Abstract

Optical dielectric constants are critical to modeling the electronic and optical properties of materials. Silver, as a noble metal with low loss, has been extensively investigated. The recently developed epitaxial growths of single crystalline Ag on dielectric substrates have prompted efforts to characterize their intrinsic optical dielectric function. In this paper, we report spectral ellipsometry measurements and analysis of a thick, epitaxially-grown, single-crystalline Ag film. We focus on the range of 0.18 – 1.0 eV or 1.24 – 7 µm, an energy and wavelength range that has not been examined previously using epitaxial films. We compare the extracted dielectric constants and the predicted optical performances with previous measurements. The loss is appreciably lower than the widely quoted Palik’s optical constants (i.e., up to a factor of 2) in the infrared frequency range. The improved knowledge of fundamental optical properties of the high-quality epitaxial Ag film will have a broad impact on simulations and practical applications based on Ag in the long wavelength range.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  3. Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  20. A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  22. F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).
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    [Crossref]
  26. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics : Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  27. P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, P. B.

P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosch-Draxl, C.

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ambwani, P.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babar, S.

Benson, J. D.

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blaber, M. G.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. W.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. H.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. M.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaudhuri, K.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. J.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. Y.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ciesielski, A.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cobley, C. M.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cornfeld, A.

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

D’Archangel, J.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dabidian, N.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dinan, J. H.

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Su, C. Y.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, P. H.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, P.-H.

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sundheimer, M. L.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Szoplik, T.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

Trollmann, J.

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trzcinski, M.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tucker, E.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weaver, J. H.

Werner, W. S. M.

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilmers, K.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wormeester, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. U.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yen, T. J.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, J.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
[Crossref]

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
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M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics : Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Optical dielectric constant of epitaxial silver film

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) AFM image of the epitaxially grown 300 nm Ag film (about 2 nm Al2O3 capping layer). (b) XRD 2$\theta $ pattern of the epitaxially grown Ag films with different thickness (100, 150, and 300 nm). The Ag(111) peak of 300 nm Ag film shows a FWHM of ∼ 0.8°. (c) Layered structure of our thick Ag film sample with a self-oxidized cap.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from 0.18 to 1 eV (red). Data from Ref. [10,11,16,17] are shown together with gray shaded curve representing the uncertainties in the JC data for comparison. The fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b). See Data File 1 for optical constants.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Plot (a)-(c) show the calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the infrared spectral ranges from this work and literatures [10,16].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Representative functions of the Psemi-M0 oscillators are plotted to show how the parameters change the functions in panels (a-d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial 300 nm Ag from 1 to 4.2 eV (red). Data from Palik’s Handbook of optical constants [10] (green), JC [11] (gray), Wu et al. [4] (orange), Yang et al. [16] (blue), and McPeak et al. [17] (purple) are shown for comparison. The gray shaded curve represents the uncertainties in the JC data and the fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b) for our measurements. The fitting yields higher errors in the interband transition region. The inset of (a) shows $-{\varepsilon _1}$ near 3.8 eV in linear scale, where the transition from negative to positive values concurs at the interband transition.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Real (blue) and imaginary (green) part of optical dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from ellipsometry measurement are shown together with a Kramers-Kronig (K-K) consistent fit (red). The inset is plotted in linear scale from 3.6 to 4.2 eV to emphasize K-K consistency near the interband transition.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Calculated SPP lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the (a) infrared and (b) visible spectral ranges, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) are shown along with the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) based on the dielectric constants from this work (red) and literaturesa, b at ultraviolet (370 nm), visible (650 nm), near-infrared (1000 nm), telecommunication (1550 nm), and infrared (7 µm) wavelengths.

Equations (4)

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ε ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 ω ( ω + i / τ ) ,
k S P P s = ω c ε m ε d ε m + ε d
L S P P s = 1 2 k S P P s = λ 0 ( ε m ) 2 2 π ε m ( ε m + ε d ε m ε d ) 3 2
Q L S P R = ε / ε , Q S P P = ε 2 / ε .