Abstract

Chalcogenide-oxide Bragg reflectors and a 1-D vertical cavity for operation at 1.55 µm were designed and fabricated via radio-frequency sputtering. The Bragg reflectors were made out of repeating layers of Al2O3 and As2Se3, and the cavity was obtained via a Ga5Ge20Sb10S65:Er3+ defect layer. The layers’ properties were assessed via ellipsometry and SEM imaging. Transmission spectroscopy verifies the appearance of a well-defined stop-band centered around 1.5 µm with a very wide bandgap, and extremely low transmission, even with a relatively low layer count. The vertical optical cavity fabrication results in the appearance of a resonance within the band, at a wavelength corresponding to the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of erbium. The high transmittance at 808 and 980 nm allows for optical pumping, and thus light amplification and coherent light generation from the cavity. The operation of these devices was investigated, showing coherent light emission at 1.5 µm. The results are encouraging in assessing the viability of this design and these materials for operation in the near-infrared range, providing an important step towards the fabrication of chalcogenide-based optical amplifiers for the near-infrared.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2020 (2)

E. Delcourt, J. Nessim, L. Bodiou, M. Baillieul, E. Baudet, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, Y. Dumeige, and J. Charrier, “Self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in a chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 10(6), 1440–1450 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (1)

T. Halenkovič, J. Gutwirth, P. Němec, E. Baudet, M. Specht, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, and V. Nazabal, “Amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films fabricated by co-sputtering: Properties and photosensitivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(7), 2877–2887 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

T. Kuriakose, E. Baudet, T. Halenkovič, M. M. R. Elsawy, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, G. Renversez, and M. Chauvet, “Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique,” Opt. Commun. 403, 352–357 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-D. K. Goldsmith, N. Cvetojevic, M. Ireland, and S. Madden, “Fabrication tolerant chalcogenide mid-infrared multimode interference coupler design with applications for Bracewell nulling interferometry,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3038 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Chiasera, J. Jasieniak, S. Normani, S. Valligatla, A. Lukowiak, S. Taccheo, D. N. Rao, G. C. Righini, M. Marciniak, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Hybrid 1-D dielectric microcavity: Fabrication and spectroscopic assessment of glass-based sub-wavelength structures,” Ceram. Int. 41(6), 7429–7433 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. B. Seddon, “Mid-infrared (IR) - A hot topic: The potential for using mid-IR light for non-invasive early detection of skin cancer in vivo,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(5), 1020–1027 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Němec, J. Charrier, M. Cathelinaud, M. M. B. Allix, J.-L. Adam, S. Zhang, and V. Nazabal, “Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications,” Thin Solid Films 539, 226–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 392 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide Glass-Fiber-Based Mid-IR Sources and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2006 (1)

A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Z.-Y. Li, “Principles of the plane-wave transfer-matrix method for photonic crystals,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 6(7), 837–841 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Approximate calculation of the reflection coefficient from a stratified medium,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 665–669 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Lasing characteristics of GaAs microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(15), 1400–1402 (1989).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, “Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,” Phys. Rev. 136(4A), A954–A957 (1964).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69(681), 839 (1946).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adam, J.-L.

S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Němec, J. Charrier, M. Cathelinaud, M. M. B. Allix, J.-L. Adam, S. Zhang, and V. Nazabal, “Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications,” Thin Solid Films 539, 226–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, “Chalcogenide coatings of Ge15Sb20S65 and Te20As30Se50,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. Brandon Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide Glass-Fiber-Based Mid-IR Sources and Applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[Crossref]

Allix, M. M. B.

P. Němec, J. Charrier, M. Cathelinaud, M. M. B. Allix, J.-L. Adam, S. Zhang, and V. Nazabal, “Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications,” Thin Solid Films 539, 226–232 (2013).
[Crossref]

Amra, C.

Anne, M. L.

V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anne, M.-L.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, “Chalcogenide coatings of Ge15Sb20S65 and Te20As30Se50,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Arezki, B.

Ayache, M.

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baillieul, M.

Bardou-Jacquet, E.

M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baudet, E.

E. Delcourt, J. Nessim, L. Bodiou, M. Baillieul, E. Baudet, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, Y. Dumeige, and J. Charrier, “Self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in a chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 10(6), 1440–1450 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
[Crossref]

T. Halenkovič, J. Gutwirth, P. Němec, E. Baudet, M. Specht, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, and V. Nazabal, “Amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films fabricated by co-sputtering: Properties and photosensitivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(7), 2877–2887 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Kuriakose, E. Baudet, T. Halenkovič, M. M. R. Elsawy, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, G. Renversez, and M. Chauvet, “Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique,” Opt. Commun. 403, 352–357 (2017).
[Crossref]

Belli, R.

A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bensaid, S.

M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Betagne, J. F.

M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bhaktha, S. N. B.

A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Ramachandran and S. G. Bishop, “Excitation of Er3+ emission by host glass absorption in sputtered films of Er-doped Ge10As40Se25S25 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(22), 3196–3198 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bodiou, L.

E. Delcourt, J. Nessim, L. Bodiou, M. Baillieul, E. Baudet, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, Y. Dumeige, and J. Charrier, “Self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in a chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 10(6), 1440–1450 (2020).
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V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
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Cathelinaud, M.

P. Němec, J. Charrier, M. Cathelinaud, M. M. B. Allix, J.-L. Adam, S. Zhang, and V. Nazabal, “Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications,” Thin Solid Films 539, 226–232 (2013).
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W. D. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. D. Lequime, F. Charpentier, and V. Nazabal, “Light trimming of a narrow bandpass filter based on a photosensitive chalcogenide spacer,” Opt. Express 16(1), 373 (2008).
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W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide Te20As30Se50 narrow bandpass filters,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3726–3731 (2008).
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Charrier, J.

E. Delcourt, J. Nessim, L. Bodiou, M. Baillieul, E. Baudet, J. Lemaitre, V. Nazabal, Y. Dumeige, and J. Charrier, “Self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in a chalcogenide ridge waveguide,” Opt. Mater. Express 10(6), 1440–1450 (2020).
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V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
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P. Němec, J. Charrier, M. Cathelinaud, M. M. B. Allix, J.-L. Adam, S. Zhang, and V. Nazabal, “Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications,” Thin Solid Films 539, 226–232 (2013).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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T. Kuriakose, E. Baudet, T. Halenkovič, M. M. R. Elsawy, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, G. Renversez, and M. Chauvet, “Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique,” Opt. Commun. 403, 352–357 (2017).
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Chiappini, A.

A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
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A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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A. Chiasera, J. Jasieniak, S. Normani, S. Valligatla, A. Lukowiak, S. Taccheo, D. N. Rao, G. C. Righini, M. Marciniak, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Hybrid 1-D dielectric microcavity: Fabrication and spectroscopic assessment of glass-based sub-wavelength structures,” Ceram. Int. 41(6), 7429–7433 (2015).
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A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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Delcourt, E.

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Doualan, J.-L.

S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
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V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
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Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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T. Kuriakose, E. Baudet, T. Halenkovič, M. M. R. Elsawy, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, G. Renversez, and M. Chauvet, “Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique,” Opt. Commun. 403, 352–357 (2017).
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J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Lasing characteristics of GaAs microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(15), 1400–1402 (1989).
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A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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A. Chiasera, J. Jasieniak, S. Normani, S. Valligatla, A. Lukowiak, S. Taccheo, D. N. Rao, G. C. Righini, M. Marciniak, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Hybrid 1-D dielectric microcavity: Fabrication and spectroscopic assessment of glass-based sub-wavelength structures,” Ceram. Int. 41(6), 7429–7433 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
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Galstyan, T. V.

A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in multilayer planar waveguide of chalcogenide glasses,” in Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Postconference Edition. CLEO ‘99. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE Cat. No.99CH37013) (Opt. Soc. America, 1999), p. 499.

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A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Lasing characteristics of GaAs microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(15), 1400–1402 (1989).
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S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
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T. Halenkovič, J. Gutwirth, P. Němec, E. Baudet, M. Specht, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, and V. Nazabal, “Amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films fabricated by co-sputtering: Properties and photosensitivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(7), 2877–2887 (2018).
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T. Halenkovič, J. Gutwirth, P. Němec, E. Baudet, M. Specht, Y. Gueguen, J.-C. Sangleboeuf, and V. Nazabal, “Amorphous Ge-Sb-Se thin films fabricated by co-sputtering: Properties and photosensitivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(7), 2877–2887 (2018).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, “Chalcogenide coatings of Ge15Sb20S65 and Te20As30Se50,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C114 (2008).
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Ivanda, M.

A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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Jasieniak, J.

A. Chiasera, F. Scotognella, S. Valligatla, S. Varas, J. Jasieniak, L. Criante, A. Lukowiak, D. Ristic, R. R. Gonçalves, S. Taccheo, M. Ivanda, G. C. Righini, R. Ramponi, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities,” Opt. Mater. 61, 11–14 (2016).
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A. Chiasera, J. Jasieniak, S. Normani, S. Valligatla, A. Lukowiak, S. Taccheo, D. N. Rao, G. C. Righini, M. Marciniak, A. Martucci, and M. Ferrari, “Hybrid 1-D dielectric microcavity: Fabrication and spectroscopic assessment of glass-based sub-wavelength structures,” Ceram. Int. 41(6), 7429–7433 (2015).
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A. Chiasera, R. Belli, S. N. B. Bhaktha, A. Chiappini, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, E. Moser, G. C. Righini, and C. Tosello, “High quality factor Er3+-activated dielectric microcavity fabricated by rf sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171910 (2006).
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J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Lasing characteristics of GaAs microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(15), 1400–1402 (1989).
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Jose, G.

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M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
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Keirsse, J.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Khajavikhan, M.

Kumar Selvaraja, S.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Kumar Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
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T. Kuriakose, E. Baudet, T. Halenkovič, M. M. R. Elsawy, P. Němec, V. Nazabal, G. Renversez, and M. Chauvet, “Measurement of ultrafast optical Kerr effect of Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide slab waveguides by the beam self-trapping technique,” Opt. Commun. 403, 352–357 (2017).
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Lainé, F.

M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
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A. Saliminia, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstyan, S. LaRochelle, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication of Bragg gratings in multilayer planar waveguide of chalcogenide glasses,” in Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Postconference Edition. CLEO ‘99. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (IEEE Cat. No.99CH37013) (Opt. Soc. America, 1999), p. 499.

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M. Le Corvec, F. Charpentier, A. Kachenoura, S. Bensaid, S. Henno, E. Bardou-Jacquet, B. Turlin, V. Monbet, L. Senhadji, O. Loréal, O. Sire, J. F. Betagne, H. Tariel, and F. Lainé, “Fast and Non-Invasive Medical Diagnostic Using Mid Infrared Sensor,” IRBM 37(2), 116–123 (2016).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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S. Normani, G. Louvet, E. Baudet, M. Bouška, J. Gutwirth, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, Y. Ledemi, Y. Messaddeq, J.-L. Adam, P. Němec, and V. Nazabal, “Comparative study of Er3+-doped Ga-Ge-Sb-S thin films fabricated by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition,” Sci. Rep. 10, 7997 (2020).
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J. L. Jewell, S. L. McCall, Y. H. Lee, A. Scherer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Lasing characteristics of GaAs microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(15), 1400–1402 (1989).
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Lhermite, H.

V. Nazabal, F. Starecki, J.-L. Doualan, P. Němec, P. Camy, H. Lhermite, L. Bodiou, M. L. Anne, J. Charrier, and J. L. Adam, “Luminescence at 2.8 μm: Er3+-doped chalcogenide micro-waveguide,” Opt. Mater. 58, 390–397 (2016).
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M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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V. Nazabal, M. Cathelinaud, W. Shen, P. Nemec, F. Charpentier, H. Lhermite, M.-L. Anne, J. Capoulade, F. Grasset, A. Moreac, S. Inoue, M. Frumar, J.-L. Adam, M. Lequime, and C. Amra, “Chalcogenide coatings of Ge15Sb20S65 and Te20As30Se50,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), C114 (2008).
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Z.-Y. Li, “Principles of the plane-wave transfer-matrix method for photonic crystals,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 6(7), 837–841 (2005).
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W. Shen, M. Cathelinaud, M. Lequime, V. Nazabal, and X. Liu, “Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide Te20As30Se50 narrow bandpass filters,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3726–3731 (2008).
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Loreal, O.

M.-L. Anne, J. Keirsse, V. Nazabal, K. Hyodo, S. Inoue, C. Boussard-Pledel, H. Lhermite, J. Charrier, K. Yanakata, O. Loreal, J. Le Person, F. Colas, C. Compère, and B. Bureau, “Chalcogenide Glass Optical Waveguides for Infrared Biosensing,” Sensors 9(9), 7398–7411 (2009).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Normalized sputtering deposition rate (estimated via VASE) for the various materials versus the distance from the center of the substrate showing the homogeneity of the layers around the center. The grey dashed line marks the 1% thickness drop.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) 5 + 5 layers BRs and (b) 10 + 10 layers BRs deposited on both BK7 substrates and silicon wafers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SEM images of the multilayer BRs deposited on silicon substrates: (a) 10-layer BR, and (d) 20-layer BR. The pictures show the polished cleaved sections.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Reflectivity spectra for the 10- and 20-layer BRs collected at a 30° incidence angle, showing the difference in stop-band shape, width and depth. The percentages at the top of the band show the reflectance values of the two BRs at 1.55 µm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Absorption spectra of the 10-layer (a) and 20-layer (b) BRs from the transmission and reflection data.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic representation of the Ga5Ge20Sb10S65:Er3+ optical cavity enclosed between two 20-layer Al2O3-As2Se3 BRs.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Comparison between the transmission measurements on the vertical cavity and the simulated spectrum obtained from the parameters used for designing the device, and (b) position of the resonance peaks compared with the 4I13/24I15/2 Er3+emission band. The experimental single-layer parameters obtained from the initial deposition trials for each material were used in performing the simulations.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Emission spectrum of a vertical cavity showing evidence of the generation of fluorescence in the green (appearance of the second order of the 514 nm emission) and infrared.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Data and linear fit of the cavity emission at 1.5 µm, showing the estimated pump power.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Transmission spectra of vertical cavities calculated via the transfer matrix formalism for operation within the 4I11/24I13/2 Er3+ emission band, showing the effect of different number of BR periods on the stop-band profile; (b) estimate of the ideal cavity quality factor as a function of the number of iterations of the BR layer pairs. This represents an ideal case in which absorption is zero, so actual cavity quality factors are expected to be sensibly lower.

Equations (1)

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A = log 10 ( 1 R 2 T )