Abstract

The photophysics of bis(terpyridyl)osmium-(porphinato)zinc-bis(terpyridyl)osmium (OsPZnOs), a D-π-A-π-D symmetric supermolecule, were investigated in the femtosecond and nanosecond regimes. The supermolecule exhibits a two-photon absorption (δpeak ~900 GM) in the near IR (900-1300 nm) and optical pumping by two-photon absorption leads to a broad excited state absorption (σpeak ~1.1 × 10−16 cm2) in the same near IR region. Since the excited state has a long lifetime, OsPZnOs exhibits a strong nanosecond nonlinear absorption in this region. That nonlinear absorption is substantially enhanced when OsPZnOs is incorporated into a multimode waveguide. When two-photon pumping is the dominant mechanism, an additional enhancement of up to ~100 × in the nonlinear absorption is observed in a microchannel waveguide. OsPZnOs is a promising material for photonic applications such as optical noise suppression and optical limiting in the near IR.

© 2011 OSA

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2011

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Rosenberg and J. S. Shirk, “Nonlinear absorption in waveguides,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt.40, 11 (2010).

2009

2008

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, “Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(31), 9691–9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, “Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1939–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, “Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(6), 1234–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, “Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28(18), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Vance and J. T. Hupp, “Probing the symmetry of the nonlinear optic chromophore Ru(trans-4,4 '-diethylaminostyryl-2,2 '-bipyridine)32+: Insight from polarized Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and electroabsorption (Stark) spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(16), 4047–4053 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Milam, “Review and assessment of measured values of the nonlinear refractive-index coefficient of fused silica,” Appl. Opt.37(3), 546–550 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett.19(9), 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B11(11), 2206–2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, D.

Amouyal, E.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. L.

J. M. Hales, M. Cozzuol, T. E. O. Screen, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, “Metalloporphyrin polymer with temporally agile, broadband nonlinear absorption for optical limiting in the near infrared,” Opt. Express17(21), 18478–18488 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asselberghs, I.

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balzani, V.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barigelletti, F.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
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Belser, P.

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
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Beratan, D. N.

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
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Brant, M. C.

Brédas, J. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
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J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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Butler, J. J.

Campagna, S.

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
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J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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Chen, C. T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
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Chi, S. H.

Choong, I.

Clays, K.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
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T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
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H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
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J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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Cooper, T. M.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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Coudret, C.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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Couris, S.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
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de la Torre, G.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
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Decola, L.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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DeLong, K. W.

Denton, G. J.

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
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Diaz, A.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, “Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(6), 1234–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J. W.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
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Drobizhev, M.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
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T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
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T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, “Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(31), 9691–9703 (2007).
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T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
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Dzenis, Y.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
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Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
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Farley, R.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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Fitzpatrick, M.

Flamigni, L.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, “Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1939–1948 (2005).
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Flom, S. R.

J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, “Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28(18), 1689–1691 (2003).
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J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
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Fratini, A.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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Friend, R. H.

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. Y.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
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Fukuda, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guillerez, S.

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hales, J. M.

Hall, B. C.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanack, M.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, E. J.

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heckmann, H.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrichs, J.

Hess, S. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, S. T.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
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Hunter, J.

Hupp, J. T.

F. W. Vance and J. T. Hupp, “Probing the symmetry of the nonlinear optic chromophore Ru(trans-4,4 '-diethylaminostyryl-2,2 '-bipyridine)32+: Insight from polarized Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and electroabsorption (Stark) spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(16), 4047–4053 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ishizuka, T.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, “Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(31), 9691–9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenekhe, S. A.

C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Juris, A.

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karotki, A.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keinan, S.

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, and J. W. Ding, “Nonlinear-absorbing fiber array for large-dynamic-range optical limiting application against intense short laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(6), 1234–1240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kizu, K.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kogej, T.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantaki, M.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
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J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubota, K.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laine, P.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. L.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Major, A.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, N. S.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett.19(9), 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marder, S. R.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett.19(9), 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maruyama, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLean, D. G.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, “Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1939–1948 (2005).
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C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
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Milam, D.

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miloradovic, I.

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, A.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ochoa, C.

O'Keefe, G. E.

G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
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T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
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Perry, J. W.

J. M. Hales, M. Cozzuol, T. E. O. Screen, H. L. Anderson, and J. W. Perry, “Metalloporphyrin polymer with temporally agile, broadband nonlinear absorption for optical limiting in the near infrared,” Opt. Express17(21), 18478–18488 (2009).
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S. H. Chi, J. M. Hales, M. Cozzuol, C. Ochoa, M. Fitzpatrick, and J. W. Perry, “Conjugated polymer-fullerene blend with strong optical limiting in the near-infrared,” Opt. Express17(24), 22062–22072 (2009).
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M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, S. R. Marder, K. J. Perry, D. Alvarez, and I. Choong, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting in heavy-atom-substituted phthalocyanines,” Opt. Lett.19(9), 625–627 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, K. J.

Persoons, A.

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
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H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
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G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pong, R. G. S.

J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, “Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28(18), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
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M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
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J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
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Röckel, H.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. E.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, “Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1939–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, A.

A. Rosenberg and J. S. Shirk, “Nonlinear absorption in waveguides,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt.40, 11 (2010).

Rubtsov, I. V.

T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
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Rumi, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

Sasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
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J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
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Schanze, K. S.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
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Screen, T. E. O.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n(2) measurements,” Opt. Lett.14(17), 955–957 (1989).
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Shimura, M.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

A. Rosenberg and J. S. Shirk, “Nonlinear absorption in waveguides,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt.40, 11 (2010).

J. J. Butler, J. J. Wathen, S. R. Flom, R. G. S. Pong, and J. S. Shirk, “Optical limiting properties of nonlinear multimode waveguides,” Opt. Lett.28(18), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sinks, L. E.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slagle, J. E.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, “Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1939–1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snow, A. W.

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorokin, E.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spangler, C. W.

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stepanenko, Y.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, G.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutherland, R. L.

Taylor, P. N.

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Therien, M. J.

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, “Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(31), 9691–9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Torres, T.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Uyeda, H. T.

T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n(2) measurements,” Opt. Lett.14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vance, F. W.

F. W. Vance and J. T. Hupp, “Probing the symmetry of the nonlinear optic chromophore Ru(trans-4,4 '-diethylaminostyryl-2,2 '-bipyridine)32+: Insight from polarized Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and electroabsorption (Stark) spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(16), 4047–4053 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, P.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbiest, T.

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
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J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wathen, J. J.

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(3), 405–414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Wise, F. W.

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wostyn, K.

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X. L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. J.

C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. T.

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, F.

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Zhao, Y. X.

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. H.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

T. V. Duncan, K. Song, S. T. Hung, I. Miloradovic, A. Nayak, A. Persoons, T. Verbiest, M. J. Therien, and K. Clays, “Molecular symmetry and solution-phase structure interrogated by hyper-Rayleigh depolarization measurements: elaborating highly hyperpolarizable D2-symmetric chromophores,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.47(16), 2978–2981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Major, F. Yoshino, J. S. Aitchison, P. W. E. Smith, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Ultrafast nonresonant third-order optical nonlinearities in ZnSe for photonic switching at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(20), 4606–4608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Krauss and F. W. Wise, “Femtosecond measurement of nonlinear absorption and refraction in CdS, ZnSe, and ZnS,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(14), 1739–1741 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, F. J. Bartoli, and A. W. Snow, “Optical limiter using a lead phthalocyanine,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(14), 1880–1882 (1993).
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Chem. Rev.

G. de la Torre, P. Vázquez, F. Agulló-López, and T. Torres, “Role of structural factors in the nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanines and related compounds,” Chem. Rev.104(9), 3723–3750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sauvage, J. P. Collin, J. C. Chambron, S. Guillerez, C. Coudret, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, L. Decola, and L. Flamigni, “Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) bis(terpyridine) complexes in covalently-linked multicomponent systems: synthesis, electrochemical behavior, absorption spectra, and photochemical and photophysical properties,” Chem. Rev.94(4), 993–1019 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coord. Chem. Rev.

A. Juris, V. Balzani, F. Barigelletti, S. Campagna, P. Belser, and A. Vonzelewsky, “Ru(II) polypyridine complexes - photophysics, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and chemi-luminescence,” Coord. Chem. Rev.84, 85–277 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in Solids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.27(6), 1296–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. C. Khoo, A. Diaz, M. V. Wood, and P. H. Chen, “Passive optical limiting of picosecond-nanosecond laser pulses using highly nonlinear organic liquid cored fiber array,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.7(5), 760–768 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.

C. J. Yang, S. A. Jenekhe, J. S. Meth, and H. Vanherzeele, “Probing structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical polymers: Third harmonic generation spectroscopy and theoretical modeling of systematically derivatized conjugated aromatic polyimines,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.38(5), 1759–1774 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem.

J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. M. Krein, A. R. Burke, B. C. Hall, A. Fratini, D. G. McLean, P. A. Fleitz, T. M. Cooper, M. Drobizhev, N. S. Makarov, A. Rebane, K. Y. Kim, R. Farley, and K. S. Schanze, “Platinum acetylide two-photon chromophores,” Inorg. Chem.46(16), 6483–6494 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

T. Yamamoto, Z. H. Zhou, T. Kanbara, M. Shimura, K. Kizu, T. Maruyama, Y. Nakamura, T. Fukuda, B. L. Lee, N. Ooba, S. Tomaru, T. Kurihara, T. Kaino, K. Kubota, and S. Sasaki, “π-Conjugated donor-acceptor copolymers constituted of π-excessive and π-deficient arylene units. Optical and electrochemical properties in relation to CT structure of the polymer,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.118(43), 10389–10399 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Duncan, I. V. Rubtsov, H. T. Uyeda, and M. J. Therien, “Highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) compounds: long-lived, high oscillator strength, excited-state absorbers having exceptional spectral coverage of the near-infrared,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.126(31), 9474–9475 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishizuka, L. E. Sinks, K. Song, S. T. Hung, A. Nayak, K. Clays, and M. J. Therien, “The roles of molecular structure and effective optical symmetry in evolving dipolar chromophoric building blocks to potent octopolar nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(9), 2884–2896 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Uyeda, Y. X. Zhao, K. Wostyn, I. Asselberghs, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and M. J. Therien, “Unusual frequency dispersion effects of the nonlinear optical response in highly conjugated (polypyridyl)metal-(porphinato)zinc(II) chromophores,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.124(46), 13806–13813 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. V. Duncan, T. Ishizuka, and M. J. Therien, “Molecular engineering of intensely near-infrared absorbing excited states in highly conjugated oligo(porphinato)zinc-(polypyridyl)metal(II) supermolecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.129(31), 9691–9703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Vance and J. T. Hupp, “Probing the symmetry of the nonlinear optic chromophore Ru(trans-4,4 '-diethylaminostyryl-2,2 '-bipyridine)32+: Insight from polarized Hyper-Rayleigh scattering and electroabsorption (Stark) spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.121(16), 4047–4053 (1999).
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G. E. O'Keefe, G. J. Denton, E. J. Harvey, R. T. Phillips, R. H. Friend, and H. L. Anderson, “Femtosecond transient photoinduced transmission measurements on a novel conjugated zinc porphyrin system,” J. Chem. Phys.104(3), 805–811 (1996).
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J. Mater. Chem.

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem.9(9), 2013–2020 (1999).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

S. Keinan, M. J. Therien, D. N. Beratan, and W. T. Yang, “Molecular design of porphyrin-based nonlinear optical materials,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(47), 12203–12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Shirk, R. G. S. Pong, S. R. Flom, H. Heckmann, and M. Hanack, “Effect of axial substitution on the optical limiting properties of indium phthalocyanines,” J. Phys. Chem. A104(7), 1438–1449 (2000).
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J. Phys. Chem. B

M. Drobizhev, Y. Stepanenko, Y. Dzenis, A. Karotki, A. Rebane, P. N. Taylor, and H. L. Anderson, “Extremely strong near-IR two-photon absorption in conjugated porphyrin dimers: quantitative description with three-essential-states model,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(15), 7223–7236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Konstantaki, E. Koudoumas, S. Couris, P. Laine, E. Amouyal, and S. Leach, “Substantial non-linear optical response of new polyads based on Ru and Os complexes of modified terpyridines,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(44), 10797–10804 (2001).
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Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt.

A. Rosenberg and J. S. Shirk, “Nonlinear absorption in waveguides,” Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt.40, 11 (2010).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, I. Y. S. Lee, X. L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tian, and H. Sasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science273(5281), 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J. L. Brédas, J. E. Ehrlich, J. Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X. L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science281(5383), 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-Scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” in Characterization techniques and tabulation for organic nonlinear materials, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1998), pp. 655–692.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of OsPZnOs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ground state (black) and excited state (blue) absorption spectra of OsPZnOs. (b) Transient kinetic curve (black circles) observed at 1050 nm and the corresponding fit (red solid line) of OsPZnOs pumped with 360 nJ, 695 nm pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Representative z-scan data with numerical fits (solid curves) at 1050 nm. (b) Intensity-dependence of the effective TPA response observed in z-scan measurements. (c) The overlay of ground-state and two-photon absorption spectra plotted at half the excitation wavelength. (d) Spectral dispersion of TPA cross section overlapped with ESA spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nonlinear absorption at different excitation wavelength in (a) free space and in (b) a capillary waveguide from solutions of OsPZnOs in DMSO.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength dependence of the reciprocal nonlinear transmission threshold for free space optics (green squares) versus the waveguide configuration (blue circles). The red circles are measurements of the TPA cross section.

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