Abstract

We report on large-surface-area micro-patterning of a bulk chalcogenide glass by a PDMS soft mould. Micrometre-scale (width ~4μm and depth ~0.8 μm) test patterns such as ribs, channels and a lens array are successfully imprinted into the surface of high refractive index As3S7 bulk glass at 225°C without any applied external pressure. The mean-square roughness of the patterned glass surface is in the range 3 – 10 nm. Soft imprinting of bulk chalcogenide glass is an efficient method for reliable fabrication of optical and photonic devices.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

E. Ruckenstein and G. O. Berim, “Microscopic description of a drop on a solid surface,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 157(1-2), 1–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Han, S. Madden, D. Bulla, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low loss chalcogenide glass waveguides by thermal nano-imprint lithography,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19286–19291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sanghera, C. Florea, L. Busse, B. Shaw, F. Miklos, and I. Aggarwal, “Reduced Fresnel losses in chalcogenide fibers by using anti-reflective surface structures on fiber end faces,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26760–26768 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based Mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Yannopoulos and M. L. Trunov, “Photoplastic effects in chalcogenide glasses: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1773–1785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Mori, “Tellurite-based fibers and their applications to optical communication networsk,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1040–1051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. P. Johari, “On Poission’s ratio of glass and liquid vitrification characteristics,” Philos. Mag. 86(11), 1567–1579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Georgiev, P. Boolchand, and K. A. Jackson, “Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. 83(25), 2941–2953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its applications to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

2001

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

1998

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. N. Taraskin and S. R. Elliott, “Phonons in vitreous silica: dispersion and localization,” Europhys. Lett. 39(1), 37–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. A. Angell, “Formation of glasses from liquids and biopolymers,” Science 267(5206), 1924–1935 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1944

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based Mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Angell, C. A.

C. A. Angell, “Formation of glasses from liquids and biopolymers,” Science 267(5206), 1924–1935 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baro, A. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baxter, S.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bayya, S.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Bender, M.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

Berim, G. O.

E. Ruckenstein and G. O. Berim, “Microscopic description of a drop on a solid surface,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 157(1-2), 1–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boolchand, P.

D. G. Georgiev, P. Boolchand, and K. A. Jackson, “Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. 83(25), 2941–2953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buczynski, R.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

Busse, L.

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Cassie, A. B. D.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colchero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diduszko, R.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. R.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Taraskin and S. R. Elliott, “Phonons in vitreous silica: dispersion and localization,” Europhys. Lett. 39(1), 37–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, R.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filipkowski, A.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Fuchs, A.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furniss, D.

Georgiev, D. G.

D. G. Georgiev, P. Boolchand, and K. A. Jackson, “Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. 83(25), 2941–2953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glinsner, T.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, O. F.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Herrero, J.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez-Rodríguez, J. M.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, T.

Horcas, I.

I. Horcas, R. Fernández, J. M. Gómez-Rodríguez, J. Colchero, J. Gómez-Herrero, and A. M. Baro, “WSXM: a software for scanning probe microscopy and a tool for nanotechnology,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 013705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, K. A.

D. G. Georgiev, P. Boolchand, and K. A. Jackson, “Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation of bulk As2S3 glass,” Philos. Mag. 83(25), 2941–2953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johari, G. P.

G. P. Johari, “On Poission’s ratio of glass and liquid vitrification characteristics,” Philos. Mag. 86(11), 1567–1579 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaakkunen, J. J. J.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, S. U.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kito, C.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kohoutek, T.

Kontio, J.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kujawa, I.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Kurz, H.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehmuskero, A.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lian, Z. G.

Liao, M.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Maeda, R.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, F.

Mirkowska, M.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, “Tellurite-based fibers and their applications to optical communication networsk,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1040–1051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moshchalkov, V. V.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murakoshi, Y.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Niemi, T.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orava, J.

Paivasaari, K.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

Pessa, M.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Plachetka, U.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Pysz, D.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ran, J.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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E. Ruckenstein and G. O. Berim, “Microscopic description of a drop on a solid surface,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 157(1-2), 1–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rytkonen, T.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J.

Sanghera, J. S.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based Mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Seddon, A. B.

Shan, X. C.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, B.

Shaw, L. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based Mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Silvennoinen, M.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stepien, R.

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taraskin, S. N.

S. N. Taraskin and S. R. Elliott, “Phonons in vitreous silica: dispersion and localization,” Europhys. Lett. 39(1), 37–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

ten Elshof, J. E.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, P.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

Ticha, H.

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its applications to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

Tichy, L.

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its applications to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

Tikhomirov, V. K.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Trunov, M. L.

S. N. Yannopoulos and M. L. Trunov, “Photoplastic effects in chalcogenide glasses: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1773–1785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahimaa, P.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Viheriälä, J.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vratzov, B.

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
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Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yannopoulos, S. N.

S. N. Yannopoulos and M. L. Trunov, “Photoplastic effects in chalcogenide glasses: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1773–1785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.

E. Ruckenstein and G. O. Berim, “Microscopic description of a drop on a solid surface,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 157(1-2), 1–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 37(5), 550–575 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28 μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(16), 161103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

M. Silvennoinen, K. Paivasaari, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, V. K. Tikhomirov, A. Lehmuskero, P. Vahimaa, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Imprinting the nanostructures on the high refractive index semiconductor glass,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(15), 6829–6832 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Viheriälä, T. Niemi, J. Kontio, T. Rytkonen, and M. Pessa, “Fabrication of surface reliefs on facets of singlemode optical fibres using nanoimprint,” Electron. Lett. 43(3), 150–151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

S. N. Taraskin and S. R. Elliott, “Phonons in vitreous silica: dispersion and localization,” Europhys. Lett. 39(1), 37–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Chalcogenide glass-fiber-based Mid-IR sources and applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 114–119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.

A. Mori, “Tellurite-based fibers and their applications to optical communication networsk,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116(1358), 1040–1051 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.

J. E. ten Elshof, S. U. Khan, and O. F. Göbel, “Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 30(7), 1555–1577 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Stepien, R. Buczynski, D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, A. Filipkowski, M. Mirkowska, and R. Diduszko, “Development of thermally stable tellurite glasses designed for fabrication of microstructured optical fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(3), 873–883 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater.

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, P. Thielen, V. Nguyen, P. Pureza, S. Bayya, and F. Kung, “Application of chalcogenide glass optical fibers at NRL,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 3, 627–640 (2001).

H. Ticha and L. Tichy, “Semiempirical relation between non-linear susceptibility (refractive index), linear refractive index and optical gap and its applications to amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 4, 381–386 (2002).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. Bender, U. Plachetka, J. Ran, A. Fuchs, B. Vratzov, H. Kurz, T. Glinsner, and F. Lindner, “High resolution lithography with PDMS molds,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(6), 3229–3232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

X. C. Shan, R. Maeda, and Y. Murakoshi, “Micro hot embossing for replication of microstructures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(Part 1, No. 6B), 3859–3862 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. N. Yannopoulos and M. L. Trunov, “Photoplastic effects in chalcogenide glasses: a review,” Phys. Status Solidi B 246(8), 1773–1785 (2009).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance and long-wavelength absorption edge of commonly used IR materials. Materials groups are denoted by colours, i.e., red – chalcogenide glasses, black – different glassy systems and blue – crystalline IR materials. Thicknesses are 1 – 3 mm. The data were taken from Refs [1517].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log-log plot of non-linear refractive index n 2 of different materials demonstrating chalcogenide glasses as highly non-linear optical materials. Redrawn from [18].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Photographs of the PDMS mould and of its surface patterns: ‘lens-array’, ribs and channels (details of patterns dimensions are given in Table 1). Cross-sectional sketches and photographs of: b) a PDMS mould and a sample of polished As3S7 bulk glass; c) the imprinting process, and d) an imprinted pattern (of ribs) on the glass surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission and (b) dark-field optical micrographs of the ‘lens-array’ imprinted into the surface of the As3S7 bulk glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM topography showing imprinted patterns: (a) ‘lens-array’ (b) rib and (c) channels. In (d), (e) and (f), the coloured lines show the areas where the pattern profiles were measured (Table 1). The width of a rib (e) was taken to be at FWHM. The widths of ‘lens-array’ elements and channels were read below the pile-ups (dashed lines) caused by plastic flow as the glass/liquid is indented.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical images show water on (a) the hydrophilic surface of polished As3S7 bulk glass (contact angle, Θ m ≈62°), (b) the hydrophobic surface of the same glass with an imprinted ‘lens-array’ pattern (Θ m ≈92°) and (c) schematic drawing of Cassie-Baxter wetting regime; σ LS is the hard core diameter for liquid-solid interaction [29].

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 AFM Measurements (rms error ± 1%) of Patterns Imprinted into the As3S7 Bulk Glass

Metrics