Abstract

We report a method for selective silver coating of SU-8 structures on Si substrates by treating the sample with radio frequency plasma prior to electroless plating. Silver films with high conductivity of 9 × 10−8Ω.m and low surface roughness of 9 nm have been obtained. When combined with two-photon lithography, this process can be utilized for three-dimensional metamaterials applications. Unlike previous work on selective coating, our process can coat directly on SU-8 photoresist that is widely used for two-photon lithography and does not require any resin modification.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Dai and W. J. Wang, “Selective metallization of cured SU-8 microstructures using electroless plating method,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.135(1), 300–307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. J. Gerenser, “Photoemission investigation of silver/poly(ethylene terephthalate) interfacial chemistry: the effect of oxygen-plasma treatment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8(5), 3682–3691 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Z. Insepov, I. Yamada, and M. Sosnowski, “Sputterring and smoothing of metal surface with energetic gas cluster beams,” Mater. Chem. Phys.54(1-3), 234–237 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

O. Paul, C. Imhof, B. Reinhard, R. Zengerle, and R. Beigang, “Negative index bulk metamaterial at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express16(9), 6736–6744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Dai and W. J. Wang, “Selective metallization of cured SU-8 microstructures using electroless plating method,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.135(1), 300–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Z. Insepov, I. Yamada, and M. Sosnowski, “Sputterring and smoothing of metal surface with energetic gas cluster beams,” Mater. Chem. Phys.54(1-3), 234–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. J. Gerenser, “Photoemission investigation of silver/poly(ethylene terephthalate) interfacial chemistry: the effect of oxygen-plasma treatment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8(5), 3682–3691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allouche, J.

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amenitsch, H.

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boissiere, C.

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Cai, W. S.

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, N.

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiyoda, K.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, W.

W. Dai and W. J. Wang, “Selective metallization of cured SU-8 microstructures using electroless plating method,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.135(1), 300–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davydovskaya, P.

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Z.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V. P.

Drechsler, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

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A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
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J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
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J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
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W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
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Han, J. G.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
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J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
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F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
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F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
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Kiyan, R.

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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
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S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
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M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
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M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, X. C.

Mahrt, R. F.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
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S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
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S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
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C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passinger, S.

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
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Paul, O.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plet, C.

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

Qi, F. J.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radke, A.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhard, B.

Reinhardt, C.

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S. R. M. S.

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salis, G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, C.

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schmidt, F.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
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A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
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W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
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Si, G.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. L. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sönnichsen, C.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sosnowski, M.

Z. Insepov, I. Yamada, and M. Sosnowski, “Sputterring and smoothing of metal surface with energetic gas cluster beams,” Mater. Chem. Phys.54(1-3), 234–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, R. W.

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Staude, I.

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeyasu, N.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D. F.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teh, W. H.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Q. Gu, J. G. Han, X. C. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. R. Xing, and W. L. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Kan, J. A.

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, F.

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. J.

W. Dai and W. J. Wang, “Selective metallization of cured SU-8 microstructures using electroless plating method,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.135(1), 300–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, Q. R.

Yamada, I.

Z. Insepov, I. Yamada, and M. Sosnowski, “Sputterring and smoothing of metal surface with energetic gas cluster beams,” Mater. Chem. Phys.54(1-3), 234–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zengerle, R.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zong, Y.

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zürcher, S.

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, B. Wang, E. S. P. Leong, P. Yang, Y. Zong, G. Si, J. Teng, and S. A. Maier, “Enhanced surface plasmon resonance on a smooth silver film with a seed growth layer,” ACS Nano4(6), 3139–3146 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three-dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)23(27), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(8), 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. G. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Q. Gu, and W. L. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Tan, Y. Li, F. J. Qi, H. Yang, Q. H. Gong, X. Z. Dong, and X. M. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(1), 133–135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 064102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Three dimensional nanolithography using proton beam writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(8), 1629–1631 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. Reinhardt, R. Kiyan, S. Passinger, A. L. Stepanov, A. Ostendorf, and N. Chichkov, “Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(2), 321–325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. Kuemmel, J. Allouche, L. Nicole, C. Boissiere, C. Laberty, H. Amenitsch, C. Sanchez, and D. Grosso, “A chemical solution deposition route to nanopatterned inorganic material surfaces,” Chem. Mater.19(15), 3717–3725 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials: magnetism at optical frequencies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1097–1105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

F. Walther, P. Davydovskaya, S. Zürcher, M. Kaiser, H. Herberg, A. M. Gigler, and R. W. Stark, “Stability of the hydrophilic behavior of oxygen plasma activated SU-8,” J. Micromech. Microeng.17(3), 524–531 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

L. J. Gerenser, “Photoemission investigation of silver/poly(ethylene terephthalate) interfacial chemistry: the effect of oxygen-plasma treatment,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A8(5), 3682–3691 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release,” Macromolecules33(5), 1514–1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

Z. Insepov, I. Yamada, and M. Sosnowski, “Sputterring and smoothing of metal surface with energetic gas cluster beams,” Mater. Chem. Phys.54(1-3), 234–237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (Amst.) (1)

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.)2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. van Kan, A. A. Bettiol, and F. Watt, “Proton beam writing of three-dimensional nanostructures in hydrogen silsesquioxane,” Nano Lett.6(3), 579–582 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. S. R. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. S. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S.-Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in a terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B80(15), 153103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

W. Dai and W. J. Wang, “Selective metallization of cured SU-8 microstructures using electroless plating method,” Sens. Actuators A Phys.135(1), 300–307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coating coverage of Si and SU-8 surfaces as a function of plasma treatment dose. Insets: SEM images of the Si and SU-8 Ag coated surface using a 2160 J plasma treatment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mechanism and results of the selective electroless Ag coating method. a) Plasma treatment induces C = O bond on SU-8 surface; b) Ag ions in the solution attach to SU-8 surface and interact with C = O to form Ag-O-C bond; c) The SU-8 surface becomes a preferential site for the reduction of Ag when glucose is added to the solution; d) and e) A three dimensional chiral structure fabricated using TPL before and after being coated with Ag; f) and g) A three dimensional helical structure before and after being coated with Ag.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RMS surface roughness measured as a function of glucose concentration; (b) RMSsurface roughness measured as a function of coating temperature, for three plating times; (c) SEM image of a coated surface under un-optimized conditions; (d) SEM image of a coated surface under optimized conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) An array of 2D double split ring resonators with height 5 µm fabricated in SU-8 on Si and coated with Ag using selective electroless plating. (b) Transmission spectra for the electric field parallel and perpendicular to the SRR gap showing an LC resonance dip at 0.64 THz.

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