Abstract

We observed origin and evolution of optical anisotropy produced by self-organized nanogratings in silica glass. Its polarization dependence was also demonstrated.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Reichman, J. W. Chan, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. M. Krol, “Spectroscopic characterization of different femtosecond laser modification regimes in fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(7), 1627–1632 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 325–327 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).
  16. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Terazima, “Ultrafast transient Kerr lens in solution detected by the dual-beam thermal-lens method,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 25–27 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

2002 (5)

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, D. Polli, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, and S. De Silvestri, “Femtosecond micromachining of symmetric waveguides at 1.5 µm by astigmatic beam focusing,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1938–1940 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

H. B. Sun, Y. Xu, S. Juodkazis, K. Sun, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Arbitrary-lattice photonic crystals created by multiphoton microfabrication,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 325–327 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

M. Terazima, “Ultrafast transient Kerr lens in solution detected by the dual-beam thermal-lens method,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 25–27 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beresna, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Boyce, R. S.

J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Cawley, J. D.

J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

W. J. Reichman, J. W. Chan, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. M. Krol, “Spectroscopic characterization of different femtosecond laser modification regimes in fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(7), 1627–1632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couty, R.

P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D’Oliveira, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Daguzan, Ph.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Daniel, I.

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, K.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gillet, P.

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Guizard, S.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kalen, J. D.

J. D. Kalen, R. S. Boyce, and J. D. Cawley, “Oxygen tracer diffusion in vitreous silica,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 74(1), 203–209 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kokubo, Y.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

W. J. Reichman, J. W. Chan, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. M. Krol, “Spectroscopic characterization of different femtosecond laser modification regimes in fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(7), 1627–1632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, H.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuzuu, N.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

Marangoni, M.

Martin, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, P. F.

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meynadier, P.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Mills, J. D.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Okuno, M.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Perdrix, M.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piriou, B.

P. F. McMillan, B. Piriou, and R. Couty, “A Raman study of pressure-densified vitreous silica,” J. Chem. Phys. 81(10), 4234–4236 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Poe, B. T.

I. Daniel, P. Gillet, B. T. Poe, and P. F. McMillan, “In-situ high-temperature Raman spectroscopic studies of aluminosilicate liquids,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 22(2), 74–86 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reichman, W. J.

Reynard, B.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakakura, M.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Serizawa, I.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Shimada, M.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Heating and rapid cooling of bulk glass after photoexcitation by a focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16800–16807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Observation of pressure wave generated by focusing a femtosecond laser pulse inside a glass,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5674–5686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “The origin of the intrinsic 1.9 eV luminescence band in glassy SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 179, 51–69 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

Starrost, F.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Sun, K.

Syono, Y.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terazima, M.

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Willaime, C.

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Zeng, L.-H.

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura, M. Shimizu, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Temperature distribution and modification mechanism inside glass with heat accumulation during 250 kHz irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 231112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3329–3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrashort-pulse laser calligraphy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 171109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Sakakura, M. Terazima, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Thermal and shock induced modification inside a silica glass by focused femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(2), 023503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Kokubo, N. Kuzuu, I. Serizawa, L.-H. Zeng, and K. Fujii, “Structural changes of various types of silica glass tube upon blowing with hydrogen–oxygen flame,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 38–45 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, “Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly-focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(11), 1784–1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 333–339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Cho, H. Kumagai, and K. Midorikawa, “In situ observation of dynamics of plasma formation and refractive index modification in silica glasses excited by a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Commun. 207(1-6), 243–253 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Chem. Miner. (2)

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[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, B. Reynard, M. Shimada, Y. Syono, and C. Willaime, “A Raman spectroscopic study of shock-wave densification of vitreous silica,” Phys. Chem. Miner. 26(4), 304–311 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. Martin, S. Guizard, Ph. Daguzan, G. Petite, P. D’Oliveira, P. Meynadier, and M. Perdrix, “Subpicosecond study of carrier trapping dynamics in wide-band-gap crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 55(9), 5799–5810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sakakura and M. Terazima, “Initial temporal and spatial changes of the refractive index induced by focused femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation inside a glass,” Phys. Rev. B 71(2), 024113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125435 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, “Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(12), 2248–2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 19(24), 247405 (2003).

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of experimental setup for the TrL method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristic micrographs of localized birefringence, induced by focused femtosecond laser with various polarization direction (E), taken with optical (upper row) and polarization (lower row) microscope (pseudo color indicates direction of the slow axis, a slow, see polar legend).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse diagrams of pulse-by-pulse analysis of plasma emission. P trig, τ int and τ w indicate a trigger pulse, a laser interpulse time and an acquisition gate width, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TrL signals excited by various excitation energy. The signals are offset for clarity and the baselines of the signals are drawn by broken lines. (b) Plot of the oscillation amplitude against the excitation energy (filled circles). The inset shows the definition of the oscillation amplitude, which is defined by the difference between the signal intensity at the first positive peak and that at the second negative peak.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Raman spectra of the modified regions written with various pulse energies. (b) The peak intensities of the D2 bands plotted against the pulse energies. The intensities were normalized by that from the non-irradiated area.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Top-view (upper row) and cross-sectional (lower row) optical micrograph of femtosecond laser induced structure in silica glass with different number of pulses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Pulse-by-pulse plasma emission spectra by changing number of trigger pulse (P trig). The acquisition gate width is 1 μs. (b) The peak intensity profiles of plasma emission ranging from 350 nm to 750 nm as a function of the number of trigger pulse for various interpulse intervals (τ int).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscopic fluorescence spectra of femtosecond laser modified regions in a synthetic fused silica with different OH concentration. The 250 kHz femtosecond laser pulses with pulse energy of 1 μJ were focused inside the silica glass samples. Raman signal was also detected on the edge of the fluorescence peak (double-headed arrow).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Evolution of photoluminescence intensity attributed to NBOHC defects for two orthogonal polarizations (E = 0° and 90°) versus number of pulses with different τ int (4 μs, 40 μs, 100 μs, 1 ms).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Evolution of retardance (a) and intensity of D2 Raman peak (b) for two orthogonal polarizations (E = 0° and 90°) versus number of pulses with different τint (4 μs, 40 μs, 400 μs, 4 ms).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Micrographs taken with polarization microscope indicating the orientation of slow axis (a slow) and the retardance value (δ) induced by various numbers of pulses at τ int = 40 μs.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Peak intensity profiles of the broad plasma emission ranging from 360 to 720 nm and the laser energy attenuation. Dotted curves are sine function fits to the data. Inset shows the observed transmitted spectra at E = 0° or 90°.

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