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

M. W. Knight, N. S. King, L. Liu, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Aluminum for plasmonics,” ACS Nano 8(1), 834–840 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. A. Rani, A. S. Zoolfakar, A. P. O’Mullane, M. W. Austin, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Thin films and nanostructures of niobium pentoxide: fundamental properties, synthesis methods and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2(38), 15683–15703 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Davis, D. M. Cottrell, and J. M. Zinn, “Direct generation of abruptly focusing vortex beams using a 3/2 radial phase-only pattern,” Appl. Opt. 52(9), 1888–1891 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Greenfield, M. Segev, W. Walasik, and O. Raz, “Accelerating light beams along arbitrary convex trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(21), 213902 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Froehly, F. Courvoisier, A. Mathis, M. Jacquot, L. Furfaro, R. Giust, P. Lacourt, and J. Dudley, “Arbitrary accelerating micron-scale caustic beams in two and three dimensions,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16455–16465 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

1999 (1)

1982 (1)

Ahmed, H.

H. Ahmed, M. M. Ali, A. Ullah, A. A. Rahim, H. Maab, and M. Khan, “An Ultra-Thin Beam Splitter Design Using a-Si: H Based on Phase Gradient Metasurfaces,” J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 14(9), 1339–1343 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akbar, A.

N. Mahmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, M. Zubair, A. Akbar, M. Saleem, M. S. Anwar, F. A. Tahir, and J. Rho, “Twisted non-diffracting beams through all dielectric meta-axicons,” Nanoscale, 11(43), 20571–20578 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Mahmood, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, A. Akbar, D. Lee, M. Saleem, M. Zubair, M. S. Anwar, and F. A. Tahir, “Polarisation insensitive multifunctional metasurfaces based on all-dielectric nanowaveguides,” Nanoscale 10(38), 18323–18330 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akram, M. R.

Ali, M. M.

H. Ahmed, M. M. Ali, A. Ullah, A. A. Rahim, H. Maab, and M. Khan, “An Ultra-Thin Beam Splitter Design Using a-Si: H Based on Phase Gradient Metasurfaces,” J. Nanoelectron. Optoelectron. 14(9), 1339–1343 (2019).
[Crossref]

An, S.

T. Wang, G. Zhai, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Band Terahertz Auto-Focusing Airy Beam Based on Single-Layer Geometric Metasurfaces with Independent Complex Amplitude Modulation at Each Wavelength,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2(7), 1900071 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ansari, M. A.

M. A. Ansari, I. Kim, I. Rukhlenko, M. Zubair, S. Yerci, T. Tauqeer, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Engineering Spin and Antiferromagnetic Resonances to Realize Efficient Direction-multiplexed Visible Meta-hologram,” Nanoscale Horiz 5(1), 57 (2020).
[Crossref]

Anwar, M. S.

N. Mahmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, M. Zubair, A. Akbar, M. Saleem, M. S. Anwar, F. A. Tahir, and J. Rho, “Twisted non-diffracting beams through all dielectric meta-axicons,” Nanoscale, 11(43), 20571–20578 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Mahmood, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, A. Akbar, D. Lee, M. Saleem, M. Zubair, M. S. Anwar, and F. A. Tahir, “Polarisation insensitive multifunctional metasurfaces based on all-dielectric nanowaveguides,” Nanoscale 10(38), 18323–18330 (2018).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

Arbabi, E.

Austin, M. W.

R. A. Rani, A. S. Zoolfakar, A. P. O’Mullane, M. W. Austin, and K. Kalantar-Zadeh, “Thin films and nanostructures of niobium pentoxide: fundamental properties, synthesis methods and applications,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2(38), 15683–15703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

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X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Metasurface holograms for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2807 (2013).
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X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335(6067), 427 (2012).
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I. Kim, S. So, A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Thermally robust ring-shaped chromium perfect absorber of visible light,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1827–1833 (2018).
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Yilmaz, N.

Yin, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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Y. Deng, X. Wang, Z. Gong, K. Dong, S. Lou, N. Pégard, K. B. Tom, F. Yang, Z. You, and L. Waller, “All-Silicon Broadband Ultraviolet Metasurfaces,” Adv. Mater. 30(38), 1802632 (2018).
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K. Ou, G. Li, T. Li, H. Yang, F. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhao, G. Cao, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “High efficiency focusing vortex generation and detection with polarization-insensitive dielectric metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(40), 19154–19161 (2018).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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L. Liu, X. Zhang, M. Kenney, X. Su, N. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Shi, J. Han, W. Zhang, and S. Zhang, “Broadband metasurfaces with simultaneous control of phase and amplitude,” Adv. Mater. 26(29), 5031–5036 (2014).
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Zhang, Z.

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G. Ding, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. Feng, “Dual-Helicity Decoupled Coding Metasurface for Independent Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(4), 044043 (2019).
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Zhao, Z.

K. Ou, G. Li, T. Li, H. Yang, F. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhao, G. Cao, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “High efficiency focusing vortex generation and detection with polarization-insensitive dielectric metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(40), 19154–19161 (2018).
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T. Wang, G. Zhai, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Band Terahertz Auto-Focusing Airy Beam Based on Single-Layer Geometric Metasurfaces with Independent Complex Amplitude Modulation at Each Wavelength,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2(7), 1900071 (2019).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
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W.-T. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, M. A. A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “High performance visible wavelength meta-axicons for generating bessel beams,” (Google Patents, 2019).

Zhu, S.

T. Wang, G. Zhai, R. Xie, S. Zhu, J. Gao, S. An, B. Zheng, H. Li, Y. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Dual-Band Terahertz Auto-Focusing Airy Beam Based on Single-Layer Geometric Metasurfaces with Independent Complex Amplitude Modulation at Each Wavelength,” Adv. Theory Simul. 2(7), 1900071 (2019).
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Zhu, W.

Zhu, X.-F.

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N. Mahmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, M. Zubair, A. Akbar, M. Saleem, M. S. Anwar, F. A. Tahir, and J. Rho, “Twisted non-diffracting beams through all dielectric meta-axicons,” Nanoscale, 11(43), 20571–20578 (2019).
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N. Mahmood, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, A. Akbar, D. Lee, M. Saleem, M. Zubair, M. S. Anwar, and F. A. Tahir, “Polarisation insensitive multifunctional metasurfaces based on all-dielectric nanowaveguides,” Nanoscale 10(38), 18323–18330 (2018).
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J. Wu, Z. Zhang, X. Ren, Z. Huang, and X. Wu, “A broadband electronically mode-reconfigurable orbital angular momentum metasurface antenna,” Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 18(7), 1482–1486 (2019).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D.-C. Chen, X.-F. Zhu, D.-J. Wu, and X.-J. Liu, “Broadband Airy-like beams by coded acoustic metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(5), 053504 (2019).
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B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V.-C. Su, Y.-C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J.-W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y.-C. Lan, and C.-H. Kuan, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
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Nanophotonics (1)

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N. Mahmood, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, A. Akbar, D. Lee, M. Saleem, M. Zubair, M. S. Anwar, and F. A. Tahir, “Polarisation insensitive multifunctional metasurfaces based on all-dielectric nanowaveguides,” Nanoscale 10(38), 18323–18330 (2018).
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K. Ou, G. Li, T. Li, H. Yang, F. Yu, J. Chen, Z. Zhao, G. Cao, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “High efficiency focusing vortex generation and detection with polarization-insensitive dielectric metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10(40), 19154–19161 (2018).
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N. Mahmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, M. Q. Mehmood, M. Zubair, A. Akbar, M. Saleem, M. S. Anwar, F. A. Tahir, and J. Rho, “Twisted non-diffracting beams through all dielectric meta-axicons,” Nanoscale, 11(43), 20571–20578 (2019).
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Nanoscale Horiz (1)

M. A. Ansari, I. Kim, I. Rukhlenko, M. Zubair, S. Yerci, T. Tauqeer, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Engineering Spin and Antiferromagnetic Resonances to Realize Efficient Direction-multiplexed Visible Meta-hologram,” Nanoscale Horiz 5(1), 57 (2020).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

G. Ding, K. Chen, X. Luo, J. Zhao, T. Jiang, and Y. Feng, “Dual-Helicity Decoupled Coding Metasurface for Independent Spin-to-Orbital Angular Momentum Conversion,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(4), 044043 (2019).
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S. Colburn, A. Zhan, and A. Majumdar, “Metasurface optics for full-color computational imaging,” Sci. Adv. 4(2), eaar2114 (2018).
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A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, H. Jeong, I. Kim, and J. Rho, “Tungsten-based ultrathin absorber for visible regime,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2443 (2018).
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M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, “Metalenses at visible wavelengths: Diffraction-limited focusing and subwavelength resolution imaging,” Science 352(6290), 1190–1194 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J.-P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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J. R. Bolton, Ultraviolet Applications Handbook (Ayr, Ont.: Bolton Photosciences Incorporated, 2001), Vol. 18.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Photonics: optical electronics in modern communications (Oxford Univ., 2006).

W.-T. Chen, M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, J. Oh, R. C. Devlin, M. A. A. Zaidi, and F. Capasso, “High performance visible wavelength meta-axicons for generating bessel beams,” (Google Patents, 2019).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Unit cell optimization. (a) Schematic of Nb2O5 nano-cylinder on SiO2 substrate. Here parameters P, H, and R are the periodicity, height, and radius of the unit cell, respectively. (b) Step-indexed waveguide model of Nb2O5 nano-cylinder. Nb2O5 is considered as the core material while air (surrounding medium) represents the cladding. (c) Transmission efficiency and (d) Phase maps for radius versus periodicity at wavelength of 355 nm. The white dashed lines indicate the region of maximum transmission efficiency along with complete $2\pi $ phase coverage. (e) Transmission efficiency versus radius at fixed periodicity of $182\textrm{nm}$. The average transmission efficiency of $88.5\%$ is achieved. (f) The comparison between phase profile (solid purple line) obtained through FDTD and phase profile (solid pink line) obtained through step indexded waveguide model as function of radius (varying from 30 nm to 90 nm).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Near field distribution of periodic arrays of unit cell. The top views and side views of magnetic engergy densities in a Nb2O5 nano-cylinders for (a) ${\mathbf R} = 50\textrm{nm}$, (b) ${\mathbf R} = 60\textrm{nm}$, and (c) ${\mathbf R} = 70\textrm{nm}$. The solid black line indicate the boundaries of unit cell. These results are obtained under x-polarized incidence at wavelength of 355 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Polarisation Insensitive Airy beams generation. (a), (d), and (g) show the Spatial phase distributions of parabolic AB, reciprocal AB, and logrithmic AB, respectively. (b), (e) and (h) represent the corresponding simulated E-field intensity distribution imaged in x-z plane. (c), (f), and (i) demonstrate the comparision between analytically calculated and simulated propagation trajectories of main lobes of parabolic AB, reciprocal AB, and logrithmic AB, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polarisation insensitivity test. Simulated E-field distribution of parabolic AB under illumination of (a) y-polarisation (b) RCP, and (c) LCP at operational wavelength of 355 nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Auto Foucsing Airy Optical Vortex Generation. (a) and (b) Phase distribtion of Nb2O5 nano-cylinder for (a) $l = 3$ and, (b) $l = 5$. (c) and (d) Simulated E-field intensity distribution in x-y plane for $l = 3$ and $5$, respectively. These donut shaped annular openings are imaged at focal plane ($\textrm{z} = 11{\mathrm{\mu}} \textrm{m}$). (e) and (f) show their corresponding phase patterns.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ=2πλneffH
Ψ(x)=43(a)12k(x)32
Ψrec(x)=kx33a1,
Ψln(x)=e1a22bk(1exa2)
Ψ=43(a)12k(rro)32+lθ.
f=roa