Abstract

Catalyst-free, position-controlled indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires (NWs) of variable diameters were grown on Si (111) by selective-area epitaxy (SAE). Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy was conducted, from which carrier recombination mechanisms on the NW surface and interior were resolved and characterized. NWs grown using SAE demonstrated high optical quality, showing minority carrier lifetimes more than two-fold longer than that of the randomly-positioned (RP) NWs. The extracted SAE-InAs NW interior recombination lifetime was found to be as long as 7.2 ns, 13X longer than previous measurements on RP-NWs; and the surface recombination velocity 4154 cm · s- 1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a high density of stacking defects within the NWs, suggesting that interior recombination lifetime can be further increased by improving NW interior crystalline quality.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2020 (1)

R. L. M. O. Veld, D. Xu, V. Schaller, M. A. Verheijen, S. M. E. Peters, J. Jung, C. Tong, Q. Wang, M. W. A. de Moor, B. Hesselmann, K. Vermeulen, J. D. S. Bommer, J. S. Lee, A. Sarikov, M. Pendharkar, A. Marzegalli, S. Koelling, L. P. Kouwenhoven, L. Miglio, C. J. Palmstrom, H. Zhang, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, “In-plane selective area InSb-Al nanowire quantum networks,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 59 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Li, K. Zhang, J. Treu, L. Stampfer, G. Koblmüller, F. Toor, and J. P. Prineas, “Contactless optical characterization of carrier dynamics in free-standing InAs-InAlAs core-shell nanowires on silicon,” Nano Lett. 19(2), 990–996 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Zhang, X. Li, W. Dai, F. Toor, and J. P. Prineas, “Carrier recombination in the base, interior, and surface of InAs/InAlAs core-shell nanowires grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 19(7), 4272–4278 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

D. Ren, A. C. Farrell, and D. L. Huffaker, “Axial InAs(Sb) inserts in selective-area InAsP nanowires on InP for optoelectronics beyond 2.5 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 1075–1081 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. L. Boland, F. Amaduzzi, S. Sterzl, H. Potts, L. M. Herz, A. F. i Morral, and M. B. Johnston, “High electron mobility and insights into temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms in InAsSb nanowires,” Nano Lett. 18(6), 3703–3710 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Staudinger, S. Mauthe, K. E. Moselund, and H. Schmid, “Concurrent Zinc-Blende and Wurtzite Film Formation by Selection of Confined Growth Planes,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7856–7862 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Becker, S. Morkötter, J. Treu, M. Sonner, M. Speckbacher, M. Döblinger, G. Abstreiter, J. J. Finley, and G. Koblmüller, “Carrier trapping and activation at short-period wurtzite/zinc-blende stacking sequences in polytypic InAs nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 97(11), 115306 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. Jurczak, Y. Zhang, J. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, M. Aagesen, and H. Liu, “Ten-fold enhancement of InAs nanowire photoluminescence emission with an InP passivation layer,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3629–3633 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Haggren, A. Shah, A. Autere, J. P. Kakko, V. Dhaka, M. Kim, T. Huhtio, Z. Sun, and H. Lipsanen, “Nanowire encapsulation with polymer for electrical isolation and enhanced optical properties,” Nano Res. 10(8), 2657–2666 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

R. Muhammad, Z. Othaman, Y. Wahab, Z. Ibrahim, and S. Sakrani, “Influence of substrate orientation on the structural properties of GaAs nanowires in MOCVD,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1725(1), 020049 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. B. Rota, A. S. Ameruddin, H. Aruni Fonseka, Q. Gao, F. Mura, A. Polimeni, A. Miriametro, H. Hoe Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. Capizzi, “Bandgap Energy of Wurtzite InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5197–5203 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Konar, J. Mathew, K. Nayak, M. Bajaj, R. K. Pandey, S. Dhara, K. V. R. M. Murali, and M. M. Deshmukh, “Carrier transport in high mobility InAs nanowire junctionless transistors,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1684–1690 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. W. Shin, S. J. Lee, D. G. Kim, M-H Bae, J. Heo, K. J. Choi, W. J. Choi, J. W. Choe, and J. C. Shin, “Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10764 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

M. J. L. Sourribes, I. Isakov, M. Panfilova, H. Liu, and P. A. Warburton, “Mobility Enhancement by Sb-mediated Minimization of Stacking Fault Density in InAs Nanowires Grown on Silicon,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1643–1650 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Upadhyay, R. Frederiksen, N. Lloret, L. De Vico, P. Krogstrup, J. H. Jensen, K. L. Martinez, and J. Nygard, “Indium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors for pH and biological sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(20), 203504 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Anttu, S. Lehmann, K. Storm, K. A. Dick, L. Samuelson, P. M. Wu, and M.-E. Pistol, “Crystal phase-dependent nanophotonic resonances in InAs nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5650–5655 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Furthmeier, F. Dirnberger, J. Hubmann, B. Bauer, T. Korn, C. Schüller, J. Zweck, E. Reiger, and D. Bougeard, “Long exciton lifetimes in stacking-fault-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 222109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

N. Jiang, Q. Gao, P. Parkinson, J. Wong-Leung, S. Mokkapati, S. Breuer, H. H. Tan, C. L. Zheng, J. Etheridge, and C. Jagadish, “Enhanced minority carrier lifetimes in GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires through shell growth optimization,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5135–5140 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. J. Joyce, C. J. Docherty, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Electronic properties of GaAs, InAs and InP nanowires studied by terahertz spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 24(21), 214006 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chuang, Q. Gao, R. Kapadia, A. C. Ford, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Ballistic InAs nanowire transistors,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 555–558 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. J. Joyce, J. Wong-Leung, C. Yong, C. J. Docherty, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. Hoe Tan, C. Jagadish, J. Lloyd-Hughes, L. M. Herz, and M. B. Johnston, “Ultralow Surface Recombination Velocity in InP Nanowires Probed by Terahertz Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5325–5330 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. H. Sun, H. J. Joyce, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, C. Jagadish, and C. Z. Ning, “Removal of surface states and recovery of band-edge emission in InAs nanowires through surface passivation,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3378–3384 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

S. P. Svensson, D. Donetsky, D. Wang, H. Hier, F. J. Crowne, and G. Belenky, “Growth of type II strained layer superlattice, bulk InAs and GaSb materials for minority lifetime characterization,” J. Cryst. Growth 334(1), 103–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Takei, H. Fang, S. Bala Kumar, R. Kapadia, Q. Gao, M. Madsen, H. Sul Kim, C. Liu, Y. Chueh, E. Plis, S. Krishna, H. A. Bechtel, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Quantum Confinement Effects in Nanoscale-Thickness InAs Membranes,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5008–5012 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, S. Bolte, M. Döblinger, M. Bichler, D. Spirkoska, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth during molecular beam epitaxy of self-induced InAs nanowires on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 123114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic Reduction of Surface Recombination by in Situ Surface Passivation of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Tomioka, K. Ikejiri, T. Tanaka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, and T. Fukui, “Selective-area growth of III-V nanowires and their applications,” J. Mater. Res. 26(17), 2127–2141 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Ikejiri, Y. Kitauchi, K. Tomioka, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Zinc blende and wurtzite crystal phase mixing and transition in indium phosphide nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4314–4318 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (5)

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114316 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. J. Joyce, J. Wong-Leung, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Phase perfection in zinc Blende and Wurtzite III-V nanowires using basic growth parameters,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 908–915 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. De and C. E. Pryor, “Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155210 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. N. Dorenbos, H. Sasakura, M. P. van Kouwen, N. Akopian, S. Adachi, N. Namekata, M. Jo, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, K. Tomioka, T. Fukui, S. Inoue, H. Kumano, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, V. Zwiller, and I. Suemune, “Position controlled nanowires for infrared single photon emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Tanaka, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, J. Motohisa, E. Sano, and T. Fukui, “Vertical surrounding gate transistors using single InAs nanowires grown on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(2), 025003 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Du, D. Liang, H. Tang, and X. P. A. Gao, “InAs nanowire transistors as gas sensor and the response mechanism,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4348–4351 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Leonard, A. A. Talin, B. S. Swartzentruber, and S. T. Picraux, “Diameter-dependent electronic transport properties of Au-catalyst/Ge-nanowire Schottky diodes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(10), 106805 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. Tomioka, J. Motohisa, S. Hara, and T. Fukui, “Control of InAs nanowire growth directions on Si,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3475–3480 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and W. Lu, “Semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nano Today 3(5-6), 12–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, X. Zhou, P. K. L. Yu, E. T. Yu, and D. Wang, “High Electron Mobility InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors,” Small 3(2), 326–332 (2007).
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Z. Zanolli, M.-E. Pistol, L. E. Fröberg, and L. Samuelson, “Quantum-confinement effects in InAs-InP core-shell nanowires,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19(29), 295219 (2007).
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F. Glas, J. C. Harmand, and G. Patriarche, “Why does wurtzite form in nanowires of III-V zinc blende semiconductors?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(14), 146101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Jagannathan, M. Deal, Y. Nishi, J. Woodruff, C. Chidsey, and P. C. McIntyre, “Nature of germanium nanowire heteroepitaxy on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024318 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

C. Thelander, M. T. Björk, M. W. Larsson, A. E. Hansen, L. R. Wallenberg, and L. Samuelson, “Electron transport in InAs nanowires and heterostructure nanowire devices,” Solid State Commun. 131(9-10), 573–579 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. K. Metzger, M. W. Wanlass, R. J. Ellingson, R. K. Ahrenkiel, and J. J. Carapella, “Auger recombination in low-band-gap n-type InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3272–3274 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Silver, E. P. O’Reilly, and A. R. Adams, “Determination of the Wavelength Dependence of Auger Recombination in Long-Wavelength Quantum-Well Semiconductor Lasers Using Hydrostatic Pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1557–1566 (1997).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

H. H. Wieder and D. A. Collins, “Minority carrier lifetime in InAs epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(12), 742–743 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aagesen, M.

P. Jurczak, Y. Zhang, J. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, M. Aagesen, and H. Liu, “Ten-fold enhancement of InAs nanowire photoluminescence emission with an InP passivation layer,” Nano Lett. 17(6), 3629–3633 (2017).
[Crossref]

Åberg, I.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref]

Abstreiter, G.

J. Becker, S. Morkötter, J. Treu, M. Sonner, M. Speckbacher, M. Döblinger, G. Abstreiter, J. J. Finley, and G. Koblmüller, “Carrier trapping and activation at short-period wurtzite/zinc-blende stacking sequences in polytypic InAs nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 97(11), 115306 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, S. Bolte, M. Döblinger, M. Bichler, D. Spirkoska, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth during molecular beam epitaxy of self-induced InAs nanowires on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 123114 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114316 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

S. N. Dorenbos, H. Sasakura, M. P. van Kouwen, N. Akopian, S. Adachi, N. Namekata, M. Jo, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, K. Tomioka, T. Fukui, S. Inoue, H. Kumano, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, V. Zwiller, and I. Suemune, “Position controlled nanowires for infrared single photon emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adams, A. R.

M. Silver, E. P. O’Reilly, and A. R. Adams, “Determination of the Wavelength Dependence of Auger Recombination in Long-Wavelength Quantum-Well Semiconductor Lasers Using Hydrostatic Pressure,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(9), 1557–1566 (1997).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and W. Lu, “Semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nano Today 3(5-6), 12–22 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ahrenkiel, R. K.

W. K. Metzger, M. W. Wanlass, R. J. Ellingson, R. K. Ahrenkiel, and J. J. Carapella, “Auger recombination in low-band-gap n-type InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3272–3274 (2001).
[Crossref]

Akopian, N.

S. N. Dorenbos, H. Sasakura, M. P. van Kouwen, N. Akopian, S. Adachi, N. Namekata, M. Jo, J. Motohisa, Y. Kobayashi, K. Tomioka, T. Fukui, S. Inoue, H. Kumano, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, V. Zwiller, and I. Suemune, “Position controlled nanowires for infrared single photon emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(17), 171106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amaduzzi, F.

J. L. Boland, F. Amaduzzi, S. Sterzl, H. Potts, L. M. Herz, A. F. i Morral, and M. B. Johnston, “High electron mobility and insights into temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms in InAsSb nanowires,” Nano Lett. 18(6), 3703–3710 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ameruddin, A. S.

M. B. Rota, A. S. Ameruddin, H. Aruni Fonseka, Q. Gao, F. Mura, A. Polimeni, A. Miriametro, H. Hoe Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. Capizzi, “Bandgap Energy of Wurtzite InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5197–5203 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anttu, N.

N. Anttu, S. Lehmann, K. Storm, K. A. Dick, L. Samuelson, P. M. Wu, and M.-E. Pistol, “Crystal phase-dependent nanophotonic resonances in InAs nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5650–5655 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aplin, D. P. R.

S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, X. Zhou, P. K. L. Yu, E. T. Yu, and D. Wang, “High Electron Mobility InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors,” Small 3(2), 326–332 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arbiol, J.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Aruni Fonseka, H.

M. B. Rota, A. S. Ameruddin, H. Aruni Fonseka, Q. Gao, F. Mura, A. Polimeni, A. Miriametro, H. Hoe Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. Capizzi, “Bandgap Energy of Wurtzite InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5197–5203 (2016).
[Crossref]

Aseev, P.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Asoli, D.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref]

Autere, A.

T. Haggren, A. Shah, A. Autere, J. P. Kakko, V. Dhaka, M. Kim, T. Huhtio, Z. Sun, and H. Lipsanen, “Nanowire encapsulation with polymer for electrical isolation and enhanced optical properties,” Nano Res. 10(8), 2657–2666 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bae, M-H

H. W. Shin, S. J. Lee, D. G. Kim, M-H Bae, J. Heo, K. J. Choi, W. J. Choi, J. W. Choe, and J. C. Shin, “Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10764 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bajaj, M.

A. Konar, J. Mathew, K. Nayak, M. Bajaj, R. K. Pandey, S. Dhara, K. V. R. M. Murali, and M. M. Deshmukh, “Carrier transport in high mobility InAs nanowire junctionless transistors,” Nano Lett. 15(3), 1684–1690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

R. L. M. O. Veld, D. Xu, V. Schaller, M. A. Verheijen, S. M. E. Peters, J. Jung, C. Tong, Q. Wang, M. W. A. de Moor, B. Hesselmann, K. Vermeulen, J. D. S. Bommer, J. S. Lee, A. Sarikov, M. Pendharkar, A. Marzegalli, S. Koelling, L. P. Kouwenhoven, L. Miglio, C. J. Palmstrom, H. Zhang, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, “In-plane selective area InSb-Al nanowire quantum networks,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 59 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bala Kumar, S.

K. Takei, H. Fang, S. Bala Kumar, R. Kapadia, Q. Gao, M. Madsen, H. Sul Kim, C. Liu, Y. Chueh, E. Plis, S. Krishna, H. A. Bechtel, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Quantum Confinement Effects in Nanoscale-Thickness InAs Membranes,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5008–5012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bauer, B.

S. Furthmeier, F. Dirnberger, J. Hubmann, B. Bauer, T. Korn, C. Schüller, J. Zweck, E. Reiger, and D. Bougeard, “Long exciton lifetimes in stacking-fault-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 222109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

K. Takei, H. Fang, S. Bala Kumar, R. Kapadia, Q. Gao, M. Madsen, H. Sul Kim, C. Liu, Y. Chueh, E. Plis, S. Krishna, H. A. Bechtel, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Quantum Confinement Effects in Nanoscale-Thickness InAs Membranes,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5008–5012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Becker, J.

J. Becker, S. Morkötter, J. Treu, M. Sonner, M. Speckbacher, M. Döblinger, G. Abstreiter, J. J. Finley, and G. Koblmüller, “Carrier trapping and activation at short-period wurtzite/zinc-blende stacking sequences in polytypic InAs nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 97(11), 115306 (2018).
[Crossref]

Belenky, G.

S. P. Svensson, D. Donetsky, D. Wang, H. Hier, F. J. Crowne, and G. Belenky, “Growth of type II strained layer superlattice, bulk InAs and GaSb materials for minority lifetime characterization,” J. Cryst. Growth 334(1), 103–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Benz, A.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bichler, M.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, S. Bolte, M. Döblinger, M. Bichler, D. Spirkoska, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth during molecular beam epitaxy of self-induced InAs nanowires on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 123114 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, M. Bichler, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Growth kinetics in position-controlled and catalyst-free InAs nanowire arrays on Si(111) grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 114316 (2010).
[Crossref]

Binci, L.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Björk, M. T.

C. Thelander, M. T. Björk, M. W. Larsson, A. E. Hansen, L. R. Wallenberg, and L. Samuelson, “Electron transport in InAs nanowires and heterostructure nanowire devices,” Solid State Commun. 131(9-10), 573–579 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boekhout, F.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Boland, J. L.

J. L. Boland, F. Amaduzzi, S. Sterzl, H. Potts, L. M. Herz, A. F. i Morral, and M. B. Johnston, “High electron mobility and insights into temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms in InAsSb nanowires,” Nano Lett. 18(6), 3703–3710 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bolte, S.

S. Hertenberger, D. Rudolph, S. Bolte, M. Döblinger, M. Bichler, D. Spirkoska, J. J. Finley, G. Abstreiter, and G. Koblmüller, “Absence of vapor-liquid-solid growth during molecular beam epitaxy of self-induced InAs nanowires on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 123114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bommer, J. D. S.

R. L. M. O. Veld, D. Xu, V. Schaller, M. A. Verheijen, S. M. E. Peters, J. Jung, C. Tong, Q. Wang, M. W. A. de Moor, B. Hesselmann, K. Vermeulen, J. D. S. Bommer, J. S. Lee, A. Sarikov, M. Pendharkar, A. Marzegalli, S. Koelling, L. P. Kouwenhoven, L. Miglio, C. J. Palmstrom, H. Zhang, and E. P. A. M. Bakkers, “In-plane selective area InSb-Al nanowire quantum networks,” Commun. Phys. 3(1), 59 (2020).
[Crossref]

Borgström, M. T.

J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Åberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgström, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit,” Science 339(6123), 1057–1060 (2013).
[Crossref]

Borsoi, F.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bougeard, D.

S. Furthmeier, F. Dirnberger, J. Hubmann, B. Bauer, T. Korn, C. Schüller, J. Zweck, E. Reiger, and D. Bougeard, “Long exciton lifetimes in stacking-fault-free wurtzite GaAs nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 222109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

J. B. Wright, S. Liu, G. T. Wang, Q. Li, A. Benz, D. D. Koleske, P. Lu, H. Xu, L. Lester, T. S. Luk, I. Brener, and G. Subramania, “Multi-Colour Nanowire Photonic Crystal Laser Pixels,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 2982 (2013).
[Crossref]

Breuer, S.

N. Jiang, Q. Gao, P. Parkinson, J. Wong-Leung, S. Mokkapati, S. Breuer, H. H. Tan, C. L. Zheng, J. Etheridge, and C. Jagadish, “Enhanced minority carrier lifetimes in GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires through shell growth optimization,” Nano Lett. 13(11), 5135–5140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Capizzi, M.

M. B. Rota, A. S. Ameruddin, H. Aruni Fonseka, Q. Gao, F. Mura, A. Polimeni, A. Miriametro, H. Hoe Tan, C. Jagadish, and M. Capizzi, “Bandgap Energy of Wurtzite InAs Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5197–5203 (2016).
[Crossref]

Carapella, J. J.

W. K. Metzger, M. W. Wanlass, R. J. Ellingson, R. K. Ahrenkiel, and J. J. Carapella, “Auger recombination in low-band-gap n-type InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(20), 3272–3274 (2001).
[Crossref]

Caroff, P.

P. Aseev, A. Fursina, F. Boekhout, F. Krizek, J. E. Sestoft, F. Borsoi, S. Heedt, G. Wang, L. Binci, S. Martí-Sánchez, T. Swoboda, R. Koops, E. Uccelli, J. Arbiol, P. Krogstrup, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and P. Caroff, “Selectivity Map for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Advanced III–V Quantum Nanowire Networks,” Nano Lett. 19(1), 218–227 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

L. Hu and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7(11), 3249–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chidsey, C.

H. Jagannathan, M. Deal, Y. Nishi, J. Woodruff, C. Chidsey, and P. C. McIntyre, “Nature of germanium nanowire heteroepitaxy on silicon substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024318 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choe, J. W.

H. W. Shin, S. J. Lee, D. G. Kim, M-H Bae, J. Heo, K. J. Choi, W. J. Choi, J. W. Choe, and J. C. Shin, “Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10764 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. J.

H. W. Shin, S. J. Lee, D. G. Kim, M-H Bae, J. Heo, K. J. Choi, W. J. Choi, J. W. Choe, and J. C. Shin, “Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10764 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

H. W. Shin, S. J. Lee, D. G. Kim, M-H Bae, J. Heo, K. J. Choi, W. J. Choi, J. W. Choe, and J. C. Shin, “Short-wavelength infrared photodetector on Si employing strain-induced growth of very tall InAs nanowire arrays,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10764 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.

S. Chuang, Q. Gao, R. Kapadia, A. C. Ford, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Ballistic InAs nanowire transistors,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 555–558 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chueh, Y.

K. Takei, H. Fang, S. Bala Kumar, R. Kapadia, Q. Gao, M. Madsen, H. Sul Kim, C. Liu, Y. Chueh, E. Plis, S. Krishna, H. A. Bechtel, J. Guo, and A. Javey, “Quantum Confinement Effects in Nanoscale-Thickness InAs Membranes,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5008–5012 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collins, D. A.

H. H. Wieder and D. A. Collins, “Minority carrier lifetime in InAs epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(12), 742–743 (1974).
[Crossref]

Crowne, F. J.

S. P. Svensson, D. Donetsky, D. Wang, H. Hier, F. J. Crowne, and G. Belenky, “Growth of type II strained layer superlattice, bulk InAs and GaSb materials for minority lifetime characterization,” J. Cryst. Growth 334(1), 103–107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K. B.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic Reduction of Surface Recombination by in Situ Surface Passivation of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, W.

K. Zhang, X. Li, W. Dai, F. Toor, and J. P. Prineas, “Carrier recombination in the base, interior, and surface of InAs/InAlAs core-shell nanowires grown on silicon,” Nano Lett. 19(7), 4272–4278 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dan, Y.

Y. Dan, K. Seo, K. Takei, J. H. Meza, A. Javey, and K. B. Crozier, “Dramatic Reduction of Surface Recombination by in Situ Surface Passivation of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2527–2532 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dayeh, S. A.

S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, X. Zhou, P. K. L. Yu, E. T. Yu, and D. Wang, “High Electron Mobility InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors,” Small 3(2), 326–332 (2007).
[Crossref]

De, A.

A. De and C. E. Pryor, “Predicted band structures of III-V semiconductors in the wurtzite phase,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155210 (2010).
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S. Hertenberger, Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon (Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, 2012), Chap 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Representative SEM images of SAE-NWs with variable diameters (a) $d$ = 51.3 nm, (b)$\; d$ = 78 nm; and (c) RP InAs-InAlAs NWs of $d$ = 95 nm. Images are tilted 30°. Inset of (b) shows a top down view of the SAE-NWs. The SEMs demonstrate the non-tapered geometry and excellent size homogeneity of SAE-NWs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) $\Delta T/T$ decays and (b) recombination rates plotted against excess carrier densities of two NW samples at 77 K, one with the smallest diameter of 51.3 nm (grey square), and one with the biggest diameter of 130.0 nm (black circle) in the investigated diameter series. NW with smaller diameter features faster decay. In (a), multiexponential decays given by $y = a \times {e^{ - bt}} + m \times {e^{ - nt}} + p \times {e^{ - qt}}$ were applied to fit the data with least squares to obtain derivatives of the experimental curves. In (b), the red and blue lines are the fit to the corresponding data by Eq. (1).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. 77 K recombination rate of the InAs NW diameter series, plotted against inverse NW diameter, fitted with equation ${R_{MC}} = \frac{{4S}}{d} + {R_{int.}}.$ The adjusted R2 is 0.90.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The (a) dark field TEM and (b) SAED of InAs NWs grown on Si (111). White lines in (a) evidence the stacking faults of the NW. The large number of stacking defects results in a distortion in the NW crystal structure, causing the elongation of reflection spots in the SAED pattern.

Equations (2)

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R ( Δ N ) = A + B ( Δ N + n 0 ) + C ( Δ N + n 0 ) 2
1 τ M C = 4 S d + R i n t