Abstract

The method of fabrication of bulk three-dimensional curvilinear metamaterials based on metallic nanowires grown in porous alumina membranes was developed. Morphologically, fabricated structures resemble those earlier proposed for the design of an optical cloak and a hyperlens. Feasibility and flexibility of the suggested technological platform paws the road to engineering novel curvilinear hyperbolic metamaterials via inexpensive non-lithographic routes.

© 2011 OSA

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References

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  1. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterials crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime,” Opt. Express16(10), 7460–7470 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

2010 (1)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wurtz, W. Dickson, D. O’Connor, R. Atkinson, W. Hendren, P. Evans, R. Pollard, and A. V. Zayats, “Guided plasmonic modes in nanorod assemblies: strong electromagnetic coupling regime,” Opt. Express16(10), 7460–7470 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterials crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical hyperlens: far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Atkinson, R.

Barnakov, Yu. A.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bicelli, L. P.

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

Bozzini, B.

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Urzo, L.

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickson, W.

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterials crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

Hendren, W.

Hung, Y.-J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacob, Z.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mele, C.

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, D.

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

Rho, J.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterials crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stacy, A. M.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumkur, T.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wurtz, G. A.

Xiong, Y.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, X.

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Noginov, Yu. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(15), 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. (1)

L. P. Bicelli, B. Bozzini, C. Mele, and L. D’Urzo, “A review of nanostructural aspects of metal deposition,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.3, 356–408 (2008).

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Rho, Z. Ye, Y. Xiong, X. Yin, Z. Liu, H. Choi, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Spherical hyperlens for two-dimensional sub-diffractional imaging at visible frequencies,” Nat. Commun.1(9), 143 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics1(1), 41–48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterials crystals: theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (5)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science292(5514), 77–79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed design of a hyperlens with azimuthal (a) and radial (b) distribution of metallic inclusions [4] and (c) hair brush morphology of metallic nano-needles in a non-magnetic optical cloak [10] (Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: [Nature Photonics] W. Cai et al., “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photonics 1, 224–227 (2007), copyright (2007)).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Explored metamaterials’ morphologies: hair brush (a), folded sheet (b), and urchin (c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Alumina membranes of three different targeted shapes – folded sheet (a), swiss roll (b) and urchin (c) grown from folded, rolled and indented aluminum foil sheets under anodic bias in oxalic acid. The resolution of the images is not sufficient to see the pores.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Image of a typical honeycomb nanoporous structure in an alumina membrane (top view). (b) Cross-section of radially oriented nanoporous in an urchin geometry. (c) Radially oriented nanopores formed around the defect (void) in an aluminum metal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Etched edge of the folded sheet curvilinear alumina membrane filled with silver nanowires (a). A thin layer of aluminum, which was not converted to alumina in the process of anodization (b), was used as an electrode at electroplating.

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