Abstract

It is now well established that the nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles can be significantly enhanced by coupling them to metallic nanoparticles. While the nonlinear absorption properties are well reported, there is large variation in the coefficients of nonlinear refraction reported in literature, largely due to simplifications made during the analysis of experimental z-scan data used to determine the coefficients. This work presents closed aperture z-scan theory which incorporates the effects of nonlinear absorption, thus providing a more accurate measure of the coefficient of nonlinear refraction. With this theory, it is shown that the coefficient of nonlinear refraction increases by an order of magnitude when ZnO is coupled to Au nanoparticles.

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References

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  1. A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. P. Shortell, E. A. Jaatinen, J. Chang, and E. R. Waclawik, “Using pulse transit delay in Z-scan to discriminate between excited-state absorption and other nonlinear processes in ZnO nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6222–6228 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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  9. L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n_2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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  16. P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2011 (1)

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of Optical Nonlinearities,” Charact. Tech. Tabul. Org. nonlinear Mater. 18(03), 655–692 (1998).

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Baesso, M. L.

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barille, R.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bhalerao, G. M.

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, S. W.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chan, W. K.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, J.

Chang, Q.

Q. Chang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, and S. Zhen, “The optical nonlinearities of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO crystal,” in AOPC 2015: Advances in Laser Technology and Applications, S. Jiang, L. Wang, C. Tang, and Y. Cheng, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), 9671, p. 967108.

Djurišic, A. B.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dotsenko, A. V

M. J. Weber, A. V Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC press, 2003).

Elim, H. I.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fernando, J. F. S.

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gandhiraj, Vinitha

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, M.

Q. Chang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, and S. Zhen, “The optical nonlinearities of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO crystal,” in AOPC 2015: Advances in Laser Technology and Applications, S. Jiang, L. Wang, C. Tang, and Y. Cheng, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), 9671, p. 967108.

Glebov, L. B.

M. J. Weber, A. V Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC press, 2003).

Gu, B.

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harmer, J. R.

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hewins, R. A.

Irimpan, L.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jaatinen, E. A.

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, E. A. Jaatinen, J. Chang, and E. R. Waclawik, “Using pulse transit delay in Z-scan to discriminate between excited-state absorption and other nonlinear processes in ZnO nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6222–6228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ji, W.

B. Gu, Y. Sun, and W. Ji, “Two-photon-induced excited-state nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17745–17751 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Johnson, J. C.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kachynski, A. V.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Karthikeyan, B.

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuzmin, A. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-Y.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leung, Y. H.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mi, J.

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Noble, C. J.

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nunzi, J. M.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nyk, M.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q.

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Petersen, P. B.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Philip, R.

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

Philip, Reji

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ponnusamy, Rajeswari

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, P.

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roy, I.

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

Sandeep, C. S. S.

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

Saykally, R. J.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schaller, R. D.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of Optical Nonlinearities,” Charact. Tech. Tabul. Org. nonlinear Mater. 18(03), 655–692 (1998).

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n_2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shortell, M. P.

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, E. A. Jaatinen, J. Chang, and E. R. Waclawik, “Using pulse transit delay in Z-scan to discriminate between excited-state absorption and other nonlinear processes in ZnO nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6222–6228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sivasubramanian, Dhanuskodi

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sreekanth, P.

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Tam, K. H.

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsekhomsky, V. A.

M. J. Weber, A. V Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC press, 2003).

Udayabhaskar, R.

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of Optical Nonlinearities,” Charact. Tech. Tabul. Org. nonlinear Mater. 18(03), 655–692 (1998).

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n_2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955 (1989).
[Crossref]

Waclawik, E. R.

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, E. A. Jaatinen, J. Chang, and E. R. Waclawik, “Using pulse transit delay in Z-scan to discriminate between excited-state absorption and other nonlinear processes in ZnO nanocones,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6222–6228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walden, S. L.

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. P. Shortell, R. A. Hewins, J. F. S. Fernando, S. L. Walden, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Multi-angle fluorometer technique for the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients of subwavelength nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(15), 17090 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, A. V Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC press, 2003).

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9(3), 405 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, T.

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Young, J.

Zhang, D.

Q. Chang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, and S. Zhen, “The optical nonlinearities of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO crystal,” in AOPC 2015: Advances in Laser Technology and Applications, S. Jiang, L. Wang, C. Tang, and Y. Cheng, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), 9671, p. 967108.

Zhen, S.

Q. Chang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, and S. Zhen, “The optical nonlinearities of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO crystal,” in AOPC 2015: Advances in Laser Technology and Applications, S. Jiang, L. Wang, C. Tang, and Y. Cheng, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), 9671, p. 967108.

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, C. J. Noble, J. R. Harmer, E. A. Jaatinen, and E. R. Waclawik, “Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(22), 14271–14283 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. L. Walden, J. F. S. Fernando, M. P. Shortell, E. R. Waclawik, and E. A. Jaatinen, “Nonlinear Absorption and Fluorescence in ZnO and ZnO-Au Nanostructures,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(12), 2133–2138 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. W. Chan, R. Barille, J. M. Nunzi, K. H. Tam, Y. H. Leung, W. K. Chan, and A. B. Djurišić, “Second harmonic generation in zinc oxide nanorods,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 351–355 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. I. Elim, J. Yang, J.-Y. Lee, J. Mi, and W. Ji, “Observation of saturable and reverse-saturable absorption at longitudinal surface plasmon resonance in gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 083107 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, J. Yang, and J. Y. Lee, “Intensity-dependent enhancement of saturable absorption in PbS- Au 4 nanohybrid composites: Evidence for resonant energy transfer by Auger recombination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(25), 251106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charact. Tech. Tabul. Org. nonlinear Mater. (1)

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of Optical Nonlinearities,” Charact. Tech. Tabul. Org. nonlinear Mater. 18(03), 655–692 (1998).

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Irimpan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, “Spectral and nonlinear optical characteristics of nanocomposites of ZnO-Ag,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 455(4-6), 265–269 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities Using a Single Beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

P. Li, Z. Wei, T. Wu, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, “Au-ZnO hybrid nanopyramids and their photocatalytic properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(15), 5660–5663 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Karthikeyan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and M. L. Baesso, “Study of optical properties and effective three-photon absorption in Bi-doped ZnO nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(11), 114304 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

A. V. Kachynski, A. N. Kuzmin, M. Nyk, I. Roy, and P. N. Prasad, “Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals for Nonresonant Nonlinear Optical Microscopy in Biology and Medicine,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(29), 10721–10724 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, R. D. Schaller, P. B. Petersen, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Near-Field Imaging of Nonlinear Optical Mixing in Single Zinc Oxide Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 2(4), 279–283 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

RSC Advances (2)

Rajeswari Ponnusamy, Dhanuskodi Sivasubramanian, P. Sreekanth, Vinitha Gandhiraj, Reji Philip, and G. M. Bhalerao, “Nonlinear optical interactions of Co: ZnO nanoparticles in continuous and pulsed mode of operations,” RSC Advances 5(98), 80756–80765 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Udayabhaskar, B. Karthikeyan, P. Sreekanth, and Reji Philip, “Enhanced multi-phonon Raman scattering and nonlinear optical power limiting in ZnO:Au,” RSC Advances 5(18), 13590–13597 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Q. Chang, D. Zhang, M. Gao, and S. Zhen, “The optical nonlinearities of ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO crystal,” in AOPC 2015: Advances in Laser Technology and Applications, S. Jiang, L. Wang, C. Tang, and Y. Cheng, eds. (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), 9671, p. 967108.

M. J. Weber, A. V Dotsenko, L. B. Glebov, and V. A. Tsekhomsky, Handbook of Optical Materials (CRC press, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Numerical closed aperature z-scan simulations (ΔΦ0 = 0.1) (circles) is compared to analytic solutions [10] (solid line) and (b) closed aperature simulation is compared to experimental closed aperature data on 2 mm toluene sample.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Numerical simulations of closed aperture z-scan trace (ΔΦ0 = 0.1) when nonlinear refraction occurs in conjunction with (a) saturable absorption, (b) two photon absorption and (c) excited state absorption. The coefficients used in the simulations are indicated on the graphs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. UV-Visible extinction spectra of ZnO and ZnO-Au samples. Inset: TEM images of ZnO (left, solid border), and ZnO-Au hybrid nanoparticles (right, dashed border).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the apparatus used for z-scan and pulse delay measurements.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Open Aperture measurements of (a) ZnO nanoparticles and (d) ZnO-Au composite nanostructures; Closed aperture measurements on (b) ZnO nanoparticles and (e) ZnO-Au composite nanostructures; and the closed Aperture trace divided by the open aperture trace of (c) ZnO nanoparticles and (f) ZnO-Au composite nanostructures; Solid lines in (a,b,d,e) show least squares fits to numerical simulations, solid lines in (c,f) show least squares fit to analytic functions.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d I ( r , z , t ) d z = α [ I ( r , z , t ) ] I ( r , z , t )
d Δ Φ ( r , z , t ) d z = k n 2 I ( r , z , t )
Δ Φ n ( r , z , t ) = Δ Φ n 1 ( r , z , t ) + k n 2 I n 1 2 ( r , z , t ) Δ z
I n ( r , z , t ) = I n 1 ( r , z , t ) { α 0 I n 1 ( r , z , t ) [ 1 + I n 1 ( r , z , t ) I s ] + β I n 1 2 ( r , z , t ) + α E S A G n 1 ( r , z , t ) I n 1 3 ( r , z , t ) } Δ z
G ( z , r , t ) = 1 I 2 ( r , z , t ) t I 2 ( r , z , t ) exp [ t t τ e ] d t .
E e ( r , z , t ) = [ 2 I e ( r , z , t ) c n 0 ϵ 0 ] 1 / 2 exp [ i k r 2 2 R ( z ) i Δ Φ e ( r , z , t ) ] .
T ( z ) = 0 r a | E a ( r , z , t ) | 2 r d r d t 0 | E i n ( z , r , t ) | 2 r d r d t
E i n ( r , z , t ) = E 0 ( t ) w 0 w ( r ) exp [ r 2 w 2 ( z ) i k r 2 2 R ( z ) ] .
T ( z , Δ Φ 0 ) = 1 4 Δ Φ 0 ( z / z R ) [ ( z / z R ) 2 + 9 ] [ ( z / z R ) 2 + 1 ]