Abstract

The reflection and transmission properties of photosensitized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) are examined. Introduction of mesogenic push-pull azobenzene dyes into blue and green reflective CLCs enables fast (sub-second), photoswitchable optical properties due to the overlap of the trans and cis absorption states. Upon irradiation with CW blue-green laser radiation, the bandgap reflection is erased in a fraction of a second and reversibly restored approximately one second after the blue-green laser radiation is removed. Given the strong overlap of the trans and cis absorption maxima, we believe that repeated trans-cis and cis-trans isomerization cycles induced with irradiation lead to a destruction of the ordered LC phase. The sensitivity to the irradiating wavelength scales with the wavelength-dependent absorption of the mesogenic push-pull dye. A detailed examination of the transmitted and reflected laser beams are presented as a function of power and wavelength of CW sources.

© 2011 OSA

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  6. G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51(S1), S108–S118 (2006).
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  9. T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010).
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  16. J. Adams and W. Haas, “Sensitivity of cholesteric films to ultraviolet exposure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(12), 2026–2028 (1971).
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    [Crossref]
  21. S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12(1), 9–12 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Xu and D.-K. Yang, “Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 720–722 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  25. N. Tamaoki and T. Kamei, “Reversible photo-regulation of the properties of liquid crystals doped with photochromic compounds,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 11(2–3), 47–61 (2010).
  26. K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, “Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182(3), 250–261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  28. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).
  29. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
    [Crossref]
  34. N. V. Tabiryan, S. V. Serak, and V. A. Grozhik, “Photoinduced critical opalescence and reversible all-optical switching in photosensitive liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 538–544 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  35. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Cholesterics Doped with Azobenzene Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  37. U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).
  38. S. Serak and N. Tabiryan, “Microwatt power optically controlled spatial solitons in azobenzene liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Y1–63320Y13 (2006).

2011 (2)

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Tamaoki and T. Kamei, “Reversible photo-regulation of the properties of liquid crystals doped with photochromic compounds,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 11(2–3), 47–61 (2010).

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

2007 (3)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Cholesterics Doped with Azobenzene Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

R. Eelkema and B. L. Feringa, “Reversible full-range color control of a cholesteric liquid-crystalline film by using a molecular motor,” Chem. Asian J. 1(3), 367–369 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51(S1), S108–S118 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Serak and N. Tabiryan, “Microwatt power optically controlled spatial solitons in azobenzene liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Y1–63320Y13 (2006).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
[Crossref]

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, “Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182(3), 250–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. Y. G. Fuh, T.-H. Lin, J. H. Liu, and F. C. Wu, “Lasing in chiral photonic liquid crystals and associated frequency tuning,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1857–1863 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Phototunable photonic bandgap in a chiral liquid crystal laser device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst. 29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12(1), 9–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Xu and D.-K. Yang, “Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 720–722 (1997).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye laser by a liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1–2), 161–169 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

F. Ania and H. Stegemeyer, “Cholesteric pitch behavior at the phase transition cholesteric to smectic B,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2(3–4), 67–76 (1985).

1978 (1)

D. M. Makow and C. L. Sanders, “Additive colour properties and colour gamut of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature 276(5683), 48–50 (1978).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

R. S. Pindak, C.-C. Huang, and J. T. Ho, “Divergence of cholesteric pitch near a smectic A transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(2), 43–46 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (2)

J. Adams and W. Haas, “Sensitivity of cholesteric films to ultraviolet exposure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(12), 2026–2028 (1971).
[Crossref]

E. Sackmann, “Photochemically induced reversible color changes in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(25), 7088–7090 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between uv radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[Crossref]

Adams, J.

J. Adams and W. Haas, “Sensitivity of cholesteric films to ultraviolet exposure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(12), 2026–2028 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between uv radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. Z.

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ania, F.

F. Ania and H. Stegemeyer, “Cholesteric pitch behavior at the phase transition cholesteric to smectic B,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2(3–4), 67–76 (1985).

Bailey, C. A.

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barberi, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

Barrett, C. J.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, “Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182(3), 250–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bartolino, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye laser by a liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1–2), 161–169 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bricker, R. L.

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T.

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Cholesterics Doped with Azobenzene Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
[Crossref]

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chilaya, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chilaya, G. S.

G. S. Chilaya, “Light-controlled change in the helical pitch and broadband tunable cholesteric liquid-crystal lasers,” Crystallogr. Rep. 51(S1), S108–S118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. S.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cipparrone, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye laser by a liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1–2), 161–169 (1986).
[Crossref]

Coles, H. J.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Santo, M. P.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

De Sio, L.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duning, M. M.

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Durstock, M. F.

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eelkema, R.

R. Eelkema and B. L. Feringa, “Reversible full-range color control of a cholesteric liquid-crystalline film by using a molecular motor,” Chem. Asian J. 1(3), 367–369 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feringa, B. L.

R. Eelkema and B. L. Feringa, “Reversible full-range color control of a cholesteric liquid-crystalline film by using a molecular motor,” Chem. Asian J. 1(3), 367–369 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

Furumi, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Phototunable photonic bandgap in a chiral liquid crystal laser device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grozhik, V. A.

Haas, W.

J. Adams and W. Haas, “Sensitivity of cholesteric films to ultraviolet exposure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(12), 2026–2028 (1971).
[Crossref]

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between uv radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. T.

R. S. Pindak, C.-C. Huang, and J. T. Ho, “Divergence of cholesteric pitch near a smectic A transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(2), 43–46 (1974).
[Crossref]

Hoke, L.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

Hrozhyk, U.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
[Crossref]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Cholesterics Doped with Azobenzene Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-C.

R. S. Pindak, C.-C. Huang, and J. T. Ho, “Divergence of cholesteric pitch near a smectic A transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(2), 43–46 (1974).
[Crossref]

Huck, W. T. S.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hurtubise, J. M.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kamei, T.

N. Tamaoki and T. Kamei, “Reversible photo-regulation of the properties of liquid crystals doped with photochromic compounds,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 11(2–3), 47–61 (2010).

Kanazawa, A.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kedziora, G.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

Khizhnyak, A.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

Kimball, B. R.

Kurihara, S.

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12(1), 9–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kutulya, L.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-H.

Liu, J. H.

Makow, D. M.

D. M. Makow and C. L. Sanders, “Additive colour properties and colour gamut of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature 276(5683), 48–50 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mashiko, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Phototunable photonic bandgap in a chiral liquid crystal laser device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref]

McConney, M. E.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010).
[Crossref]

Morris, S. M.

S. S. Choi, S. M. Morris, W. T. S. Huck, and H. J. Coles, “Simultaneous red-green-blue reflection and wavelength tuning from an achiral liquid crystal and a polymer template,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(1), 53–56 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natarajan, L. V.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nomiyama, S.

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12(1), 9–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nonaka, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kurihara, S. Nomiyama, and T. Nonaka, “Photochemical switching between a compensated nematic phase and a twisted nematic phase by photoisomerization of chiral azobenzene molecules,” Chem. Mater. 12(1), 9–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ogata, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otomo, A.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Phototunable photonic bandgap in a chiral liquid crystal laser device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Park, L.-S.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, and M. P. De Santo, “Cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures sensitive to different ranges of solar UV irradiation,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 434(1), 25/[353]–38/[366] (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pindak, R. S.

R. S. Pindak, C.-C. Huang, and J. T. Ho, “Divergence of cholesteric pitch near a smectic A transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 32(2), 43–46 (1974).
[Crossref]

Resihetnyak, V.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Reznikov, Y.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sackmann, E.

E. Sackmann, “Photochemically induced reversible color changes in cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 93(25), 7088–7090 (1971).
[Crossref]

Sanders, C. L.

D. M. Makow and C. L. Sanders, “Additive colour properties and colour gamut of cholesteric liquid crystals,” Nature 276(5683), 48–50 (1978).
[Crossref]

Serak, S.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Serak and N. Tabiryan, “Microwatt power optically controlled spatial solitons in azobenzene liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Y1–63320Y13 (2006).

Serak, S. V.

Shiono, T.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sikharulidze, D.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, and D. Sikharulidze, “Light induced effects in cholesteric mixtures with a photosensitive nematic host,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 409, 209–218 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye laser by a liquid crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1–2), 161–169 (1986).
[Crossref]

Steeves, D.

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

Steeves, D. M.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystalline materials for efficient optical switching with pulsed and/or continuous wave laser beams,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8697–8704 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora,”Systematic study of absorption spectra of donor–acceptor azobenzene mesogenic structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583]–272[598] (2008).

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

Stegemeyer, H.

F. Ania and H. Stegemeyer, “Cholesteric pitch behavior at the phase transition cholesteric to smectic B,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Lett. 2(3–4), 67–76 (1985).

Sutherland, R. L.

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tabiryan, N.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, D. Steeves, L. Hoke, and B. Kimball, “Azobenzene liquid crystals for fast reversible optical switching and enhanced sensitivity for visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 7414, 74140L, (2009).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, G. Kedziora, and B. Kimball, “High optical nonlinearity of azobenzene liquid crystals for short laser pulses,” Proc. SPIE 7050, 705007 (2008).

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. Bunning, “Nonlinear transmission of photosensitive cholesteric liquid crystals due to spectral bandwidth auto-tuning or restoration,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 16(04), 471–483 (2007).
[Crossref]

U. Hrozhyk, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Wide temperature range azobenzene nematic and smectic LC materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 454(1), 235/[637]–245/[647] (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Serak and N. Tabiryan, “Microwatt power optically controlled spatial solitons in azobenzene liquid crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320Y1–63320Y13 (2006).

Tabiryan, N. V.

Tamaoki, N.

N. Tamaoki and T. Kamei, “Reversible photo-regulation of the properties of liquid crystals doped with photochromic compounds,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 11(2–3), 47–61 (2010).

Tondiglia, V. P.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, O.

O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, and L.-S. Park, “Photoinduced phase transition of nematic liquid crystals with donor-acceptor azobenzenes: mechanism of the thermal recovery of the nematic phase,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1(18), 4219–4224 (1999).
[Crossref]

Umeton, C.

L. De Sio, S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and C. Umeton, “Mesogenic versus non-mesogenic azo dye confined in a soft-matter template for realization of optically switchable diffraction gratings,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(19), 6811–6814 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vinvogradov, V.

V. Vinvogradov, A. Khizhnyak, L. Kutulya, Y. Reznikov, and V. Resihetnyak, “Photoinduced change of cholesteric LC-pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 192(1), 273–278 (1990).
[Crossref]

White, T. J.

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. White, M. E. McConney, and T. J. Bunning, “Dynamic color in stimuli-responsive cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(44), 9832–9847 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. A. Bailey, V. P. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, M. M. Duning, R. L. Bricker, R. L. Sutherland, T. J. White, M. F. Durstock, and T. J. Bunning, “Electromechanical tuning of cholesteric liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(1), 013105 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, F. C.

Wysocki, J.

W. Haas, J. Adams, and J. Wysocki, “Interaction between uv radiation and cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 7(1), 371–379 (1969).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

M. Xu and D.-K. Yang, “Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 720–722 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yager, K. G.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, “Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182(3), 250–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. K.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst. 29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.-K.

M. Xu and D.-K. Yang, “Dual frequency cholesteric light shutters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 720–722 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, and S. Mashiko, “Phototunable photonic bandgap in a chiral liquid crystal laser device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2491–2493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yoshioka, T.

M. Z. Alam, T. Yoshioka, T. Ogata, T. Nonaka, and S. Kurihara, “Influence of helical twisting power on the photoswitching behavior of chiral azobenzene compounds: applications to high-performance switching devices,” Chemistry 13(9), 2641–2647 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst. 29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, “Optical Tuning of the Reflection of Cholesterics Doped with Azobenzene Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

M. E. McConney, V. P. Tondiglia, J. M. Hurtubise, L. V. Natarajan, T. J. White, and T. J. Bunning, “Thermally induced, multicolored hyper-reflective cholesteric liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(12), 1453–1457 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (2054 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2530 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (2650 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup: NDF, set of neutral density filters; QW, quarter waveplate; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; PM1 – PM3, power meters.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of 3.1-μm thick planar NLC cell CPND-8(10%)/5CB measured (1) before and (2) during an exposure to a blue laser beam of 473 nm wavelength and 35 mW/cm2 power density. The inset shows the chemical structure of CPND series azo dyes: R = C7H15 for CPND-7 and R = C8H17 for CPND-8.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection spectra for 5-μm thick CLC cells in the blue-green portion of the pectrum: 1 – CLC-1, 2 – CLC-2; 3 – CLC-3. Dotted curve corresponds to absorption spectrum of the CPND azo dye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity of reflected light as a function of time for response (■) and relaxation (○) of CLC bandgaps with laser beams of different wavelengths: (a) 458 nm (CLC-1) (Media 1), (b) 488 nm (CLC-2) (Media 2), and (c) 532 nm (CLC-3) (Media 3). The intensity of the beam is 28 mW/cm2 in (a) and (b), and 65 mW/cm2 in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission (T) and reflection (R) coefficients as a function of the input beam power: (a) corresponds to the CLC-1 subject to circularly polarized 458 nm laser irradiation; (b) CLC-2 with 488 nm irradiation; and (c) CLC-3 with 532 laser irradiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response time of (a) reflection and (b) transmission vs power of laser beams of different wavelengths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The ratio of the response times for transmission and reflection obtained for CLC-2 exposed to the blue laser beam (488 nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Periodic switching between reflective and transmittive states of CLC-2 (5-μm thick) with the blue laser beam (488 nm).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material Compositions used in the Study and Their Optical Properties

Equations (3)

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σc> ρ C P τI ( T c T o ).
δQ(T,c)= Q T δT+ Q C δc,
δT Q 0 + i f c.

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