Abstract

We present a new approach combining top down fabrication and bottom up overgrowth to create diamond photonic nanostructures in the form of single-crystalline diamond nanopyramids. Our approach relies on diamond nanopillars, that are overgrown with single-crystalline diamond to form pyramidal structures oriented along crystal facets. To characterize the photonic properties of the pyramids, color centers are created in a controlled way using ion implantation and annealing. We find very high collection efficiency from color centers close to the pyramid apex. We further show excellent smoothness and sharpness of our diamond pyramids with measured tip radii on the order of 10 nm. Our results offer interesting prospects for nanoscale quantum sensing using diamond color centers, where our diamond pyramids could be used as scanning probes for nanoscale imaging. There, our approach would offer significant advantages compared to the cone-shaped scanning probes which define the current state of the art.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  4. C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(3), 035002 (2017).
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  5. L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  22. O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  24. Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen, and J. Ullmann, “Structural changes in diamond and amorphous carbon induced by low-energy ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 54(10), 7067–7073 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. Samlenski, C. Haug, R. Brenn, C. Wild, R. Locher, and P. Koidl, “Characterisation and lattice location of nitrogen and boron in homoepitaxial cvd diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 5(9), 947–951 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. Widmann, M. Hetzl, S. Drieschner, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of high quality (111)-oriented single crystalline diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 72, 41–46 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. Choi, V. Leong, G. Alagappan, and L. Krivitsky, “Enhancing optical readout from diamond afm tips for quantum nanosensing,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4244–4248 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Fuchs, M. Challier, and E. Neu, “Optimized single-crystal diamond scanning probes for high sensitivity magnetometry,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 125001 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  35. T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

S. Choi, V. Leong, G. Alagappan, and L. Krivitsky, “Enhancing optical readout from diamond afm tips for quantum nanosensing,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4244–4248 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Fuchs, M. Challier, and E. Neu, “Optimized single-crystal diamond scanning probes for high sensitivity magnetometry,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 125001 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Wehner, D. Elkouss, and R. Hanson, “Quantum internet: A vision for the road ahead,” Science 362(6412), eaam9288 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(3), 035002 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, M. Hetzl, S. Drieschner, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of high quality (111)-oriented single crystalline diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 72, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, W. Müller-Sebert, N. Lang, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of single crystalline cvd-diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 64, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, C. Giese, M. Wolfer, D. Brink, N. Heidrich, and C. Nebel, “Fabrication and characterization of single crystalline diamond nanopillars with nv-centers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 54, 2–8 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Bogatskiy and J. E. Butler, “A geometric model of growth for cubic crystals: Diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 53, 58–65 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B. Myers, A. Das, M. Dartiailh, K. Ohno, D. Awschalom, and A. Bleszynski Jayich, “Probing surface noise with depth-calibrated spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027602 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. J. Gracio, Q. H. Fan, and J. C. Madaleno, “Diamond growth by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(37), 374017 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Kuhn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(1), 2–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. Nishibayashi, H. Saito, T. Imai, and N. Fujimori, “Homoepitaxial growth on fine columns of single crystal diamond for a field emitter,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 9(3-6), 290–294 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen, and J. Ullmann, “Structural changes in diamond and amorphous carbon induced by low-energy ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 54(10), 7067–7073 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. Samlenski, C. Haug, R. Brenn, C. Wild, R. Locher, and P. Koidl, “Characterisation and lattice location of nitrogen and boron in homoepitaxial cvd diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 5(9), 947–951 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
[Crossref]

Achard, J.

O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-P.

J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
[Crossref]

Aharonovich, I.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alagappan, G.

S. Choi, V. Leong, G. Alagappan, and L. Krivitsky, “Enhancing optical readout from diamond afm tips for quantum nanosensing,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4244–4248 (2018).
[Crossref]

Antonov, D.

F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aoki, Y.

Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appel, P.

L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D.

B. Myers, A. Das, M. Dartiailh, K. Ohno, D. Awschalom, and A. Bleszynski Jayich, “Probing surface noise with depth-calibrated spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barfuss, A.

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barroy, P.

O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Batzer, M.

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref]

Becher, C.

J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bersin, E.

S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bielejec, E. S.

T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
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I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
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C. Widmann, M. Hetzl, S. Drieschner, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of high quality (111)-oriented single crystalline diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 72, 41–46 (2017).
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C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
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C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
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S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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Y. Nishibayashi, H. Saito, T. Imai, and N. Fujimori, “Homoepitaxial growth on fine columns of single crystal diamond for a field emitter,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 9(3-6), 290–294 (2000).
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T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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Klimov, V. I.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
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P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
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S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
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S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
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C. Widmann, W. Müller-Sebert, N. Lang, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of single crystalline cvd-diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 64, 1–7 (2016).
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C. Widmann, C. Giese, M. Wolfer, D. Brink, N. Heidrich, and C. Nebel, “Fabrication and characterization of single crystalline diamond nanopillars with nv-centers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 54, 2–8 (2015).
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P. Fuchs, M. Challier, and E. Neu, “Optimized single-crystal diamond scanning probes for high sensitivity magnetometry,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 125001 (2018).
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R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
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Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
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T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
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Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
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R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Kuhn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(1), 2–6 (2001).
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T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
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I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
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J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
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C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(3), 035002 (2017).
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S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
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P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen, and J. Ullmann, “Structural changes in diamond and amorphous carbon induced by low-energy ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 54(10), 7067–7073 (1996).
[Crossref]

Reithmaier, J. P.

T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
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C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
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J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
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J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rohner, D.

L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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Ruf, M.

S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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Saito, H.

Y. Nishibayashi, H. Saito, T. Imai, and N. Fujimori, “Homoepitaxial growth on fine columns of single crystal diamond for a field emitter,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 9(3-6), 290–294 (2000).
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Samlenski, R.

R. Samlenski, C. Haug, R. Brenn, C. Wild, R. Locher, and P. Koidl, “Characterisation and lattice location of nitrogen and boron in homoepitaxial cvd diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 5(9), 947–951 (1996).
[Crossref]

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S. Kuhn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(1), 2–6 (2001).
[Crossref]

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R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
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S. Kuhn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(1), 2–6 (2001).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
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O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
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Simpson, D. A.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
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Sipahigil, A.

T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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Sonusen, S.

R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Steinbrück, A.

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, R. J.

T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Su, C.-H.

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Takeshita, H.

Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
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Taminiau, T. H.

S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
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J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
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J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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Tietz, C.

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
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Traoré, A.

Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen, and J. Ullmann, “Structural changes in diamond and amorphous carbon induced by low-energy ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 54(10), 7067–7073 (1996).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
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S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
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Wang, Y.

F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
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L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
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Wehner, S.

S. Wehner, D. Elkouss, and R. Hanson, “Quantum internet: A vision for the road ahead,” Science 362(6412), eaam9288 (2018).
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C. Widmann, W. Müller-Sebert, N. Lang, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of single crystalline cvd-diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 64, 1–7 (2016).
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C. Widmann, C. Giese, M. Wolfer, D. Brink, N. Heidrich, and C. Nebel, “Fabrication and characterization of single crystalline diamond nanopillars with nv-centers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 54, 2–8 (2015).
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C. J. Widmann, “Characterization and optimization of nanoscale magnetometric diamond sensors,” Ph.D. thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau (2017).

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R. Samlenski, C. Haug, R. Brenn, C. Wild, R. Locher, and P. Koidl, “Characterisation and lattice location of nitrogen and boron in homoepitaxial cvd diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 5(9), 947–951 (1996).
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C. Widmann, C. Giese, M. Wolfer, D. Brink, N. Heidrich, and C. Nebel, “Fabrication and characterization of single crystalline diamond nanopillars with nv-centers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 54, 2–8 (2015).
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Wrachtrup, J.

F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
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A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yacoby, A.

T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamasaki, S.

Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
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Yang, S.

S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T. X.

T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (1)

S. Choi, V. Leong, G. Alagappan, and L. Krivitsky, “Enhancing optical readout from diamond afm tips for quantum nanosensing,” ACS Photonics 5(11), 4244–4248 (2018).
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T. Jaffe, N. Felgen, L. Gal, L. Kornblum, J. P. Reithmaier, C. Popov, and M. Orenstein, “Deterministic arrays of epitaxially grown diamond nanopyramids with embedded silicon-vacancy centers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(2), 1800715 (2019).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

R. Nelz, P. Fuchs, O. Opaluch, S. Sonusen, N. Savenko, V. Podgursky, and E. Neu, “Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 193105 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Uzan-Saguy, C. Cytermann, R. Brener, V. Richter, M. Shaanan, and R. Kalish, “Damage threshold for ion-beam induced graphitization of diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(9), 1194–1196 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. X. Zhou, R. J. Stöhr, and A. Yacoby, “Scanning diamond nv center probes compatible with conventional afm technology,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(16), 163106 (2017).
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J. Riedrich-Möller, S. Pezzagna, J. Meijer, C. Pauly, F. Mücklich, M. Markham, A. M. Edmonds, and C. Becher, “Nanoimplantation and purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(22), 221103 (2015).
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Diamond Relat. Mater. (6)

Y. Nishibayashi, H. Saito, T. Imai, and N. Fujimori, “Homoepitaxial growth on fine columns of single crystal diamond for a field emitter,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 9(3-6), 290–294 (2000).
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A. Bogatskiy and J. E. Butler, “A geometric model of growth for cubic crystals: Diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 53, 58–65 (2015).
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R. Samlenski, C. Haug, R. Brenn, C. Wild, R. Locher, and P. Koidl, “Characterisation and lattice location of nitrogen and boron in homoepitaxial cvd diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 5(9), 947–951 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, M. Hetzl, S. Drieschner, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of high quality (111)-oriented single crystalline diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 72, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, W. Müller-Sebert, N. Lang, and C. Nebel, “Homoepitaxial growth of single crystalline cvd-diamond,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 64, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Widmann, C. Giese, M. Wolfer, D. Brink, N. Heidrich, and C. Nebel, “Fabrication and characterization of single crystalline diamond nanopillars with nv-centers,” Diamond Relat. Mater. 54, 2–8 (2015).
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J. Microsc. (1)

S. Kuhn, C. Hettich, C. Schmitt, J. Poizat, and V. Sandoghdar, “Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202(1), 2–6 (2001).
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J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

J. J. Gracio, Q. H. Fan, and J. C. Madaleno, “Diamond growth by chemical vapour deposition,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(37), 374017 (2010).
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Nano Lett. (1)

S. A. Momenzadeh, R. J. Stöhr, F. F. de Oliveira, A. Brunner, A. Denisenko, S. Yang, F. Reinhard, and J. Wrachtrup, “Nanoengineered diamond waveguide as a robust bright platform for nanomagnetometry using shallow nitrogen vacancy centers,” Nano Lett. 15(1), 165–169 (2015).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

C. Galland, Y. Ghosh, A. Steinbrück, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, and V. I. Klimov, “Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 908 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fávaro de Oliveira, D. Antonov, Y. Wang, P. Neumann, S. A. Momenzadeh, T. Häußermann, A. Pasquarelli, A. Denisenko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Tailoring spin defects in diamond by lattice charging,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15409 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Schröder, M. E. Trusheim, M. Walsh, L. Li, J. Zheng, M. Schukraft, A. Sipahigil, R. E. Evans, D. D. Sukachev, C. T. Nguyen, J. L. Pacheco, R. M. Camacho, E. S. Bielejec, M. D. Lukin, and D. Englund, “Scalable focused ion beam creation of nearly lifetime-limited single quantum emitters in diamond nanostructures,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 15376 (2017).
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Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

P. Maletinsky, S. Hong, M. S. Grinolds, B. Hausmann, M. D. Lukin, R. L. Walsworth, M. Lončar, and A. Yacoby, “A robust scanning diamond sensor for nanoscale imaging with single nitrogen-vacancy centres,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 320–324 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Thiel, D. Rohner, M. Ganzhorn, P. Appel, E. Neu, B. Müller, R. Kleiner, D. Koelle, and P. Maletinsky, “Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(8), 677–681 (2016).
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New J. Phys. (2)

P. Fuchs, M. Challier, and E. Neu, “Optimized single-crystal diamond scanning probes for high sensitivity magnetometry,” New J. Phys. 20(12), 125001 (2018).
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S. Pezzagna, B. Naydenov, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, and J. Meijer, “Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond,” New J. Phys. 12(6), 065017 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Reinke, G. Francz, P. Oelhafen, and J. Ullmann, “Structural changes in diamond and amorphous carbon induced by low-energy ion irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 54(10), 7067–7073 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. B. van Dam, M. Walsh, M. J. Degen, E. Bersin, S. L. Mouradian, A. Galiullin, M. Ruf, M. IJspeert, T. H. Taminiau, R. Hanson, and D. R. Englund, “Optical coherence of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers formed by ion implantation and annealing,” Phys. Rev. B 99(16), 161203 (2019).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

B. Myers, A. Das, M. Dartiailh, K. Ohno, D. Awschalom, and A. Bleszynski Jayich, “Probing surface noise with depth-calibrated spins in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027602 (2014).
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Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

O. Brinza, J. Achard, F. Silva, X. Bonnin, P. Barroy, K. D. Corte, and A. Gicquel, “Dependence of cvd diamond growth rate on substrate orientation as a function of process parameters in the high microwave power density regime,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(9), 2114–2120 (2008).
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Y. Kato, H. Kawashima, T. Makino, M. Ogura, A. Traoré, N. Ozawa, and S. Yamasaki, “Estimation of inductively coupled plasma etching damage of boron-doped diamond using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Phys. Status Solidi A 214(11), 1700233 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

I. Aharonovich, S. Castelletto, D. A. Simpson, C.-H. Su, A. D. Greentree, and S. Prawer, “Diamond-based single-photon emitters,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 74(7), 076501 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77(5), 056503 (2014).
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Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. Cappellaro, “Quantum sensing,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 89(3), 035002 (2017).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Appel, E. Neu, M. Ganzhorn, A. Barfuss, M. Batzer, M. Gratz, A. Tschöpe, and P. Maletinsky, “Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87(6), 063703 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (5)

S. Wehner, D. Elkouss, and R. Hanson, “Quantum internet: A vision for the road ahead,” Science 362(6412), eaam9288 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-V. Kim, L. H. Diez, J.-P. Adam, K. Garcia, J.-F. Roch, S. Rohart, A. Thiaville, D. Ravelosona, and V. Jacques, “Nanoscale imaging and control of domain-wall hopping with a nitrogen-vacancy center microscope,” Science 344(6190), 1366–1369 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Thiel, Z. Wang, M. A. Tschudin, D. Rohner, I. Gutiérrez-Lezama, N. Ubrig, M. Gibertini, E. Giannini, A. F. Morpurgo, and P. Maletinsky, “Probing magnetism in 2d materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy,” Science 364(6444), 973–976 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Du, T. Van der Sar, T. X. Zhou, P. Upadhyaya, F. Casola, H. Zhang, M. C. Onbasli, C. A. Ross, R. L. Walsworth, Y. Tserkovnyak, and A. Yacoby, “Control and local measurement of the spin chemical potential in a magnetic insulator,” Science 357(6347), 195–198 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Gruber, A. Drabenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276(5321), 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vacuum (1)

Z. Ma, B. Liu, H. Naramoto, Y. Aoki, S. Yamamoto, H. Takeshita, and P. Goppelt-Langer, “Non-destructive characterization of ion-implanted diamond,” Vacuum 55(3-4), 207–217 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. J. Widmann, “Characterization and optimization of nanoscale magnetometric diamond sensors,” Ph.D. thesis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau (2017).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the nanofabrication and overgrowth processes to obtain single-crystal diamond (SCD) pyramids. I: Definition of etch-masks by e-beam lithography; II: Reactive ion etching of diamond nanopillars; III: Overgrowth of diamond material to form pyramids; IV: $^{14}$N-ion implantation and annealing. (b) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of representative diamond nanopillars after nanofabrication (step II) and (c) after diamond overgrowth (step III). Scalebar $\widehat {=} 1 \mu$m in both cases. Both SEM images were recorded at a 45$^{\circ }$ tilt angle from the sample normal. Inset: Schematic of the resulting pyramids with a $\left\langle 111\right\rangle $ crystal facet indicated.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Confocal fluorescence map of the same part of an overgrown diamond substrate without pyramids before (top) and after (bottom) $^{14}$N implantation (the visible "T-shaped" structure is an alignment marker). (b) Confocal image of an array of overgrown pyramids with fluorescence collected for wavelengths below $700$ nm. The arrow indicates the pyramid which was further investigated in Fig. 3(a)&(b). The data were recorded using a 532 nm excitation with $150 \mu$W and $100 \mu$W in panels (a) and (b), respectively. The scale bars in all images is $10 \mu$m. Inset: Schematic (not to scale) of the sample orientation during measurement. The diamond sample thickness was $\sim 20 \mu$m.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Representative optically detected electron spin resonance (ODMR) from a diamond nanopyramid (blue, pyramid highlighted in Fig. 2(b)) and from surrounding bulk (green). The single pair of ODMR lines indicates emission from a single or few NVs in the pyramid. (b) Fluorescence saturation curves collected from the top (red) and bottom (blue) side of the same diamond pyramid. (c) Experimentally measured back focal plane images of emission from a representative pyramid for top and bottom collection (top and bottom, respectively) (d) Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of fluorescence emission from a point dipole in the overgrown diamond pyramid. Left: cross-section through the diamond pyramid with the emitter placed at the pyramid apex. Right: Simulation of far-field power distribution patterns collected from the pyramid top and bottom (top and bottom row, respectively). For all panels, white circles correspond to numerical apertures (NAs) of $0.8$ and $0.5$. (e) Collection efficiency for NA $0.8$ through the pyramid bottom ($\xi ^\textrm {bottom}$), as a function of lateral NV distance from the pyramid apex. The inset shows the NV locations considered, where the color of the points encodes the value of $\xi ^\textrm {bottom}$.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) AFM image of pyramid top facet. (b) Schematic sketch of a pyramid with colored lines indicating the positioning of the line cuts (blue: along the edge or red: across the facet) used to fit the tip radii in (d). (c) line cut through the AFM structure highlighted in (a), with osculating circle fitted to the tip (black) (d) Histogram of tip radii for three different pyramids. The darker (light) bar indicates the minimal (maximal) radii measured on each pyramid whereas colors symbolize the direction of the line cut.

Equations (2)

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α = 3 V { 100 } V { 111 } .
ξ = Γ NA Γ rad ,