Abstract

The electrically tunable band-pass filter in the visible light region is demonstrated by the liquid-crystal infiltrated waveguide formed by the distributed Bragg reflectors with the length of 3 mm. As the white light source is launched in the waveguide, by applying the external voltages from 0 to 30 Vrms, the dynamic control of filter characteristics can be achieved to tune the color of the output light from white light to red, yellow or green. The intensity of the output light can also be attenuated by applying the voltage. The 25 dB attenuation can be achieved as the applied voltage is as low as 9 Vrms.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

D. P. Cai, S. C. Nien, H. K. Chiu, C. C. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Electrically tunable liquid crystal waveguide attenuators,” Opt. Express19(12), 11890–11896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

2010

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, “Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 17–32 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. Concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, “Optical waveguides with an aqueous core and a low-index nanoporous cladding,” Opt. Express12(26), 6446–6455 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181–22183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2001

M. Barón, “Definitions of basic terms relating to low-molar-mass and polymer liquid crystals,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(5), 845–895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1986

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

Abbott, N. L.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agmon, P.

Alkeskjold, T. T.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anawati, A.

Asquini, R.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azarinia, H.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Barber, J. P.

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barón, M.

M. Barón, “Definitions of basic terms relating to low-molar-mass and polymer liquid crystals,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(5), 845–895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beccherelli, R.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beeckman, J.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Bellini, B.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Broeng, J.

Bryan-Brown, G. P.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cadarso, V. J.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cai, D. P.

Carlsen, A.

Chen, C. C.

Chiu, H. K.

Conroy, R. S.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czapla, A.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

d’Alessandro, A.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Darder, M.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deamer, D. W.

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Decort, W.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Domanski, A. W.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Donisi, B. D.

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Donisi, D.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181–22183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dubrovsky, T. B.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Engan, H. E.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ertman, S.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Sanchez, C.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischbach, M. A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gangopadhyay, S.

Garstecki, P.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilardi, G.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Green, M.

Gupta, V. K.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haakestad, M. W.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. Concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, “Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 17–32 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, D. S.

Hoiby, P. E.

James, R.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Jensen, J. B.

Kim, H.

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

Larsen, T. T.

Lee, C. C.

Lesiak, P.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Llobera, A.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. Q.

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181–22183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S. J.

Mayers, B. T.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R.

Neyts, K.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Nielsen, M. D.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nien, S. C.

Noordegraaf, D.

Nowecka, K.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, L. H.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riishede, J.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Risk, W.

Sage, I. C.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarro, P. M.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, “Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 17–32 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. Concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scolari, L.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shellan, J. B.

Skaife, J. J.

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szaniawska, K.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Temkin, H.

Testa, G.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trotta, M.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P.

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Whitesides, G. M.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojcik, J.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, D. B.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolinski, T. R.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wood, E. L.

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Yin, D.

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, D. W. Deamer, H. Schmidt, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Integrated optical waveguides with liquid cores,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(16), 3477–3479 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Bernini, G. Testa, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, “Integrated optofluidic Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on liquid core waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(1), 011106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Du, Y. Q. Lu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(12), 2181–22183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. Donisi, B. Bellini, R. Beccherelli, R. Asquini, G. Gilardi, M. Trotta, and A. d’Alessandro, “Switchable liquid-crystal optical channel wavguide on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(5), 762–768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Alessandro, B. D. Donisi, R. Beccherelli, and R. Asquini, “Nematic liquid crystal optical channel waveguides on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.42(10), 1084–1090 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, “Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gas and liquids,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 519–527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical field on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol.17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wojcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microfluid. Nanofluid.

A. R. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, “Optofluidic waveguides: II. Fabrication and structures,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 17–32 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. R. Hawkins, “Optofluidic waveguides: I. Concepts and implementations,” Microfluid. Nanofluid.4(1-2), 3–16 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

G. P. Bryan-Brown, E. L. Wood, and I. C. Sage, “Weak surface anchoring of liquid crystals,” Nature399(6734), 338–340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Photonics Lett. Poland

K. Neyts, W. Decort, H. Azarinia, P. Vanbrabant, R. James, and J. Beeckman, “Liquid crystals in waveguides for tuning and sensing,” Photonics Lett. Poland3(1),17–19 (2011).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. B. Wolfe, R. S. Conroy, P. Garstecki, B. T. Mayers, M. A. Fischbach, K. E. Paul, M. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Dynamic control of liquid-core/liquid-cladding optical waveguides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.101(34), 12434–12438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pure Appl. Chem.

M. Barón, “Definitions of basic terms relating to low-molar-mass and polymer liquid crystals,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(5), 845–895 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. K. Gupta, J. J. Skaife, T. B. Dubrovsky, and N. L. Abbott, “Optical amplification of ligand-receptor binding using liquid crystals,” Science279(5359), 2077–2080 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

V. J. Cadarso, A. Llobera, C. Fernandez-Sanchez, M. Darder, and C. Dominguez, “Hollow waveguide-based full-field absorbance biosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.139(1), 143–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (Macmillan, 1986), Chap. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(color online) (a) Schematic structure of LC filled waveguide based on DBRs. The direction of applied voltage is along x-direction. (b) Cross-section view of LC filled waveguide based on DBRs. (c) PBG of DBRs obtained by the Bloch theorem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the cleaved waveguide facet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(color online) Top-view micrograph of LC filled waveguide without applying voltage for the LC filled waveguide with core size of (a) 5 μm × 50 μm (b) 5 μm × 10 μm (c) 5 μm × 5 μm and (d) 10 μm × 10 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(color online) (a) Far-field image and transmission spectra of output light for different applied voltages. (b) Extinction ratio and output image of LC filled waveguide at the wavelength of 532 nm for different applied voltages.

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