Abstract

The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was employed to fabricate a two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 nanosheet and the related characteristics were measured. By using a new crystal Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 as laser medium, a laser-diode (LD) pumped dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser with AOM and a MoS2 nanosheet was first presented as far as we know. The minimum pulse duration of 82 ns and the maximum peak power of 589 W were obtained under the modulation rate of 3 kHz. In comparison with the singly Q-switched laser with AOM or MoS2, the dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser could generate shorter pulse width and higher peak power. The maximum compression ratio of pulse duration was 9.85 and the highest enhancement factor of peak power was 123. The experimental results hit a conclusion that 2D MoS2 nanosheet is potential in pulse laser at ∼2 µm and dual-loss-modulated Q-switching operation can compress the pulse duration and improve the peak power.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  22. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. L. C. Kong, G. Q. Xie, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2 µm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A47–A50 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-Peak Power Passively Q-Switched 2-µm Laser With MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 66–70 (2017).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  30. A. Jawaid, D. Nepal, K. Park, M. Jespersen, A. Qualley, P. Mirau, L. F. Drummy, and R. A. Vaia, “Mechanism for Liquid Phase Exfoliation of MoS2,” Chem. Mater. 28(1), 337–348 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  31. L. K. Kurihara, G. M. Chow, and P. E. Schoen, “Nanocrystalline metallic powders and films produced by the polyol method,” Nanostruct. Mater. 5(6), 607–613 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  32. N. Chaudhary, M. Khanuja, S. S. Abid, and Islam, “Hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets for multiple wavelength optical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators, A 277, 190–198 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. F. Liu, S. L. Wong, and D. Z. Chi, “CVD Growth of MoS2-based Two-dimensional Materials,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 21(10-11-12), 241–259 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Quality Monolayer and Few-layer MoS2 Films,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1866 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From Bulk to Monolayer MoS2: Evolution of Raman Scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  36. X. Li and H. Zhu, “Two-dimensional MoS2: Properties, preparation, and applications,” J. Materiomics. 1(1), 33–44 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  37. Z. Niu, G. Li, K. Yang, T. Li, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, D. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, T. Feng, K. Gao, Q. Qian, and H. Ma, “Doubly Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with g-C3N4 saturable absorber and AOM,” Opt. Mater. 96, 109306 (2019).
    [Crossref]

2019 (7)

Z. Pan, P. Loiko, J. M. Serres, E. Kifle, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, ““Mixed” Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 - a novel crystal for tunable and mode-locked 2 µm lasers,” Opt. Express 27(7), 9987 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, N. Macadam, G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, T. Hasan, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN fiber lasers beyond 3 µm: comparison of pulse generation using acousto-optic modulation and inkjet-printed black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 27(10), 15032 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Hu, X. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. Li, M. Li, Z. Cong, Z. Qin, and X. Chen, “High-order harmonic mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser based on a SnSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 119, 105639 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Xie, S. Zhang, Y. Li, N. Dong, X. Zhang, L. Wang, W. Liu, I. M. Kislyakov, J. Nunzi, H. Qi, L. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Layer-modulated two-photon absorption in MoS2: probing the shift of the excitonic dark state and band-edge,” Photonics Res. 7(7), 762 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Niu, K. Yang, T. Li, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, K. Gao, and X. Liu, “Doubly passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with MoS2 and WS2 saturable absorbers at 2 µm,” Optik 198, 163205 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Dai, M. Ying, J. Lian, Y. Shi, Z. Cao, H. Song, M. Wei, Q. Jiang, and C. Zhang, “Optical properties of polar thin films: ZnO (0001) and ZnO (000–1) on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Mater. 94, 272–276 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Niu, G. Li, K. Yang, T. Li, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, D. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, T. Feng, K. Gao, Q. Qian, and H. Ma, “Doubly Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with g-C3N4 saturable absorber and AOM,” Opt. Mater. 96, 109306 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (6)

S. Li, Y. Lin, W. Zhao, J. Wu, Z. Wang, Z. Hu, Y. Shen, D. Tang, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhu, L. Chu, W. Zhao, C. Liu, Z. Sun, T. Taniguchi, M. Osada, W. Chen, Q. Xu, A. T. S. Wee, K. Suenaga, F. Ding, and G. Eda, “Vapour–liquid–solid growth of monolayer MoS2 nanoribbons,” Nat. Mater. 17(6), 535–542 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Chaudhary, M. Khanuja, S. S. Abid, and Islam, “Hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets for multiple wavelength optical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators, A 277, 190–198 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Yan, B. Zhang, H. Nie, H. Wang, G. Li, X. Sun, R. Wang, N. Lin, and J. He, “High-power passively Q-switched 2.0 µm all-solid-state laser based on a MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 26(14), 18505 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Deng, R. Frisenda, C. Li, X. Chen, A. Castellanos-Gomez, and F. Xia, “Progress on Black Phosphorus Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800365 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, K. Yang, W. Song, W. Qiao, C. Wu, J. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “High-quality 2-µm Q-switched pulsed solid-state lasers using spin-coating-coreduction approach synthesized Bi2Te3 topological insulators,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 314–320 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

J. Lan, Z. Zhou, X. Guan, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, D. Li, and J. Xu, “Passively Q-Switched Tm:CaGdAlO4 laser using a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(6), 1725 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-Peak Power Passively Q-Switched 2-µm Laser With MoS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 66–70 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Yao, A. Yan, S. Kahn, A. Suslu, Y. Liang, E. S. Barnard, S. Tongay, A. Zettl, N. J. Borys, and P. J. Schuck, “Optically discriminating carrier-induced quasiparticle band gap and exciton energy renormalization in monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(8), 087401 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Trushin, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes,” Phys. Rev. B 94(15), 155301 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Jawaid, D. Nepal, K. Park, M. Jespersen, A. Qualley, P. Mirau, L. F. Drummy, and R. A. Vaia, “Mechanism for Liquid Phase Exfoliation of MoS2,” Chem. Mater. 28(1), 337–348 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Chu, J. Liu, Z. Guo, and H. Zhang, “2 µm passively Q-switched laser based on black phosphorus,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2374 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23(20), 26723 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. F. Liu, S. L. Wong, and D. Z. Chi, “CVD Growth of MoS2-based Two-dimensional Materials,” Chem. Vap. Deposition 21(10-11-12), 241–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of Excitonic Rydberg States in Monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Kong, G. Q. Xie, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2 µm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A47–A50 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Li and H. Zhu, “Two-dimensional MoS2: Properties, preparation, and applications,” J. Materiomics. 1(1), 33–44 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko, F. Druon, P. Georges, B. Viana, and K. Yumashev, “Thermo-optic characterization of Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(11), 2241 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Quality Monolayer and Few-layer MoS2 Films,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1866 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Liu, L. Ren, X. Qi, L. W. Yang, G. L. Hao, J. Li, X. L. Wei, and J. X. Zhong, “Preparation, characterization and photoelectrochemical property of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheets via hydrothermal intercalation and exfoliation route,” J. Alloys Compd. 571, 37–42 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From Bulk to Monolayer MoS2: Evolution of Raman Scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho Materials; Spectroscopy and Lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Afanasiev, “Synthetic approaches to the molybdenum sulfide materials,” C. R. Chim. 11(1-2), 159–182 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 µm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Phys. 8(10), 1100–1128 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. K. Kurihara, G. M. Chow, and P. E. Schoen, “Nanocrystalline metallic powders and films produced by the polyol method,” Nanostruct. Mater. 5(6), 607–613 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast all-solid-state laser technology,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58(5), 347–363 (1994).
[Crossref]

Abid, S. S.

N. Chaudhary, M. Khanuja, S. S. Abid, and Islam, “Hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets for multiple wavelength optical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators, A 277, 190–198 (2018).
[Crossref]

Afanasiev, P.

P. Afanasiev, “Synthetic approaches to the molybdenum sulfide materials,” C. R. Chim. 11(1-2), 159–182 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aguiló, M.

Albrow-Owen, T.

Baillargeat, D.

H. Li, Q. Zhang, C. C. R. Yap, B. K. Tay, T. H. T. Edwin, A. Olivier, and D. Baillargeat, “From Bulk to Monolayer MoS2: Evolution of Raman Scattering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 22(7), 1385–1390 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

K. Yao, A. Yan, S. Kahn, A. Suslu, Y. Liang, E. S. Barnard, S. Tongay, A. Zettl, N. J. Borys, and P. J. Schuck, “Optically discriminating carrier-induced quasiparticle band gap and exciton energy renormalization in monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(8), 087401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berkelbach, T. C.

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of Excitonic Rydberg States in Monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Borys, N. J.

K. Yao, A. Yan, S. Kahn, A. Suslu, Y. Liang, E. S. Barnard, S. Tongay, A. Zettl, N. J. Borys, and P. J. Schuck, “Optically discriminating carrier-induced quasiparticle band gap and exciton energy renormalization in monolayer MoS2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119(8), 087401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brus, L. E.

H. M. Hill, A. F. Rigosi, C. Roquelet, A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, L. E. Brus, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of Excitonic Rydberg States in Monolayer MoS2 and WS2 by Photoluminescence Excitation Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 15(5), 2992–2997 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

Cai, Z.

Cao, L.

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled Scalable Synthesis of Uniform, High-Quality Monolayer and Few-layer MoS2 Films,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1866 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

K. Dai, M. Ying, J. Lian, Y. Shi, Z. Cao, H. Song, M. Wei, Q. Jiang, and C. Zhang, “Optical properties of polar thin films: ZnO (0001) and ZnO (000–1) on sapphire substrate,” Opt. Mater. 94, 272–276 (2019).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

B. Deng, R. Frisenda, C. Li, X. Chen, A. Castellanos-Gomez, and F. Xia, “Progress on Black Phosphorus Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(19), 1800365 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chaudhary, N.

N. Chaudhary, M. Khanuja, S. S. Abid, and Islam, “Hydrothermal synthesis of MoS2 nanosheets for multiple wavelength optical sensing applications,” Sens. Actuators, A 277, 190–198 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Raman characterizations of the MoS2 nanosheet using 532 nm laser line.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM images of the MoS2 nanosheet on 1 µm and 100 nm (insert) scales.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 3D images of the MoS2 nanosheet surface by AFM measurement.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The absorption spectrum of the MoS2 nanosheet
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The nonlinear transmission of MoS2 nanosheet versus input pulse fluence.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Diagram of experimental device of the dual-loss-modulated Q-switching operation.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output powers of CW laser versus pump power under different output transmission
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Average output powers of actively, passively, and dual-loss-modulated (D) Q-switched lasers versus pump power
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Pulse durations of actively, passively, and dual-loss-modulated (D) Q-switched lasers versus pump power.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. PRR of passively Q-switched lasers with MoS2 nanosheet versus pump power
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Pulse peak powers of actively, passively, and dual-loss-modulated (D) Q-switched lasers versus pump power
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Temporal traces of Q-switched pulse train. (a) Passively (b) Actively, 3 kHz. (c) Dual-loss-modulated (D), 3 kHz. (d) Actively, 5 kHz. (e) Dual-loss-modulated (D), 5 kHz. (f) Actively, 7 kHz. (g) Dual-loss-modulated (D), 7 kHz.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. M2 factors of dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. A performance comparison of Q-switched 2 µm all-solid-state lasers

Equations (2)

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t c = t s t d ,
P c = P s P d ,