Abstract

We report on tuning the plasmonic properties of gold nanoantenna arrays resonant in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we achieve a manipulation of the antenna resonance by decreasing the antenna separation distance via photochemical metal deposition. Narrowing the antenna gaps is monitored using scanning electron microscopy, while increased plasmonic coupling and an associated red-shift of the plasmon resonance is observed by microscopic IR spectroscopy. Since smaller gap sizes lead to enhanced electric fields between the antenna arms, we propose photochemical metal deposition as a fabrication step for surface-enhanced IR spectroscopy (SEIRS) substrates.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
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  22. F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(1), 357–366 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

T. Härtling and L. M. Eng, “Gold-particle-mediated detection of ferroelectric domains on the nanometer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(14), 142902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Albella, P.

Alonso-González, P.

Aono, M.

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belloni, J.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bochterle, J.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, G. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enders, D.

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. M.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Härtling and L. M. Eng, “Gold-particle-mediated detection of ferroelectric domains on the nanometer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(14), 142902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gachard, E.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gui, H.

Han, G.

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, E.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Härtling, T.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Härtling and L. M. Eng, “Gold-particle-mediated detection of ferroelectric domains on the nanometer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(14), 142902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

Hohenau, A.

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hohenester, U.

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jäckel, F.

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, P.

M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keita, B.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelley, B. K.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khatouri, J.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kullock, R.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lamy de la Chapelle, M.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, M.

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lovrincic, R.

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mallouk, T.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mitome, M.

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadjo, L.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagao, T.

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pucci, A.

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remita, H.

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richter, L. J.

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, I.

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sau, T. K.

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tinguely, J.-C.

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toury, T.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trügler, A.

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, D.

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wenzel, M. T.

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, I.

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

T. K. Sau, A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, T. A. Klar, and J. Feldmann, “Properties and applications of colloidal nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(16), 1805–1825 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Härtling and L. M. Eng, “Gold-particle-mediated detection of ferroelectric domains on the nanometer scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(14), 142902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, R. Lovrincic, A. Pucci, M. Lopes, T. Toury, and M. L. de La Chapelle, “Resonances of individual lithographic gold nanowires in the infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 163105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Garcia-Etxarri, D. Weber, J. Bochterle, H. Shen, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, G. W. Bryant, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Defect-induced activation of symmetry forbidden infrared resonances in individual metallic nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

E. Hao and G. C. Schatz, “Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers,” J. Chem. Phys.120(1), 357–366 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

F. Neubrech, D. Weber, D. Enders, T. Nagao, and A. Pucci, “Antenna sensing of surface phonon polaritons,” J. Phys. Chem. C114(16), 7299–7301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Härtling, Y. Alaverdyan, M. T. Wenzel, R. Kullock, M. Käll, and L. M. Eng, “Photochemical tuning of plasmon resonances in single gold nanoparticles,” J. Phys. Chem. C112(13), 4920–4924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

M. Käll, H. Xu, and P. Johansson, “Field enhancement and molecular response in surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc.36(6-7), 510–514 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. W. Bryant, F. J. García de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Mapping the plasmon resonances of metallic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.8(2), 631–636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

G. Han, D. Weber, F. Neubrech, I. Yamada, M. Mitome, Y. Bando, A. Pucci, and T. Nagao, “Infrared spectroscopic and electron microscopic characterization of gold nanogap structure fabricated by focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology22(27), 275202 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Chem. (1)

E. Gachard, H. Remita, J. Khatouri, B. Keita, L. Nadjo, and J. Belloni, “Radiation-induced and chemical formation of gold clusters,” New J. Chem.22(11), 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

D. Enders, T. Nagao, A. Pucci, T. Nakayama, and M. Aono, “Surface-enhanced ATR-IR spectroscopy with interface-grown plasmonic gold-island films near the percolation threshold,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.13(11), 4935–4941 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Trügler, J.-C. Tinguely, J. R. Krenn, A. Hohenau, and U. Hohenester, “Influence of surface roughness on the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B83(8), 081412 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, L. J. Richter, F. J. García de Abajo, B. K. Kelley, and T. Mallouk, “Optical properties of coupled metallic nanorods for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B71(23), 235420 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(26), 266802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi B247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. W. Bryant, I. Romero, F. J. Garcia de Abajo, and J. Aizpurua, “Simulating electromagnetic response in coupled metallic nanoparticles for nanoscale optical microscopy and spectroscopy: nanorod-end effects,” Proc. SPIE6323, 632313 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, J. Aizpurua, T. Cornelius, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Electromagnetic nanowire resonances for field-enhanced spectroscopy,” in One-Dimensional Nanostructures, Z. Wang, ed. (Springer, 2008), pp. 175–215.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 1998).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).

The absorption spectrum of the gold salt solution shows an onset around 550 nm and increases towards shorter wavelengths (data not shown).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the photochemical nanoantenna growth experiment. (a) Sample layout with several EBL-written nanoantenna arrays. The SEM inset shows individual nanorods separated by a 40 nm gap. (b) The sample is located on a movable xyz-table of the IR microscope and covered with droplet of HAuCl4 solution. A specific array is illuminated by the microscope’s halogen lamp. (c) Consequently, Au ions are formed in the solution and diffuse to the nanorods where gold deposition takes place.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Evolution of the relative transmittance of a gold nanorod array during subsequent growth steps and respective resonance position indicated in the inset. Starting from reference spectrum (0), IR measurements were performed after every growth step (illumination times are indicated). Although the fourth illumination step was carried out on an array located approximately 150µm away, the optical properties still change due to diffusion of the gold ions. The features at around λ = 4.2 µm and λ = 8 µm originate from CO2 absorptions in the optical beam path and from the excitation of a thin-film surface phonon-polariton in the silicon oxide layer [15], respectively. (b) SEM image of three rods in the array recorded before the acquisition of spectrum (0). The geometric dimensions are: L ≈700 nm, w ≈120 nm, dx ≈40 nm, dy = 5 µm. (c) SEM image taken after acquisition of spectrum (4). Conductive connections between the nanorods have formed, indicated by arrows pointing downwards. However, some gaps are still present and gap sizes below 10 nm can be seen (arrow pointing upwards). The width of the rods has increased to about 160 − 170 nm. Note that only very small regions of the arrays are shown in the SEM images (overall array size is 50 × 50 μm2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Relative transmittance spectra of non-interacting nanorod arrays (dx = dy = 5 µm) consisting of rods of similar geometric dimensions but different surface structure. The same number of rods contributes to each spectrum. In the SEM images of (b) and (c), representative examples of “rough” and “smooth” nanorods are shown.

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