Abstract

Through the use of a multi-layer phase mask to produce five-beam interference, three-dimensional photonic crystals can be formed through single exposure to a photoresist. In these holographically formed structures, the interconnectivity is controlled by the relative phase difference among contributing beams. Photonic band gaps are calculated and the simulation shows a maximum bandgap of 18% of the middle gap frequency when the phase difference is optimized. A three-layer phase mask is fabricated by placing a spacer layer between two orthogonally-orientated gratings. The phase difference is controlled by thermal-tuning of the spacer thickness. Photonic crystal templates are holographically fabricated in a photosensitive polymer using the phase mask.

© 2011 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Zhong, L. Wu, H. Su, K. S. Wong, and H. Wang, “Fabrication of photonic crystals with tunable surface orientation by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6837–6843 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6837 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9113 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. Chanda, L. E. Abolghasemi, M. Haque, M. L. Ng, and P. R. Herman, “Multi-level diffractive optics for single laser exposure fabrication of telecom-band diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15402–15414 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-20-15402 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Y. Dong, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, X. F. Meng, X. F. Xu, and Y. R. Wang, “Holographic design and band gap evolution of photonic crystals formed with five-beam symmetric umbrella configuration,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8096–8102 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-18-8096 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Lin, D. Rivera, and K. P. Chen, “Woodpile-type photonic crystals with orthorhombic or tetragonal symmetry formed through phase mask techniques,” Opt. Express 14(2), 887–892 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-887 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2006 (6)

G. Y. Dong, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, X. F. Meng, X. F. Xu, and Y. R. Wang, “Holographic design and band gap evolution of photonic crystals formed with five-beam symmetric umbrella configuration,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8096–8102 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-18-8096 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, D. Rivera, and K. P. Chen, “Woodpile-type photonic crystals with orthorhombic or tetragonal symmetry formed through phase mask techniques,” Opt. Express 14(2), 887–892 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-887 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhong, L. Wu, H. Su, K. S. Wong, and H. Wang, “Fabrication of photonic crystals with tunable surface orientation by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6837–6843 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6837 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9113 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Abolghasemi, L. E.

Aizenberg, J.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Biswas, R.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Blanco, A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, L. Z.

Campbell, M.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chan, T. Y. M.

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chanda, D.

Chen, K. P.

Chomski, E.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darmawikarta, K.

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Denning, R. G.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, G. Y.

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geoffrey, A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grabtchak, S.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haque, M.

Harb, A.

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harrison, M. T.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herman, P. R.

D. Chanda, L. E. Abolghasemi, M. Haque, M. L. Ng, and P. R. Herman, “Multi-level diffractive optics for single laser exposure fabrication of telecom-band diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15402–15414 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-20-15402 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. T.

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ibisate, M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

John, S.

O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Lee, J. C.

Leonard, S. W.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, D. Rivera, and K. P. Chen, “Woodpile-type photonic crystals with orthorhombic or tetragonal symmetry formed through phase mask techniques,” Opt. Express 14(2), 887–892 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-887 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lopez, C.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lozano, K.

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Megens, M.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. F.

Meseguer, F.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miguez, H.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mochizuki, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mondia, J. P.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, M. L.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pang, Y. K.

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivera, D.

Rodriguez, D.

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russel, W. B.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sharp, D. N.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, X. X.

Sigalas, M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, H.

Tam, W. Y.

Toader, O.

O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turberfield, A. J.

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Wang, Y. R.

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiltzius, P.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wong, K. S.

Wu, L.

Xu, D.

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X. F.

Yang, S.

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. L.

Yokoyama, M.

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

O. Toader, T. Y. M. Chan, and S. John, “Diamond photonic band gap synthesis by umbrella holographic lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(10), 101117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, P. R. Herman, and K. Darmawikarta, “Design and holographic fabrication of tetragonal and cubic photonic crystals with phase mask: toward the mass-production of three-dimensional photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071117 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Xu, K. P. Chen, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, and Y. Lin, “Phase tunable holographic fabrication for three-dimensional photonic crystal templates by using a single optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Yang, M. Megens, J. Aizenberg, P. Wiltzius, P. M. Chaikin, and W. B. Russel, “Creating periodic three-dimensional structures by multibeam interference of visible laser,” Chem. Mater. 14(7), 2831–2833 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, “Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography,” Nature 404(6773), 53–56 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. John, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, A. Geoffrey, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-3-173 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, D. Rivera, and K. P. Chen, “Woodpile-type photonic crystals with orthorhombic or tetragonal symmetry formed through phase mask techniques,” Opt. Express 14(2), 887–892 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-887 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhong, L. Wu, H. Su, K. S. Wong, and H. Wang, “Fabrication of photonic crystals with tunable surface orientation by holographic lithography,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6837–6843 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6837 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Dong, L. Z. Cai, X. L. Yang, X. X. Shen, X. F. Meng, X. F. Xu, and Y. R. Wang, “Holographic design and band gap evolution of photonic crystals formed with five-beam symmetric umbrella configuration,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8096–8102 (2006), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-14-18-8096 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Pang, J. C. Lee, C. T. Ho, and W. Y. Tam, “Realization of woodpile structure using optical interference holography,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9113–9119 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-20-9113 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, A. Harb, D. Rodriguez, K. Lozano, D. Xu, and K. P. Chen, “Fabrication of two-layer integrated phase mask for single-beam and single-exposure fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9165–9172 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-12-9165 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chanda, L. E. Abolghasemi, M. Haque, M. L. Ng, and P. R. Herman, “Multi-level diffractive optics for single laser exposure fabrication of telecom-band diamond-like 3-dimensional photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15402–15414 (2008), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-16-20-15402 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

T. Y. M. Chan, O. Toader, and S. John, “Photonic band-gap formation by optical-phase-mask lithography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046610 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. Noda, M. Yokoyama, M. Imada, A. Chutinan, and M. Mochizuki, “Polarization mode control of two-dimensional photonic crystal laser by unit cell structure design,” Science 293(5532), 1123–1125 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: new layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Commun. 89(5), 413–416 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A scheme of three-layer phase mask; (b) Iso-intensity surface of five-beam interference pattern with phase shift of 0.5 π; (c) enlarged view of the five-beam interference pattern; (d) Binary dielectric structure output from the MIT Photonic-bands Package.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photonic band gap size as a function of dielectric filling factors (a) for phase delay δ21 = 0.4 π, 0.5 π, and 0.6 π in holographic structures where the high intensity volume is replaced by a material with dielectric constant of 11.9; (b) for phase delay δ21 = 0.5 π in an inverse structure where the low intensity holographic volume is replaced by a material with dielectric constant of 11.9.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of three-layer phase mask with two orthogonal gratings separated by a spacer. The inset shows a photograph of the mask. (b) Fabricated photonic crystal templates in DPHPA using the phase mask. The inset is the simulated structure for a comparison.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0,0 (r,t)= E 0,0 cos(( k 0,0 rωt+ δ 2 ),
E 1,0 (r,t)= E 1,0 cos(( k 1,0 rωt+ δ 1 ),
E 1,0 (r,t)= E 1,0 cos(( k 1,0 rωt+ δ 1 ),
E 0,1 (r,t)= E 0,1 cos(( k 0,1 rωt+ δ 2 ),
E 0,1 (r,t)= E 0,1 cos(( k 0,1 rωt+ δ 2 ),
I(r)= I 0 +ΔI(r)=< i=1 5 E i 2 (r,t)>+2 i<j 5 E i E j cos[( k i k j )r+( δ i δ j )]

Metrics