Abstract

Random lasers (RLs) offer new functionalities inaccessible with conventional lasers, such as an alterable shape and an easy integration with flexible optoelectronic devices. Here, we demonstrate a stretchable and threshold tunable RL by modulating the order degree of the nematic liquid crystal (NLC) that is caused by the alignment of polymer chain under tensile force. The lasing thresholds show a “U” shape curve variation trend, which is attributed to the competition between the partial orientation of the NLC molecules and the reduction of the dye and NLC densities. The results are further confirmed by the power Fourier transform (PFT) spectrum analysis. This work evokes deeper understanding of the effect of order degree on RLs and extends the applications of polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) on tunable RLs.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing Au nanoparticles

Lei Wang, Yuan Wan, Lijie Shi, Haizheng Zhong, and Luogen Deng
Opt. Express 24(16) 17593-17602 (2016)

Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino
Opt. Express 14(17) 7737-7744 (2006)

Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber

Ja-Hon Lin, Jun-Wei Huang, Jin-Jei Wu, Shwu-Yun Tsay, and Yao-Hui Chen
Opt. Mater. Express 8(9) 2910-2917 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Hohmann, D. Dörner, F. Mehari, C. Chen, M. Späth, S. Müller, H. Albrecht, F. Klämpfl, and M. Schmidt, “Investigation of random lasing as a feedback mechanism for tissue differentiation during laser surgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 807–816 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557–559 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 78(1), 011707 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Shang, L. Deng, and Y. An, “Influence of fiber and MnCl2 on mode and threshold of random lasing in random gain systems,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32522–32531 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Wang, Y. Wan, L. Shi, H. Zhong, and L. Deng, “Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17593–17602 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, V. Barna, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Thermo-recurrent nematic random laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2042–2047 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, S. Lin, T. Mo, S. Huang, C. Kuo, and H. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, T. Mo, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25896–25905 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. Lee, S. Lin, J. Guo, J. Lin, H. Lin, Y. Zheng, C. Ma, C. Horng, H. Sun, and S. Huang, “Electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1469–1481 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Chang, C. Kuo, H. Sun, S. Lin, C. Chang, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned laser-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28739–28747 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Lin and Y. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1555–1563 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, M. Cao, X. Song, Y. Che, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Platinum-scatterer-based random lasers from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Appl. Opt. 55(21), 5702–5706 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  33. L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  37. W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2019 (3)

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Hohmann, D. Dörner, F. Mehari, C. Chen, M. Späth, S. Müller, H. Albrecht, F. Klämpfl, and M. Schmidt, “Investigation of random lasing as a feedback mechanism for tissue differentiation during laser surgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 807–816 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Z. Shang, L. Deng, and Y. An, “Influence of fiber and MnCl2 on mode and threshold of random lasing in random gain systems,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32522–32531 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

2015 (4)

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, S. Lin, J. Guo, J. Lin, H. Lin, Y. Zheng, C. Ma, C. Horng, H. Sun, and S. Huang, “Electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1469–1481 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lin and Y. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1555–1563 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557–559 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, H.

An, Y.

Barna, V.

Bartolino, R.

Bittner, S.

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bürgi, T.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cao, M.

Cataldi, U.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, C. Kuo, H. Sun, S. Lin, C. Chang, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned laser-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28739–28747 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, C. Kuo, H. Sun, S. Lin, C. Chang, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned laser-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28739–28747 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Che, Y.

Chen, C.

M. Hohmann, D. Dörner, F. Mehari, C. Chen, M. Späth, S. Müller, H. Albrecht, F. Klämpfl, and M. Schmidt, “Investigation of random lasing as a feedback mechanism for tissue differentiation during laser surgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(2), 807–816 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choma, M. A.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chou, C.

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chriki, R.

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ciou, B.

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Da Silva, A. B.

A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davidson, N.

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M.

De Luca, A.

De Marco, R.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Sio, L.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

Dörner, D.

Duan, Y. X.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Esteves, J. V. A.

A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferjani, S.

Friesem, A. A.

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gorrn, P.

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gregorio, R.

A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, B.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

Guilhabert, B.

Guo, J.

Haider, G.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Herrnsdorf, J.

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hohmann, M.

Horng, C.

Hsiao, Y.

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin and Y. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1555–1563 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, B.

Huang, H.

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, S.

Huang, Y.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jau, H.

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S. D.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kanibolotsky, A.

Klämpfl, F.

Kowalsky, W.

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumagai, M.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C.

Kuo, H.

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lai, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laurand, N.

Lee, C.

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lehnhardt, M.

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H. H.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liao, C.

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, W.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, S. Lin, J. Guo, J. Lin, H. Lin, Y. Zheng, C. Ma, C. Horng, H. Sun, and S. Huang, “Electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1469–1481 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, J.

J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, S. Lin, J. Guo, J. Lin, H. Lin, Y. Zheng, C. Ma, C. Horng, H. Sun, and S. Huang, “Electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1469–1481 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lin and Y. Hsiao, “Manipulation of the resonance characteristics of random lasers from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(8), 1555–1563 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, S. Lin, T. Mo, S. Huang, C. Kuo, and H. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, T. Mo, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25896–25905 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, C. Kuo, H. Sun, S. Lin, C. Chang, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned laser-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28739–28747 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, S. Lin, J. Guo, J. Lin, H. Lin, Y. Zheng, C. Ma, C. Horng, H. Sun, and S. Huang, “Electrically and thermally controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned dye-doped liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(6), 1469–1481 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, S. Lin, T. Mo, S. Huang, C. Kuo, and H. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. C.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, W.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ma, C.

Mackintosh, A.

Mehari, F.

Mo, T.

Müller, S.

Nguyen, T. B. H.

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Palermo, G.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pattelli, L.

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Perumal, P.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pethrick, R.

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Redding, B.

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

Riedl, T.

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rong, M.

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruan, W.

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scaramuzza, N.

Schmidt, M.

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Seida, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shang, Z.

Shen, K.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

Shimizu, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Skabara, P.

Song, X.

Sorriso-Valvo, L.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Späth, M.

Strangi, G.

Sun, H.

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tai, C.

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, Y.

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, A. K.

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Torre, R.

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tsay, S.

J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Versace, C.

Wagner, S.

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wan, Y.

Wang, C.

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, M. Cao, X. Song, Y. Che, H. Zhang, H. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Platinum-scatterer-based random lasers from dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals in capillary tubes,” Appl. Opt. 55(21), 5702–5706 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. J.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. Wan, L. Shi, H. Zhong, and L. Deng, “Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17593–17602 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. S.

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wisniewski, C.

A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Lin, J. Huang, J. Wu, S. Tsay, and Y. Chen, “Electrically controllable random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals within a capillary fiber,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2910–2917 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, S. K.

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yao, Y.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, L.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yeh, H.

Yeh, T.

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhai, T.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, M.

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, C.

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Zhong, H.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. Wan, L. Shi, H. Zhong, and L. Deng, “Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17593–17602 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zou, B.

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. Gorrn, M. Lehnhardt, W. Kowalsky, T. Riedl, and S. Wagner, “Elastically tunable self-organized organic lasers,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 869–872 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

Y. Liao, Y. Lai, P. Perumal, W. Liao, C. Chang, C. Liao, S. Lin, and Y. Chen, “Highly stretchable label-like random laser on universal substrates,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 1(6), 1600068 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

W. Lu, X. Wu, S. Huang, L. Wang, Q. Zhou, B. Zou, H. Zhong, and Y. Wang, “Strong polarized photoluminescence from stretched perovskite-nanocrystal-embedded polymer composite films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(23), 1700594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. K. Tiwari, L. Pattelli, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Remote control of liquid crystal elastomer random laser using external stimuli,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(1), 013701 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Palermo, U. Cataldi, L. De Sio, T. Bürgi, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Optical control of plasmonic heating effects using reversible photo-alignment of nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(19), 191906 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE Photonics J. (2)

S. Lin, P. Chen, Y. Li, C. Chen, J. Lin, Y. Chen, S. Tsay, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of polarized random lasers from dye-doped twisted nematic liquid crystals within wedge cells,” IEEE Photonics J. 9(2), 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lin, Y. Hsiao, B. Ciou, S. Lin, Y. Chen, and J. Wu, “Manipulation of random lasing action from dye-doped liquid crystals infilling two-dimensional confinement single core capillary,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 1–9 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. J. Wang, H. H. Li, J. C. Liu, Y. X. Duan, S. D. Jiang, and S. K. Yan, “On the α → β transition of carbon-coated highly oriented pvdf ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(6), 1496–1497 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Chen, H. Huang, H. Jau, C. Wang, C. Wu, and T. Lin, “Polarization-asymmetric bidirectional random laser emission from a twisted nematic liquid crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(3), 033102 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. B. Da Silva, C. Wisniewski, J. V. A. Esteves, and R. Gregorio, “Effect of drawing on the dielectric properties and polarization of pressed solution cast β-PVDF films,” J. Mater. Sci. 45(15), 4206–4215 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, Y. Seida, K. Shimizu, M. Kumagai, and Y. Taniguchi, “A continuously tunable organic solid-state laser based on a flexible distributed-feedback resonator,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(3A), L249–L251 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (4)

T. Zhai, Y. Wang, L. Chen, and X. Zhang, “Direct writing of tunable multi-wavelength polymer lasers on a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(29), 12312–12317 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Zhai, J. Chen, L. Chen, J. Wang, L. Wang, D. Liu, S. Li, H. Liu, and X. Zhang, “A plasmonic random laser tunable through stretching silver nanowires embedded in a flexible substrate,” Nanoscale 7(6), 2235–2240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, C. Chou, Z. Yang, T. B. H. Nguyen, Y. Yao, T. Yeh, M. Tsai, and H. Kuo, “Flexible random lasers with tunable lasing emissions,” Nanoscale 10(22), 10403–10411 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Lee, T. Yeh, Z. Yang, Y. Yao, C. Chang, M. Tsai, and J. Sheu, “A curvature-tunable random laser,” Nanoscale 11(8), 3534–3545 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

L. Ye, C. Zhao, Y. Feng, B. Gu, Y. Cui, and Y. Lu, “Study on the polarization of random lasers from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 12(1), 27 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Redding, M. A. Choma, and H. Cao, “Speckle-free laser imaging using random laser illumination,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 355–359 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nat. Rev. Phys. (1)

H. Cao, R. Chriki, S. Bittner, A. A. Friesem, and N. Davidson, “Complex lasers with controllable coherence,” Nat. Rev. Phys. 1(2), 156–168 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

Z. Shang, L. Deng, and Y. An, “Influence of fiber and MnCl2 on mode and threshold of random lasing in random gain systems,” Opt. Express 25(26), 32522–32531 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ferjani, A. De Luca, V. Barna, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, “Thermo-recurrent nematic random laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 2042–2047 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Y. Wan, L. Shi, H. Zhong, and L. Deng, “Electrically controllable plasmonic enhanced coherent random lasing from dye-doped nematic liquid crystals containing au nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 24(16), 17593–17602 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, C. Kuo, H. Sun, S. Lin, C. Chang, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable nanoparticle random laser in a well-aligned laser-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 24(25), 28739–28747 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, Y. Chen, A. Kanibolotsky, A. Mackintosh, R. Pethrick, P. Skabara, E. Gu, N. Laurand, and M. Dawson, “Flexible blue-emitting encapsulated organic semiconductor DFB laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25535–25545 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, T. Mo, and S. Huang, “All-optically controllable random laser based on a dye-doped liquid crystal added with a photoisomerizable dye,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25896–25905 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, J. Lin, B. Huang, S. Lin, T. Mo, S. Huang, C. Kuo, and H. Yeh, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal random lasers below the fréedericksz transition threshold,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2391–2400 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, “Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7737–7744 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, “Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. E 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rsc Adv. (1)

L. Li, M. Zhang, M. Rong, and W. Ruan, “Studies on the transformation process of PVDF from alpha to beta phase by stretching,” Rsc Adv. 4(8), 3938–3943 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Chang, W. Liao, Y. Liao, H. Lin, H. Lin, W. Lin, S. Lin, P. Perumal, G. Haider, C. Tai, K. Shen, C. Chang, Y. Huang, T. Lin, and Y. Chen, “A white random laser,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 2720 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematics of the sample preparation. The white bars are NLC molecules randomly distributed in PVDF films. (b) Absorption (black line) and PL spectrum (red line) of the films.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Experimental setups of the lasing measurement. (b) Emission spectrum of the dye doped PVDF films without and (c) with NLC molecules. (d) The peak intensity and the FWHM of the emission spectra as a function of the pump energy from the dye doped PVDF-NLC films.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) RL spectra and (b) the emission intensity as a function of excitation energy for dye-doped PVDF-NLC films under different stretch length of 0%, 50%, 70% and 100% (from bottom to top). The inset in (a) shows corresponding photographs of the films under different stretch length. (c) The spectral evolutions of the unstretched dye-doped PVDF-Au films. (d) The emission intensity as a function of excitation power for dye-doped PVDF-Au films under different stretch length of 0%, 30%, 50% and 100% (from bottom to top). The brown lines in (b) and (d) depict threshold changes when the films are stretched.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Illustration of the distribution of the Au NPs and NLCs in dye-doped PVDF films before and after stretching. Yellow ball: Au NPs; red bar: dye molecules; grey bar: NLC molecules; purple line: PVDF chains.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The power Fourier transform (PFT) of the lasing emission spectra shown in Fig. 3(a) for dye-doped PVDF-NLC films under stretched length of 0%, 50%, 70% and 100%.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L = π d 1 / n ,

Metrics