Abstract

A nonradiative Cr2+ → Fe2+ ions energy transfer process in Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) single crystal with a Cr2+ to Fe2+ ions concentration ratio about 2.5:1 was investigated under short-pulse (200 ns) ∼1.73 µm excitation by YLF:Er laser. Fe2+ ions lasing in a temperature range from 78 K up to 200 K was achieved and the central oscillation wavelength was observed to increase from 4.1 µm to 4.4 µm, depending on the temperature of the active medium. Moreover, stable Fe2+ ions lasing under a “long” pulse excitation (1 ms, 10 Hz) by a ∼1.71 µm laser diode were demonstrated. The laser generated in a temperature range from 78 K up to 110 K at a central wavelength around ∼4.17 µm. The maximum mean laser output power of 4.1 mW with a slope efficiency of 2.3% with respect to the absorbed power was achieved. These results present a new possibility to develop a simple and compact diode-pumped coherent mid-infrared (4.1–4.3 µm) laser sources.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Mid-IR (4.4  μm) Zn1−xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.3) laser pumped by 1.7  μm laser using Cr2+-Fe2+ energy transfer

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Mid-IR photoluminescence of Fe2+ and Cr2+ ions in ZnSe crystal under excitation in charge transfer bands

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Long-pulse 4.4–4.6 μm laser oscillations of Fe2+ ions in a Zn1-xMnxSe (x = 0.3) crystal pumped by a 1940 nm Tm fiber laser through Cr2+ → Fe2+ energy transfer

Maxim Doroshenko, Michal Jelínek, Adam Říha, Jan Šulc, Helena Jelínková, Václav Kubeček, Nazar O. Kovalenko, and Andrey S. Gerasimenko
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References

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2019 (5)

2018 (1)

2017 (6)

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. W. Evans, T. R. Harris, B. Rami Reddy, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Berry, “Optical spectroscopy and modeling of Fe2+ ions in zinc selenide,” J. Lumin. 188, 541–550 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. W. Evans, R. W. Stites, and T. R. Harris, “Increasing the performance of an Fe:ZnSe laser using a hot isostatic press,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4296–4303 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

J. Peppers, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR photoluminescence of Fe2+ and Cr2+ ions in ZnSe crystal under excitation in charge transfer bands,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4406–4414 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Petrov, “Frequency down-conversion of solid-state laser sources to the mid-infrared spectral range using non-oxide nonlinear crystals,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 42, 1–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR lasing of iron–cobalt co-doped ZnS(Se) crystals via Co–Fe energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 133, 257–261 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Peppers, N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR laser oscillation via energy transfer in the Co:Fe:ZnS/Se co-doped crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 823503 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and L. E. Wenger, “Temperature and concentration quenching of mid-IR photoluminescence in iron doped ZnSe and ZnS laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 600–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10608–10615 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1988 (1)

C. A. Brau, “Free-Electron Lasers,” Science 239(4844), 1115–1121 (1988).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. J.

Akimov, V. A.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alimov, O. K.

O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. K. Ashurov, E. O. Kirpichenkova, and V. B. Murav’ev, Selective Laser Spectroscopy of Activated Crystals and Glasses, Proceedings of GPI–9, Chapter II (Nova Science Publishers, 1990).

Amaro, F. D.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Antognini, A.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ashurov, M. K.

O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. K. Ashurov, E. O. Kirpichenkova, and V. B. Murav’ev, Selective Laser Spectroscopy of Activated Crystals and Glasses, Proceedings of GPI–9, Chapter II (Nova Science Publishers, 1990).

Badikov, D. V.

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

Badikov, V. V.

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10608–10615 (2005).
[Crossref]

Basiev, T.

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

Basiev, T. T.

O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. K. Ashurov, E. O. Kirpichenkova, and V. B. Murav’ev, Selective Laser Spectroscopy of Activated Crystals and Glasses, Proceedings of GPI–9, Chapter II (Nova Science Publishers, 1990).

Baudisch, M.

H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berry, P. A.

J. W. Evans, T. R. Harris, B. Rami Reddy, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Berry, “Optical spectroscopy and modeling of Fe2+ ions in zinc selenide,” J. Lumin. 188, 541–550 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bibeau, C.

Biegert, J.

H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Biraben, F.

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A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
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M. E. Doroshenko, M. Jelínek, A. Říha, J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeček, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Long-pulse 4.4–4.6 µm laser oscillations of Fe2+ ions in a Zn1-xMnxSe (x = 0.3) crystal pumped by a 1940nm Tm:fiber laser through Cr2+ → Fe2+ energy transfer,” Opt. Lett. 44(21), 5334–5337 (2019).
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Jelínek, M.

Jelínková, H.

M. E. Doroshenko, M. Jelínek, A. Říha, J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeček, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Long-pulse 4.4–4.6 µm laser oscillations of Fe2+ ions in a Zn1-xMnxSe (x = 0.3) crystal pumped by a 1940nm Tm:fiber laser through Cr2+ → Fe2+ energy transfer,” Opt. Lett. 44(21), 5334–5337 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, A. Říha, M. Jelínek, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Mid-IR (4.4 µm) Zn1−xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.3) laser pumped by 1.7 µm laser using Cr2+-Fe2+ energy transfer,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2724–2727 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Němec, M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, R. Švejkar, J. Šulc, and V. K. Komar, “Wavelength tunability of diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe laser,” Laser Physics workshop LPHYS’17, paper P.S1.2 (2017).

Jiang, B.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Julien, L.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kalinushkin, V. P.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kazantsev, S. Y.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ke, C.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kernal, J.

Kirpichenkova, E. O.

O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. K. Ashurov, E. O. Kirpichenkova, and V. B. Murav’ev, Selective Laser Spectroscopy of Activated Crystals and Glasses, Proceedings of GPI–9, Chapter II (Nova Science Publishers, 1990).

Klimachev, Y. M.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Knowles, P. E.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Komar, V. K.

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Němec, M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, R. Švejkar, J. Šulc, and V. K. Komar, “Wavelength tunability of diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe laser,” Laser Physics workshop LPHYS’17, paper P.S1.2 (2017).

Kononov, I. G.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koranda, P.

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

Korostelin, Y. V.

A. V. Pushkin, E. A. Migal, H. Uehara, K. Goya, S. Tokita, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and F. V. Potemkin, “Compact, highly efficient, 2.1 W continuous-wave mid-infrared Fe:ZnSe coherent source, pumped by an Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 5941–5944 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kotkov, A. A.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kottmann, F.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kovalenko, N. O.

Kozlov, A. Y.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kozlovsky, V. I.

A. V. Pushkin, E. A. Migal, H. Uehara, K. Goya, S. Tokita, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. K. Skasyrsky, and F. V. Potemkin, “Compact, highly efficient, 2.1 W continuous-wave mid-infrared Fe:ZnSe coherent source, pumped by an Er:ZBLAN fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 5941–5944 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

Krol, D. M.

Kubecek, V.

Landman, A. I.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-W.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lopes, J. A. M.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ludhova, L.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martyshkin, D.

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martyshkin, D. V.

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR lasing of iron–cobalt co-doped ZnS(Se) crystals via Co–Fe energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 133, 257–261 (2013).
[Crossref]

Migal, E.

Migal, E. A.

Minaev, N.

Mirov, M.

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mirov, S. B.

V. V. Fedorov, T. Carlson, and S. B. Mirov, “Energy transfer in iron-chromium co-doped ZnSe middle-infrared laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2340–2347 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Peppers, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR photoluminescence of Fe2+ and Cr2+ ions in ZnSe crystal under excitation in charge transfer bands,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4406–4414 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR lasing of iron–cobalt co-doped ZnS(Se) crystals via Co–Fe energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 133, 257–261 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Peppers, N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR laser oscillation via energy transfer in the Co:Fe:ZnS/Se co-doped crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 823503 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and L. E. Wenger, “Temperature and concentration quenching of mid-IR photoluminescence in iron doped ZnSe and ZnS laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 600–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Kernal, V. V. Fedorov, A. Gallian, S. B. Mirov, and V. V. Badikov, “3.9–4.8 µm gain-switched lasing of Fe:ZnSe at room temperature,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10608–10615 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monteiro, C. M. B.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moskalev, I.

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mulhauser, F.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murav’ev, V. B.

O. K. Alimov, T. T. Basiev, M. K. Ashurov, E. O. Kirpichenkova, and V. B. Murav’ev, Selective Laser Spectroscopy of Activated Crystals and Glasses, Proceedings of GPI–9, Chapter II (Nova Science Publishers, 1990).

Myoung, N.

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR lasing of iron–cobalt co-doped ZnS(Se) crystals via Co–Fe energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 133, 257–261 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Peppers, N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR laser oscillation via energy transfer in the Co:Fe:ZnS/Se co-doped crystals,” Proc. SPIE 8235, 823503 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and L. E. Wenger, “Temperature and concentration quenching of mid-IR photoluminescence in iron doped ZnSe and ZnS laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 600–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nasibov, A. S.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Negro, M.

A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nemec, M.

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, A. Říha, M. Jelínek, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Mid-IR (4.4 µm) Zn1−xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.3) laser pumped by 1.7 µm laser using Cr2+-Fe2+ energy transfer,” Opt. Lett. 44(11), 2724–2727 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Němec, M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, R. Švejkar, J. Šulc, and V. K. Komar, “Wavelength tunability of diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe laser,” Laser Physics workshop LPHYS’17, paper P.S1.2 (2017).

Nez, F.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V. V.

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Pashinin, P. P.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
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A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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V. Petrov, “Frequency down-conversion of solid-state laser sources to the mid-infrared spectral range using non-oxide nonlinear crystals,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 42, 1–106 (2015).
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H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
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Podmar’kov, Y. P.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
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Pohl, R.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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Potemkin, F. V.

Pusala, A.

A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
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Pushkin, A.

Pushkin, A. V.

Rabinowitz, P.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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Rami Reddy, B.

J. W. Evans, T. R. Harris, B. Rami Reddy, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Berry, “Optical spectroscopy and modeling of Fe2+ ions in zinc selenide,” J. Lumin. 188, 541–550 (2017).
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Razeghi, M.

S. Slivken, D. Wu, and M. Razeghi, “Surface emitting, tunable, mid-infrared laser with high output power and stable output beam,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 549 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ríha, A.

Sanchez, D.

H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 43, 1–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schaller, L. A.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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Schepler, K. L.

J. W. Evans, T. R. Harris, B. Rami Reddy, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Berry, “Optical spectroscopy and modeling of Fe2+ ions in zinc selenide,” J. Lumin. 188, 541–550 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schwob, C.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
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Shapkin, P. V.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
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Shchurov, V. V.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
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Sinitsyn, D. V.

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
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Sirotkin, A.

Skasyrsky, Y. K.

Slivken, S.

S. Slivken, D. Wu, and M. Razeghi, “Surface emitting, tunable, mid-infrared laser with high output power and stable output beam,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 549 (2019).
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Smolski, V.

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
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A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
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Stites, R. W.

Studenikin, M. I.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
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Šulc, J.

M. E. Doroshenko, M. Jelínek, A. Říha, J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeček, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Long-pulse 4.4–4.6 µm laser oscillations of Fe2+ ions in a Zn1-xMnxSe (x = 0.3) crystal pumped by a 1940nm Tm:fiber laser through Cr2+ → Fe2+ energy transfer,” Opt. Lett. 44(21), 5334–5337 (2019).
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M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
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M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
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M. Němec, M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, R. Švejkar, J. Šulc, and V. K. Komar, “Wavelength tunability of diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe laser,” Laser Physics workshop LPHYS’17, paper P.S1.2 (2017).

Švejkar, R.

M. Němec, M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, R. Švejkar, J. Šulc, and V. K. Komar, “Wavelength tunability of diode-pumped Cr-doped ZnMnSe laser,” Laser Physics workshop LPHYS’17, paper P.S1.2 (2017).

Taqqu, D.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
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Uehara, H.

Vasilyev, S.

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
[Crossref]

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Velikanov, S. D.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Veloso, J. F. C. A.

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Voronov, A. A.

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Akimov, A. A. Voronov, V. I. Kozlovsky, Y. V. Korostelin, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, and M. P. Frolov, “Efficient IR Fe:ZnSe laser continuously tunable in the spectral range from 3.77 to 4.40 µm,” Quantum Electron. 34(10), 912–914 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vozzi, C.

A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vyhlídal, D.

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wenger, L. E.

N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and L. E. Wenger, “Temperature and concentration quenching of mid-IR photoluminescence in iron doped ZnSe and ZnS laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 600–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

S. Slivken, D. Wu, and M. Razeghi, “Surface emitting, tunable, mid-infrared laser with high output power and stable output beam,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 549 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zakharov, N. G.

S. D. Velikanov, V. P. Danilov, N. G. Zakharov, N. N. Il’ichev, S. Y. Kazantsev, V. P. Kalinushkin, I. G. Kononov, A. S. Nasibov, M. I. Studenikin, P. P. Pashinin, K. N. Firsov, P. V. Shapkin, and V. V. Shchurov, “Fe2+:ZnSe laser pumped by a nonchain electric-discharge HF laser at room temperature,” Quantum Electron. 44(2), 141–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

A. G. Ciriolo, M. Negro, M. Devetta, E. Cinquanta, D. Faccialà, A. Pusala, S. De Silvestri, S. Stagira, and C. Vozzi, “Optical parametric amplification techniques for the generation of high-energy few-optical-cycles IR pulses for strong field applications,” Appl. Sci. 7(3), 265 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, A. Gallian, D. V. Badikov, M. P. Frolov, Y. V. Korostelin, V. I. Kozlovsky, A. I. Landman, Y. P. Podmar’kov, V. A. Akimov, and A. A. Voronov, “3.77–5.05 µm tunable solid-state lasers based on Fe2+-doped ZnSe crystals operating at low and room temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(9), 907–917 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. B. Mirov, V. V. Fedorov, D. Martyshkin, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, and S. Vasilyev, “Progress in mid-IR lasers based on Cr and Fe-doped II–VI chalcogenides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 292–310 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, M. Xu, G. Chen, B. Jiang, C. Ke, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Charge state and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium co-doped ZnS polycrystalline prepared by step-temperature diffusion for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 695, 3767–3771 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (4)

M. E. Doroshenko, H. Jelínková, V. V. Osiko, M. Jelínek, D. Vyhlídal, J. Šulc, M. Němec, N. O. Kovalenko, and A. S. Gerasimenko, “Fe:ZnMnSe laser active material at 1300–1307 K: Spectroscopic properties and laser generation at 4.2–5.0 µm,” J. Lumin. 192, 1300–1307 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, D. V. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, and S. B. Mirov, “Mid-IR lasing of iron–cobalt co-doped ZnS(Se) crystals via Co–Fe energy transfer,” J. Lumin. 133, 257–261 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Myoung, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and L. E. Wenger, “Temperature and concentration quenching of mid-IR photoluminescence in iron doped ZnSe and ZnS laser crystals,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 600–606 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Evans, T. R. Harris, B. Rami Reddy, K. L. Schepler, and P. A. Berry, “Optical spectroscopy and modeling of Fe2+ ions in zinc selenide,” J. Lumin. 188, 541–550 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Antognini, F. D. Amaro, F. Biraben, J. M. R. Cardoso, C. A. N. Conde, D. S. Covita, A. Dax, S. Dhawan, L. M. P. Fernandes, T. W. Hänsch, V. W. Hughes, O. Huot, P. Indelicato, L. Julien, P. E. Knowles, F. Kottmann, Y.-W. Liu, J. A. M. Lopes, L. Ludhova, C. M. B. Monteiro, F. Mulhauser, F. Nez, B. N. Perry, R. Pohl, P. Rabinowitz, J. M. F. dos Santos, L. A. Schaller, C. Schwob, D. Taqqu, and J. F. C. A. Veloso, “Powerful fast triggerable 6 µm laser for the muonic hydrogen 2S-Lamb shift experiment,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 362–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. A. Ionin, Y. M. Klimachev, A. A. Kotkov, A. Y. Kozlov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Carbon monoxide laser emitting nanosecond pulses with 10 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Commun. 282(2), 294–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

X. Wang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, B. Jiang, M. Xu, J. Hong, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Hang, “Preparation, spectroscopic characterization and energy transfer investigation of iron-chromium diffusion co-doped ZnSe for mid-IR laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 54, 234–237 (2016).
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Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Vasilyev, I. Moskalev, M. Mirov, V. Smolski, D. Martyshkin, V. V. Fedorov, S. B. Mirov, and V. Gapontsev, “Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers,” Proc. SPIE 10193, 101930U (2017).
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M. E. Doroshenko, T. Basiev, P. Koranda, H. Jelínková, M. Němec, J. Šulc, M. Čech, V. K. Komar, A. S. Gerasimenko, V. V. Badikov, and D. V. Badikov, “Bulk Fe:ZnSe laser gain-switched by the Q-switched Er:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931K (2009).
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[Crossref]

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Sci. Rep. (1)

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[Crossref]

Science (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Absorption spectra of Cr2+ and Fe2+ ions in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ crystals with Mn content x = 0.05 (red) and x = 0.3 (blue) at 78 K.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fluorescence spectra of Cr2+ ions and absorption spectra of Fe2+ ions in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ crystals with Mn content (a) x = 0.05 (red) and (b) x = 0.3 (blue) at 78 K. All spectra were area normalized. Hatched areas mark the overlap between donor (Cr2+) ions fluorescence and acceptor (Fe2+) ions absorption.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of Fe2+ ions fluorescence spectra in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ crystals with Mn content x = 0.05 (red) and x = 0.3 (blue) at 78 K.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Decay curves of Cr2+ ions in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) crystal without (pink hollow dots) and with (black hollow dots) Fe2+ ions co-doping measured at 78 K. Green line shows single exponential approximation.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Nonradiative Cr2+ → Fe2+ energy transfer function in $\sqrt t $ axis in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) and (x = 0.3) crystals at 78 K.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Fluorescence decay curves of Fe2+ ions in the Zn1-xMnxSe:Fe2+ crystals with Mn content x = 0.05 (red) and x = 0.3 (blue) at 78 K.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Experimental arrangement of the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) laser. Pumping sources: (b) YLF:Er pumping, (c) laser diode pumping. PM – pumping mirror, OC – output coupler, HR – high reflectivity mirror at ∼1.7 µm, PC – Pockels cell.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Temporal profiles of the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (a) x = 0.05 and (b) x = 0.3 [27] laser radiation at 78 K for the output mirror reflectivity of 94% in intracavity pumping mode operation. Inset in (a) presents the Fe2+ laser beam spatial profile.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Oscillation spectra of the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ x = 0.05 laser under 1.73 µm Q-switched YLF:Er laser pumping in a temperature range from 78 K up to 200 K.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Oscillogram of the 1.71 µm pump pulse (green curve) and the 4.19 µm Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) laser output pulse at 78 K (red curve).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Oscillation spectra of the Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ x = 0.05 laser under 1.71 µm laser diode pumping for temperatures of 78 K and 100 K.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Zn1-xMnxSe:Cr2+,Fe2+ (x = 0.05) mean laser output power as a function of the absorbed laser-diode pump power. Inset presents the beam spatial profile for the maximal output power of 4.1 mW.

Equations (2)

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η DA = 1 0 I N ( t ) d t 0 I R ( t ) d t
η DA = W F W F + 1 τ Cr