Abstract

We systematically study the optical spectra of ZnO grown by atomic-layer deposition as a function of Al (and Ti) doping concentration. The spectra measured on films are well described by fits using a Drude free-electron model. The derived plasma frequencies are consistent with the expected amount of doping and can be continuously and controllably tuned from small values to about 400 THz. The losses (damping) are also quantified. In addition, we achieve smooth conformal coatings of three-dimensional polymer templates made by direct laser writing. Altogether, Al:ZnO appears as an attractive “tunable metal” for three-dimensional infrared metamaterials or transformation-optics architectures.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14(2), 800–809 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Li, M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, D. Buso, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional hybrid photonic crystals merged with localized plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4491–4498 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Elam and S. M. George, “Growth of ZnO/Al2O3 alloy films using atomic layer deposition techniques,” Chem. Mater. 15(4), 1020–1028 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. J. Kwon, “Effect of precursor-pulse on properties of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 1062–1066 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. V. Naik and A. Boltasseva, “A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials,” Metamaterials 5(1), 1–7 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (7)

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Naik and A. Boltasseva, “A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials,” Metamaterials 5(1), 1–7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Li, M. M. Hossain, B. Jia, D. Buso, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional hybrid photonic crystals merged with localized plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4491–4498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional fabrication of metallic nanostructures over large areas by two-photon polymerization,” Opt. Express 14(2), 800–809 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

S. J. Kwon, “Effect of precursor-pulse on properties of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 1062–1066 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. W. Elam and S. M. George, “Growth of ZnO/Al2O3 alloy films using atomic layer deposition techniques,” Chem. Mater. 15(4), 1020–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. H.

C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alabastri, A.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

An, K.-S.

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andryieuski, A.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arstila, K.

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bae, K.-R.

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik and A. Boltasseva, “A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials,” Metamaterials 5(1), 1–7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buso, D.

Cao, H.

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiyoda, K.

Cho, H. K.

C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-J.

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denning, R. G.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elam, J. W.

J. W. Elam and S. M. George, “Growth of ZnO/Al2O3 alloy films using atomic layer deposition techniques,” Chem. Mater. 15(4), 1020–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Emani, N. K.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essig, S.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Formanek, F.

Freymann, G.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frölich, A.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furstenberg, R.

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, S. M.

J. W. Elam and S. M. George, “Growth of ZnO/Al2O3 alloy films using atomic layer deposition techniques,” Chem. Mater. 15(4), 1020–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerthsen, D.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gissibl, T.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Godlewski, M.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Golledge, S.

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R. G.

B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graugnard, E.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Guziewicz, E.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, H.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hatanpää, T.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hermatschweiler, M.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, M. M.

Ishii, S.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

Jakiela, R.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Jin Yun, S.

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kariniemi, M.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kemell, M.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keun Kim, S.

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. G.

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

King, J. S.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klotzbücher, T.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko Park, S.-H.

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krajewski, T. A.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kriegler, C. E.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S. J.

S. J. Kwon, “Effect of precursor-pulse on properties of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 1062–1066 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. K.

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. B.

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-J.

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lim, B. S.

B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lujala, V.

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luka, G.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Malureanu, R.

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Müller, E.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Na, J.-S.

J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. V.

G. V. Naik and A. Boltasseva, “A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials,” Metamaterials 5(1), 1–7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Niinistö, J.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Niskanen, A.

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-H.

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, G. N.

J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Willard, F.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radke, A.

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rahtu, A.

B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roche, O. M.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubloff, G. W.

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajavaara, T.

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scarel, G.

J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scharrer, M.

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scrimgeour, J.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seong Hwang, C.

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D. N.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skarp, J.

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Staude, I.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, C. J.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suntola, T.

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takeyasu, N.

Tammenmaa, M.

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

Tétreault, N.

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turberfield, A. J.

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wachnicki, L.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-bandgap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36(1), 67–69 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

West, P. R.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Witkowski, B. S.

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamilov, A.

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (4)

A. Radke, T. Gissibl, T. Klotzbücher, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Three‐dimensional bichiral plasmonic crystals fabricated by direct laser writing and electroless silver plating,” Adv. Mater. 23(17), 3018–3021 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. King, E. Graugnard, O. M. Roche, D. N. Sharp, J. Scrimgeour, R. G. Denning, A. J. Turberfield, and C. J. Summers, “Infiltration and inversion of holographically defined polymer photonic crystal templates by atomic layer deposition,” Adv. Mater. 18(12), 1561–1565 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Tétreault, G. von Freymann, M. Deubel, M. Hermatschweiler, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, M. Wegener, and G. A. Ozin, “New route to three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials: silicon double inversion of polymer templates,” Adv. Mater. 18(4), 457–460 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Yu, Y.-J. Lee, R. Furstenberg, J. O. White, and P. V. Braun, “Filling fraction dependent properties of inverse opal metallic photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 19(13), 1689–1692 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

R. Malureanu, A. Alabastri, W. Cheng, R. Kiyan, B. Chichkov, A. Andryieuski, and A. Lavrinenko, “Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles,” Appl. Phys. A 103(3), 749–753 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, M. Thiel, E. Müller, S. Essig, A. Frölich, G. Freymann, S. Linden, D. Gerthsen, H. Hahn, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Transition between corrugated metal films and split-ring-resonator arrays,” Appl. Phys. B 96(4), 749–755 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Scharrer, X. Wu, A. Yamilov, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Fabrication of inverted opal ZnO photonic crystals by atomic layer deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 151113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

V. Lujala, J. Skarp, M. Tammenmaa, and T. Suntola, “Atomic layer epitaxy growth of doped zinc oxide thin films from organometals,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 82–83, 34–40 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

J. W. Elam and S. M. George, “Growth of ZnO/Al2O3 alloy films using atomic layer deposition techniques,” Chem. Mater. 15(4), 1020–1028 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Kariniemi, J. Niinistö, T. Hatanpää, M. Kemell, T. Sajavaara, M. Ritala, and M. Leskelä, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films,” Chem. Mater. 23(11), 2901–2907 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Vap. Deposition. (1)

A. Niskanen, T. Hatanpää, K. Arstila, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Radical‐enhanced atomic layer deposition of silver thin films using phosphine‐adducted silver carboxylates,” Chem. Vap. Deposition. 13(8), 408–413 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Banerjee, W.-J. Lee, K.-R. Bae, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff, “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043504 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

K.-S. An, W. Cho, B. K. Lee, S. S. Lee, and C. G. Kim, “Atomic layer deposition of undoped and Al-doped ZnO thin films using the Zn alkoxide precursor methylzinc isopropoxide,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 8(9), 4856–4859 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J.-S. Na, G. Scarel, and G. N. Parsons, “In situ analysis of dopant incorporation, activation, and film growth during thin film ZnO and ZnO:Al atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(1), 383–388 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Choi, H.-H. Park, S. Golledge, and D. C. Johnson, “Effective atomic layer deposition procedure for Al-dopant distribution in ZnO thin films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 28(5), 1111–1114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. J. Kwon, “Effect of precursor-pulse on properties of Al-doped ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), 1062–1066 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

G. Luka, L. Wachnicki, B. S. Witkowski, T. A. Krajewski, R. Jakiela, E. Guziewicz, and M. Godlewski, “The uniformity of Al distribution in aluminum-doped zinc oxide films grown by atomic layer deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 176(3), 237–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Metamaterials (1)

G. V. Naik and A. Boltasseva, “A comparative study of semiconductor-based plasmonic metamaterials,” Metamaterials 5(1), 1–7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

B. S. Lim, A. Rahtu, and R. G. Gordon, “Atomic layer deposition of transition metals,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 749–754 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva and H. A. Atwater, “Low-loss plasmonic metamaterials,” Science 331(6015), 290–291 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

S. Keun Kim, C. Seong Hwang, S.-H. Ko Park, and S. Jin Yun, “Comparison between ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition using H2O or O3 as oxidant,” Thin Solid Films 478(1-2), 103–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ahn, H. Kim, and H. K. Cho, “Deposition of Al doped ZnO layers with various electrical types by atomic layer deposition,” Thin Solid Films 519(2), 747–750 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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