Abstract

Blue phase liquid crystals exhibit several attractive features, such as self-assembled three-dimensional cubic structures, optically-isotropic in the voltage-off state, no need for alignment layers, and submillisecond response time. This tutorial gives step-by-step introduction on basic blue-phase materials and properties, monomers and polymerization processes, and key device performance criteria for display and photonics applications.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. F. Reinitzer, “Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholestherins,” Monatsh. Chem. 9(1), 421–441 (1888).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Saupe, “On molecular structure and physical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 59–74 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. A. Brazovskii and S. G. Dmitriev, “Phase transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69, 979–989 (1975).
  4. R. M. Hornreich and S. Shtrikman, Liquid Crystals of One- and Two- Dimensional Order (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
  5. S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Dubois-Violette and B. Pansu, “Frustration and related topology of blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 165, 151–182 (1988).
  7. P. P. Crooker, Chirality in Liquid Crystals (Springer, New York, 2001), Chap. 7.
  8. D. L. Johnson, J. H. Flack, and P. P. Crooker, “Structure and properties of the cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(8), 641–644 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. Miller and H. F. Gleeson, “Order parameter measurements from the Kossel diagrams of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52(5), 5011–5016 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Kikuchi, Liquid Crystalline Blue Phases (Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008), pp. 99–117.
  15. G. Heppke, H.-S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2, 59–65 (1985).
  16. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(19), 2991–2998 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Stegemeyer and F. Porsch, “Electric field effect on phase transitions in liquid-crystalline blue-phase systems,” Phys. Rev. A 30(6), 3369–3371 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H.-S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 202(1), 51–83 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Seshadri and H. J. Haupt, “Novel ferrocene-based chiral Schiff's base derivative with a twist-grain boundary phase (TGBA) and a blue phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 7(7), 735–736 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Haseba and T. Kuninobu, “Optically isotropic liquid crystal medium and optical device,” U.S. patent 7,722,783 B2 (2010).
  27. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. Y. Haseba and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic chiral liquid crystals induced by polymer network and their electro-optical behavior,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 470(1), 1–9 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  38. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).
  39. W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. C. H. Lin, Y. Y. Wang, and C. W. Hsieh, “Polarization-independent and high-diffraction-efficiency Fresnel lenses based on blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 502–504 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

C. H. Lin, Y. Y. Wang, and C. W. Hsieh, “Polarization-independent and high-diffraction-efficiency Fresnel lenses based on blue phase liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 502–504 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Haseba and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic chiral liquid crystals induced by polymer network and their electro-optical behavior,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 470(1), 1–9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Seshadri and H. J. Haupt, “Novel ferrocene-based chiral Schiff's base derivative with a twist-grain boundary phase (TGBA) and a blue phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 7(7), 735–736 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. J. Miller and H. F. Gleeson, “Order parameter measurements from the Kossel diagrams of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52(5), 5011–5016 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H.-S. Kitzerow, “The effect of electric fields on blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 202(1), 51–83 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(19), 2991–2998 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. Dubois-Violette and B. Pansu, “Frustration and related topology of blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 165, 151–182 (1988).

1986 (1)

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

G. Heppke, H.-S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2, 59–65 (1985).

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Stegemeyer and F. Porsch, “Electric field effect on phase transitions in liquid-crystalline blue-phase systems,” Phys. Rev. A 30(6), 3369–3371 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. L. Johnson, J. H. Flack, and P. P. Crooker, “Structure and properties of the cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(8), 641–644 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. A. Brazovskii and S. G. Dmitriev, “Phase transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69, 979–989 (1975).

1969 (1)

A. Saupe, “On molecular structure and physical properties of thermotropic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 59–74 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1888 (1)

F. Reinitzer, “Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Cholestherins,” Monatsh. Chem. 9(1), 421–441 (1888).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, W. P.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brazovskii, S. A.

S. A. Brazovskii and S. G. Dmitriev, “Phase transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69, 979–989 (1975).

Bremer, M.

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brinkman, W. F.

S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Buey, J.

J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

Chen, K. M.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. L.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

Chiu, Y. H.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

Cladis, P. E.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and M. N. Pivnenko, “Liquid crystal ‘blue phases’ with a wide temperature range,” Nature 436(7053), 997–1000 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Gleeson and H. J. Coles, “Dynamic properties of blue-phase mixtures,” Liq. Cryst. 5(3), 917–926 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, P. P.

D. L. Johnson, J. H. Flack, and P. P. Crooker, “Structure and properties of the cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(8), 641–644 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, S. G.

S. A. Brazovskii and S. G. Dmitriev, “Phase transitions in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 69, 979–989 (1975).

Dubois-Violette, E.

E. Dubois-Violette and B. Pansu, “Frustration and related topology of blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 165, 151–182 (1988).

Espinet, P.

J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flack, J. H.

D. L. Johnson, J. H. Flack, and P. P. Crooker, “Structure and properties of the cholesteric blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(8), 641–644 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Garel, T.

P. E. Cladis, T. Garel, and P. Pieranski, “Kossel diagrams show electric-field-induced cubic-tetragonal structural transition in frustrated liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57(22), 2841–2844 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
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Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
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H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
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J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
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J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
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J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
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Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 101104 (2009).
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Y. Haseba and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic chiral liquid crystals induced by polymer network and their electro-optical behavior,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 470(1), 1–9 (2007).
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S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
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J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
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Krüerke, D.

G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
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G. Heppke, H.-S. Kitzerow, and M. Krumrey, “Electric field induced variation of the refractive index in cholesteric blue phases,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2, 59–65 (1985).

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M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. C.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

Lin, C. H.

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. H.

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
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Liu, S. H.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

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G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
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G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
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H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
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S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
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R. J. Miller and H. F. Gleeson, “Order parameter measurements from the Kossel diagrams of the liquid-crystal blue phases,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 52(5), 5011–5016 (1995).
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G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
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G. Heppke, D. Krüerke, C. Löhning, D. Lötzsch, D. Moro, M. Müller, and H. Sawade, “New chiral discotic triphenylene derivatives exhibiting a cholesteric blue phase and a ferroelectrically switchable columnar mesophase,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(12), 2657–2661 (2000).
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S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
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W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
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M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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G. Heppke, B. Jérôme, H.-S. Kitzerow, and P. Pieranski, “Electrostriction of the cholesteric blue phases BPI and BPII in mixtures with positive dielectric anisotropy,” J. Phys. (France) 50(19), 2991–2998 (1989).
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H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Direct measurement of electric-field-induced birefringence in a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal composite,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11450–11455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231101 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

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H. S. Kitzerow, H. Schmid, A. Ranft, G. Heppke, R. A. M. Hikmet, and J. Lub, “Observation of blue phases in chiral networks,” Liq. Cryst. 14(3), 911–916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Seshadri, T.

T. Seshadri and H. J. Haupt, “Novel ferrocene-based chiral Schiff's base derivative with a twist-grain boundary phase (TGBA) and a blue phase,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 7(7), 735–736 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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S. Meiboom, J. P. Sethna, W. P. Anderson, and W. F. Brinkman, “Theory of the blue phase cholesteric liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1216–1219 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. Stegemeyer and F. Porsch, “Electric field effect on phase transitions in liquid-crystalline blue-phase systems,” Phys. Rev. A 30(6), 3369–3371 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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J. Buey, P. Espinet, H. S. Kitzerow, and J. Strauss, “Metallomesogens presenting blue phases in a glassy state and in metallomesogen/nematic mixtures,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 5(5), 441–442 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, N.

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

S. Yokoyama, S. Mashiko, H. Kikuchi, K. Uchida, and T. Nagamura, “Laser emission from a polymer-stabilized liquid-crystalline blue phase,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 48–51 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. T.

C. Y. Fan, C. T. Wang, T. H. Lin, F. C. Yu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Liu, and N. Sugiura, “Hysteresis and residual birefringence free polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 213–215 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Y.

Wittek, M.

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

Wu, M. C.

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, K. Tarumi, M. C. Wu, D. M. Song, and S. E. Lee, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 42(1), 292–293 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically-isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li and S. T. Wu, “Polarization independent adaptive microlens with a blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8045–8050 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan and S. T. Wu, “Effect of polymer concentration and composition on blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(9), 490–493 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. H. Chiu, H. Y. Chen, C. C. Liang, C. M. Wu, P. J. Hsieh, S. H. Liu, and K. L. Cheng, “Critical field for a hysteresis-free blue-phase liquid crystal device,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(12), 627–629 (2011).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cubic structures of BP-I [(a) and (b)] and BP-II [(c) and (d)] filled with double twist cylinders. The black lines in (b) and (d) represent disclination lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BPLC platelet textures under polarizing optical microscope with different chiral concentrations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured induced birefringence (dots), linear fitting with Kerr effect (blue line) and fitting with extend Kerr effect model (red line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Examples of nematic liquid crystals, chiral dopants, and monomers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Operation Voltage, Hysteresis and Response Time of Seven Samples

Equations (5)

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λ= 2na h 2 + k 2 + l 2 ,
Δ n ind =λK E 2 ,
Δn=Δ n sat ( 1exp[ ( E E s ) 2 ] ),
KΔnΔε ε o P 2 kλ (2π) 2 ,
τ γ 1 P 2 k (2π) 2 ,

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