Abstract

We present a method to fabricate tensile-strained germanium-on-insulator (GOI) substrates using heteroepitaxy and layer transfer techniques. The motivation is to obtain a high-quality wafer-scale GOI platform suitable for silicon-compatible optoelectronic device fabrication. Crystal quality is assessed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. A biaxial tensile film strain of 0.16% is verified by XRD. Suitability for device manufacturing is demonstrated through fabrication and characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors that exhibit photoresponse beyond 1.55 μm. The substrate fabrication process is compatible with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor manufacturing and represents a potential route to wafer-scale integration of silicon-compatible optoelectronics.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. F. Damlencourt, B. Vincent, P. Rivallin, P. Holliger, D. Rouchon, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, L. Clavelier, and T. Billon, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator by improved Ge condensation technique,” in Proceedings of Third International SiGe Technology and Device Meeting (2006).
  10. B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

2010 (2)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

2007 (1)

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akatsu, T.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allibert, F.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, M.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Chen, L.

Chui, C. O.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clavelier, L.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Curtin, M.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Damlencourt, J.-F.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deal, M. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dechamp, J.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deguet, C.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Depuydt, B.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O. I.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emsley, M. K.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiorenza, J. G.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Fischetti, M. V.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gamo, K.

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ghyselen, B.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hydrick, J.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kernevez, N.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S. E.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Letertre, F.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Licitra, C.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lochtefeld, A.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Loup, V.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Madeira, F.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Major, C.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Mazen, F.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mercier, D.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morand, Y.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nayfeh, A.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nolot, E.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Plummer, J. D.

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richtarch, C.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivallin, P.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, L.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Signamarcheix, T.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, N.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takai, M.

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanigawa, T.

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tauzin, A.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tezuka, T.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ünlü, M. S.

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, B.

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yonehara, T.

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Fabrication of strained Si on an ultrathin SiGe-on-insulator virtual substrate with a high-Ge fraction,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(12), 1798–1800 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “High-quality single-crystal Ge on insulator by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2563–2565 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nayfeh, C. O. Chui, K. C. Saraswat, and T. Yonehara, “Effects of hydrogen annealing on heteroepitaxial-Ge layers on Si: Surface roughness and electrical quality,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(14), 2815–2817 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett.42(7), 415–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. I. Dosunmu, D. D. Cannon, M. K. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and M. S. Ünlü, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. Liu, M. D. Deal, and J. D. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Takai, T. Tanigawa, K. Gamo, and S. Namba, “Single crystalline germanium island on insulator by zone melting recrystallization,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.22(Part 2, 10), L624–L626 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A novel fabrication technique of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Vincent, J.-F. Damlencourt, P. Rivallin, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, and L. Clavelier, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator substrates by a condensation technique: An experimental and modelling study,” Semicond. Sci. Technol.22(3), 237–244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

J. Hydrick, J. Park, J. Bai, C. Major, M. Curtin, J. G. Fiorenza, M. Carroll, and A. Lochtefeld, “Chemical mechanical polishing of epitaxial germanium on SiO2-patterned Si(001) substrates,” Trans. Electrochem. Soc.16(10), 237–248 (2008).

Other (1)

J. F. Damlencourt, B. Vincent, P. Rivallin, P. Holliger, D. Rouchon, E. Nolot, C. Licitra, Y. Morand, L. Clavelier, and T. Billon, “Fabrication of SiGe-on-insulator by improved Ge condensation technique,” in Proceedings of Third International SiGe Technology and Device Meeting (2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section images of GOI material. (a) Cross-section TEM image of a representative GOI stack. (b) Cross-section high-resolution TEM image of Ge/SiO2 bonding interface (inset: selective area diffraction (SAD) pattern indicating high-quality, single-crystal Ge).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triple-axis XRD scans indicating improvement in average film quality with CMP treatment. (a) As-bonded GOI wafer (film thickness = 1.57 µm). (b) GOI1 (film thickness = 1.34 µm; 0.16% biaxial tensile strain). (c) GOI2 (film thickness = 0.19 µm; 0.16% biaxial tensile strain).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plan-view TEM images indicating reduction in average defect density with CMP treatment. (a) GOI1 (average defect density < 3 × 108 cm−2). (b) GOI2 (average defect density < 5.5 × 107 cm−2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization results of MSM photodetectors built on GOI1 (thick GOI) and GOI2 (thin GOI). Bulk Ge has a direct bandgap energy of 0.8 eV (1550 nm).

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