Abstract

This article deals with the recent advances in photochemistry in optical materials induced by femtosecond laser pulses. The field of investigation of this paper is limited to bulk solid isotropic transparent materials (glasses and polymers), specifically tailored with photoactive agents. The formation mechanisms of laser-induced color centers, nanoclusters, nanoparticles and nanocrystallites are reviewed and argued, in particular the influence of the temperature during or after the laser irradiation. The relation between the photo-induced structures and the optical property modifications are discussed, as well as some applications.

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  100. G. Seifert, A. Stalmashonak, H. Hofmeister, J. Haug, and M. Dubiel, “Laser-induced, polarization dependent shape transformation of Au/Ag nanoparticles in glass,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(11), 1380–1383 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  101. A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, A. A. Unal, U. Skrzypczak, A. Podlipensky, A. Abdolvand, and H. Graener, “Towards the production of micro-polarizers by irradiation of composite glasses with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F37–F43 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  102. M. Kaempfe, T. Rainer, K.-J. Berg, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced deformation of silver nanoparticles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1200–1202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  103. M. Kaempfe, H. Hofmeister, S. Hopfe, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Morphological changes of silver nanoparticle distributions in glass induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11847–11852 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  104. G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, K.-J. Berg, and H. Graener, “Production of dichroitic diffraction gratings in glasses containing silver nanoparticles via particle deformation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 73(4), 355–359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  105. A. Stalmashonak, A. A. Unal, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, “Effects of temperature on laser-induced shape modification of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(28), 12028–12032 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  106. B. Fisette, F. Busque, J.-Y. Degorce, and M. Meunier, “Three-dimensional crystallization inside photosensitive glasses by focused femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  107. Y. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, X. Qiao, S. Ye, Y. Teng, Q. Guo, H. Ma, X. Fan, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser writing of Er3+-doped CaF2 crystalline patterns in glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3433–3435 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  108. L. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  109. Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 351, 885–892 (2005).

2011

W. Zheng and T. Kurobori, “Assignments and optical properties of X-ray-induced colour centres in blue and orange radiophotoluminescent silver-activated glasses,” J. Lumin. 131(1), 36–40 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, T. Kurobori, Y. Miyamoto, H. Nanto, and T. Yamamoto, “Formation and assignment of silver defect centres in phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Radiat. Meas. 1–4, (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Y. Dai, G. Yu, M. He, H. Ma, X. Yan, and G. Ma, “High repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation-induced elements redistribution in Ag-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 103(3), 663–667 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, Y. Shimotsuma, T. Nakaya, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Mechanism of heat-modification inside a glass after irradiation with high-repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 073533 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamamoto, K. Kinoshita, S. Koyama, Y. Takei, H. Nanto, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Emission mechanism of radiophotoluminescence in Ag-doped phosphate glass,” Radiat. Meas. 45(3-6), 546–549 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miyamoto, K. Kinoshita, S. Koyama, Y. Takei, H. Nanto, T. Yamamoto, M. Sakakura, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Emission and excitation mechanism of radiophotoluminescence in Ag+-activated phosphate glass,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 619(1-3), 71–74 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver-containing glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356, 2658–2665 (2010).

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D patterning at the nanoscale of fluorescent emitters in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. De Cremer, E. Coutiño-Gonzalez, M. B. J. Roeffaers, D. E. De Vos, J. Hofkens, T. Vosch, and B. F. Sels, “In situ observation of the emission characteristics of zeolite-hosted silver species during heat treatment,” ChemPhysChem 11(8), 1627–1631 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y.-L. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, “Designable 3D nanofabrication by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Nano Today 5(5), 435–448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. De Cremer, B. F. Sels, J.-I. Hotta, M. B. J. Roeffaers, E. Bartholomeeusen, E. Coutino-Gonzales, V. Valtchev, D. E. De Vos, T. Vosch, and J. Hofkens, “Optical encoding of silver zeolite microcarriers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22, 957–960 (2010).

A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, D. Puerto, W. Gawelda, J. A. Vallés, M. A. Rebolledo, V. Berdejo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “In situ assessment and minimization of nonlinear propagation effects for femtosecond-laser waveguide writing in dielectrics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(8), 1688–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. Liu, M. Shimizu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, B. Qian, J. Qiu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micromodification of element distribution in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 34(2), 136–138 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, A. A. Unal, U. Skrzypczak, A. Podlipensky, A. Abdolvand, and H. Graener, “Towards the production of micro-polarizers by irradiation of composite glasses with silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Opt. 48(25), F37–F43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, B. Zhu, Y. Dai, X. Qiao, S. Ye, Y. Teng, Q. Guo, H. Ma, X. Fan, and J. Qiu, “Femtosecond laser writing of Er3+-doped CaF2 crystalline patterns in glass,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3433–3435 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Spectral range extension of laser-induced dichroism in composite glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(6), 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Seifert, A. Stalmashonak, H. Hofmeister, J. Haug, and M. Dubiel, “Laser-induced, polarization dependent shape transformation of Au/Ag nanoparticles in glass,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 4(11), 1380–1383 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photoionization and laser-induced damage in silicate glasses by infrared ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 96(1), 127–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, A. A. Unal, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, “Effects of temperature on laser-induced shape modification of silver nanoparticles embedded in glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(28), 12028–12032 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zijlstra, J. W. M. Chon, and M. Gu, “Five-dimensional optical recording mediated by surface plasmons in gold nanorods,” Nature 459(7245), 410–413 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. De Cremer, E. Coutiño-Gonzalez, M. B. J. Roeffaers, B. Moens, J. Ollevier, M. Van der Auweraer, R. Schoonheydt, P. A. Jacobs, F. C. De Schryver, J. Hofkens, D. E. De Vos, B. F. Sels, and T. Vosch, “Characterization of fluorescence in heat-treated silver-exchanged zeolites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(8), 3049–3056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Ultrafast dynamics of silver nanoparticle shape transformation studied by femtosecond pulse-pair irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 79(11), 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Time-resolved investigation of laser-induced shape transformation of silver nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Intensity-driven, laser induced transformation of Ag nanospheres to anisotropic shapes,” Appl. Phys. B 94(3), 459–465 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, “Transformation of silver nanospheres embedded in glass to nanodisks using circularly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, K.-S. Jang, J.-H. Shin, M.-T. Trinh, K.-S. Lim, I.-B. Sohn, Y.-C. Noh, J. Lee, and E. Kim, “Spectral change in silver-doped sodium-borate glass by using femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(5), 1665–1668 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. De Cremer, Y. Antoku, M. B. J. Roeffaers, M. Sliwa, J. Van Noyen, S. Smout, J. Hofkens, D. E. De Vos, B. F. Sels, and T. Vosch, “Photoactivation of silver-exchanged zeolite A,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(15), 2813–2816 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Siiman, J. Lumeau, and L. B. Glebov, “Nonlinear photosensitivity of photo-thermo-refractive glass by high intensity laser irradiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 4070–4074 (2008).

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, M. Dubov, V. K. Mezentsev, I. Bennion, and M. J. Withford, “Investigation of ultrafast laser–photonic material interactions: challenges for directly written glass photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1370–1381 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced microfeatures in glasses and their applications,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 354, 1100–1111 (2008).

L. Canioni, M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, and T. Cardinal, “Three-dimensional optical data storage using third-harmonic generation in silver zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 360–362 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Optical three-dimensional shape analysis of metallic nanoparticles after laser-induced deformation,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, X. Hu, C. Wang, D. Chen, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, B. Yu, and J. Qiu, “Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters in glass induced by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 81–84 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, J. Qiu, P. G. Kazansky, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Application of femtosecond-laser induced nanostructures in optical memory,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7(1), 94–104 (2007).
[PubMed]

B. Hua, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nishi, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Micro-modification of metal-doped glasses by a femtosecond laser,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoengineering 2, 36–39 (2007).

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4-6), 253–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Gleitsmann, T. M. Bernhardt, and L. Wöste, “Luminescence properties of femtosecond-laser-activated silver oxide nanoparticles embedded in a biopolymer matrix,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 82(1), 125–130 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Rajeev, M. Gertsvolf, E. Simova, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Memory in nonlinear ionization of transparent solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(25), 253001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dai, J. Qiu, X. Hu, L. Yang, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and B. Yu, “Effect of cerium oxide on the precipitation of silver nanoparticles in femtosecond laser irradiated silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. B 84(3), 501–505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Q. Zhao, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective co-precipitation of silver and gold nanoparticles in femtosecond laser pulses irradiated Ag+, Au3+ co-doped silicate glass,” Solid State Commun. 138(1), 43–46 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fisette, F. Busque, J.-Y. Degorce, and M. Meunier, “Three-dimensional crystallization inside photosensitive glasses by focused femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 091104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5279–5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Ashcom, R. R. Gattass, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Numerical aperture dependence of damage and supercontinuum generation from femtosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(11), 2317–2322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13158–13163 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, “Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3208–3217 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yonesaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 351, 885–892 (2005).

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, “Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(7), 1019–1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Podlipensky, A. Abdolvand, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Femtosecond laser assisted production of dichroitic 3D structures in composite glass containing Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(8), 1647–1652 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Gleitsmann, B. Stegemann, and T. M. Bernhardt, “Femtosecond-laser-activated fluorescence from silver oxide nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4050–4052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Podlipensky, V. Grebenev, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Ionization and photomodification of Ag nanoparticles in soda-lime glass by 150 fs laser irradiation: a luminescence study,” J. Lumin. 109, 135–142 (2004).

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, P. L. Knight, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and G. L. Yudin, “Ultrafast multiphoton forest fires and fractals in clusters and dielectrics,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 37(3), L57–L67 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Mao, F. Quéré, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, “Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 1695–1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Zeng, J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and F. Gan, “Effect of Al2O3 on the precipitation of Ag nanoparticles in silicate glasses,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 255–258 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Qu, J. Qiu, C. Zhao, X. Jiang, H. Zeng, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Metal nanoparticles precipitation in periodic arrays in Au2O-doped glass by two interfered femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2046–2048 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, H. Inouye, J. Si, and K. Hirao, “Optical properties of structurally modified glasses doped with gold ions,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 370–372 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q.-Z. Zhao, J.-R. Qiu, X.-W. Jiang, C.-J. Zhao, and C.-S. Zhu, “Controllable precipitation and dissolution of silver nanoparticles in ultrafast laser pulses irradiated Ag+-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 12(17), 4035–4040 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Podlipensky, J. Lange, G. Seifert, H. Graener, and I. Cravetchi, “Second-harmonic generation from ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles embedded in silica glass,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 716–718 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama, “Three-dimensional micro-optical components embedded in photosensitive glass by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(13), 1144–1146 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, M. Masuda, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, and K. Midorikawa, “Optical gratings embedded in photosensitive glass by photochemical reaction using a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1809–1816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Masuda, K. Sugioka, Y. Cheng, N. Aoki, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, K. Toyoda, H. Helvajian, and K. Midorikawa, “3-D microstructuring inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(5), 857–860 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, M. Shirai, T. Nakaya, J. Si, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of metal nanoparticles inside glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(16), 3040–3042 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Kaempfe, G. Seifert, K.-J. Berg, H. Hofmeister, and H. Graener, “Polarization dependence of the permanent deformation of silver nanoparticles in glass by ultrashort laser pulses,” Eur. Phys. J. D 16(1), 237–240 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Squier and J. Muller, “High resolution nonlinear microscopy: A review of sources and methods for achieving optical imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(7), 2855–2867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, C. Zhu, T. Nakaya, J. Si, K. Kojima, F. Ogura, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective valence state manipulation of transition metal ions inside glasses by a femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(22), 3567–3569 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, G. Namikawa, T. Onuki, K. Nishio, and T. Tsuchiya, “Photosensitivity in phosphate glass doped with Ag+ upon exposure to near-ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2125–2127 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, K.-J. Berg, and H. Graener, “Production of dichroitic diffraction gratings in glasses containing silver nanoparticles via particle deformation with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 73(4), 355–359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Martin, J. J. Videau, L. Canioni, F. Adamietz, L. Sarger, and G. Le Flem, “Planar waveguides formed by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange in nonlinear optical glasses: diffusion and optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 39(3), 435–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kaempfe, H. Hofmeister, S. Hopfe, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Morphological changes of silver nanoparticle distributions in glass induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11847–11852 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective growth of frequency-conversion crystals in glasses with ultrashort infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 25(6), 408–410 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Qiu, P. G. Kazanski, J. Si, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, K. Hirao, and A. L. Gaeta, “Memorized polarization-dependent light scattering in rare-earth-ion-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(13), 1940–1942 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Seifert, M. Kaempfe, K.-J. Berg, and H. Graener, “Femtosecond pump-probe investigation of ultrafast silver nanoparticle deformation in a glass matrix,” Appl. Phys. B 71, 795–800 (2000).

1999

J. Qiu, K. Miura, T. Suzuki, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Permanent photoreduction of Sm3+ to Sm2+ inside a sodium aluminoborate glass by an infrared femtosecond pulsed laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 10–12 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaempfe, T. Rainer, K.-J. Berg, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Ultrashort laser pulse induced deformation of silver nanoparticles in glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(9), 1200–1202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kaempfe, H. Hofmeister, S. Hopfe, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, “Morphological changes of silver nanoparticle distributions in glass induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(50), 11847–11852 (2000).
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J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, H. Inouye, J. Si, and K. Hirao, “Optical properties of structurally modified glasses doped with gold ions,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 370–372 (2004).
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L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, “Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(7), 1019–1030 (2005).
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G. De Cremer, Y. Antoku, M. B. J. Roeffaers, M. Sliwa, J. Van Noyen, S. Smout, J. Hofkens, D. E. De Vos, B. F. Sels, and T. Vosch, “Photoactivation of silver-exchanged zeolite A,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(15), 2813–2816 (2008).
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Videau, J.-J.

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Yoshino, F.

Yu, B.

Y. Dai, B. Zhu, J. Qiu, H. Ma, B. Lu, and B. Yu, “Space-selective precipitation of functional crystals in glass by using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 443(4-6), 253–257 (2007).
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A. Royon, K. Bourhis, M. Bellec, G. Papon, B. Bousquet, Y. Deshayes, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Silver clusters embedded in glass as a perennial high capacity optical recording medium,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(46), 5282–5286 (2010).
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J. Qiu, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, M. Shirai, J. Si, N. Jiang, and K. Hirao, “Manipulation of gold nanoparticles inside transparent materials,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 43(17), 2230–2234 (2004).
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Chem. Phys. Lett.

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Y. Dai, X. Hu, C. Wang, D. Chen, X. Jiang, C. Zhu, B. Yu, and J. Qiu, “Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters in glass induced by an infrared femtosecond laser,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 81–84 (2007).
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ChemPhysChem

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J. Non-Cryst. Solids

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear absorption (a) and four-photon absorption (b) of a Gaussian beam focused with a 0.5-numerical aperture microscope objective inside a random material. In the case of multiphoton absorption, the laser energy is absorbed inside the focal volume.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fluence scale of the different response regimes of materials in general (a) and of fused silica in particular (b) exposed to femtosecond pulses. In the general case, when increasing the fluence, photochemical reactions are followed by chemical bond breakings and fusion, by network reorganization and finally by micro-explosions. In the specific case of fused silica, these phenomena correspond to first an isotropic RI change (type 1), then an anisotropic RI change (type 2), and finally to micro-cavities with a low RI core and a high RI shell (type 3).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timescale of the physical phenomena involved in laser-material interaction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generic experimental setup for femtosecond laser structuring of transparent materials. AOM stands for Acousto-Optical Modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Different steps leading to the formation of nanoclusters, NPs and nanocrystallites. Once nucleation centers are formed from photo-ionization, nanoclusters, NPs and nanocrystallites grow as the temperature of the thermal treatment increases. Ta is the activation temperature and Tg is the glass transition temperature. MPI stands for multiphoton ionization.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Desired Optical Property Changes, the Associated fs Laser-Induced Photochemical Reactions and the Possible Applications

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ = m e c ε 0 n 0 E g ω L 2 e 2 I ,
D t h = κ / ρ 0 C p ,
τ D w 0 2 / 4 D t h .
T ( r , t ) t [ D t h ( T ) × T ( r , t ) ] = Q ( r , t ) ρ 0 C p ,
C i ( r , t ) t [ D i ( T ) × C i ( r , t ) ] = 0 ,

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