Abstract

We review recent progress in application of femtosecond laser nanostructuring of fused silica. The tight control of nanostructures’ properties through writing parameters is demonstrated implementing elements with unique optical properties, which can be widely used in material processing, microscopy, optical trapping and manipulation.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161911 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  33. L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
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  37. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  42. W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 10(19), 978–983 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  43. M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. I. Richter, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34(14), 2421–2429 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  47. S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  48. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. B. Hao and J. Leger, “Experimental measurement of longitudinal component in the vicinity of focused radially polarized beam,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3550–3556 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 923–925 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(10), 2134–2141 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  52. D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Dark-field imaging with cylindrical-vector beams,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 470–479 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  53. Q. W. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1726–1728 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).
  55. Q. W. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 10(7), 324–331 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  56. W. B. Chen and Q. W. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 411–417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  57. H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  58. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  59. J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, D. M. Cottrell, and T. Sonehara, “Two-dimensional polarization encoding with a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 39(10), 1549–1554 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal polarizers with axially symmetrical properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 1, No. 9), 1730–1731 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  61. Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2008

D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, “Dark-field imaging with cylindrical-vector beams,” Appl. Opt. 45(3), 470–479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, “Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3785–3791 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1726–1728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Carrasco, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Second- and third-harmonic generation with vector Gaussian beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(10), 2134–2141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13158–13163 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Chen and Q. W. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 411–417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 923–925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. W. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 10(7), 324–331 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 10(19), 978–983 (2002).
[PubMed]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, D. M. Cottrell, and T. Sonehara, “Two-dimensional polarization encoding with a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 39(10), 1549–1554 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).

1996

1995

I. Richter, P. C. Sun, F. Xu, and Y. Fainman, “Design considerations of form birefringent microstructures,” Appl. Opt. 34(14), 2421–2429 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal polarizers with axially symmetrical properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 1, No. 9), 1730–1731 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Arai, A.

Arai, A. Y.

Bado, P.

Barthel, E.

Baumberg, J. J.

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Biss, D. P.

Bomzon, Z.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Bovatsek, J.

Brandt, N.

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R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
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Cai, W. J.

Callan, J. P.

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J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

Carter, A.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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W. B. Chen and Q. W. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 411–417 (2006).
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Chong, C. T.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cline, D.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cottrell, D. M.

Couairon, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Datsyuk, V.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. A.

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Eaton, S. M.

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Finlay, R. J.

Fourkas, J. T.

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gecevicius, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Glockl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

Hao, B.

Hashimoto, T.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hasman, E.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

He, P.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).

Her, T. H.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn-Solle, H.

Huang, L.

Huntington, S.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huo, G.

Huser, T.

Inouye, H.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kitaura, N.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kleiner, V.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Kudrius, T.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, D.

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laporta, P.

Leger, J.

Leger, J. R.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. T.

M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Libertun, A. R.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).

Lukyanchuk, B.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Marcinkevi Ius, A.

Marshall, G. D.

Matsuo, S.

Mauclair, C.

Mazur, E.

McNamara, D. E.

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchik, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

Mori, Y.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrewicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
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Nishii, J.

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
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V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
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N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Ouerdane, Y.

Papazoglou, D. G.

Parriaux, O.

Piestun, R.

Polli, D.

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. J.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, I.

Risbud, S.

Rosa, L.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, B. E. A.

Sato, S.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal polarizers with axially symmetrical properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 1, No. 9), 1730–1731 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

Sheppard, C.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L. P.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slekys, G.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sliupas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. M.

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, K.

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sonehara, T.

Starrost, F.

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, P. C.

Svirko, Y. P.

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

Tzortzakis, S.

D. G. Papazoglou, I. Zergioti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Plasma strings from ultraviolet laser filaments drive permanent structural modifications in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2055–2057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. F.

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. A.

M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Withford, M. J.

Wortmann, D.

Xu, F.

Yamaguchi, R.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal polarizers with axially symmetrical properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 1, No. 9), 1730–1731 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. J.

Yoshino, F.

Youngworth, K. S.

Zergioti, I.

Zhan, Q. W.

Zhang, H. B.

Zhuang, L.

M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. R. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Bomzon, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, “Formation of radially and azimuthally polarized light using space-variant subwavelength metal stripe gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(11), 1587–1589 (2001).
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M. T. Li, J. A. Wang, L. Zhuang, and S. Y. Chou, “Fabrication of circular optical structures with a 20 nm minimum feature size using nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(6), 673–675 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevicius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borrelli, C. M. Smith, J. J. Price, and D. C. Allan, “Polarized excimer laser-induced birefringence in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 219–221 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Bricchi and P. G. Kazansky, “Extraordinary stability of anisotropic femtosecond direct-written structures embedded in silica glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 111119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161911 (2006).
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J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, E. Bricchi, and J. J. Baumberg, “Embedded anisotropic microreflectors by femtosecond-laser nanomachining,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(2), 196–198 (2002).
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C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, “Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84(1-2), 47–61 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. Yamaguchi, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal polarizers with axially symmetrical properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28(Part 1, No. 9), 1730–1731 (1989).
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Laser Photonics Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
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Mod. Phys. Lett. B

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. R. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 19(5), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Sliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Slekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22(5), 055304 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Wang, L. P. Shi, B. Lukyanchuk, C. Sheppard, and C. T. Chong, “Creation of a needle of longitudinally polarized light in vacuum using binary optics,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 501–505 (2008).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A

Y. Liu, D. Cline, and P. He, “Vacuum laser acceleration using a radially polarized CO2 laser beam,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 424, 296–303 (1999).

Opt. Commun.

W. B. Chen and Q. W. Zhan, “Three-dimensional focus shaping with cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Commun. 265(2), 411–417 (2006).
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S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glockl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179(1-6), 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, K. Sommer, S. Huntington, and A. Carter, “Silica-based fibre Fresnel lens,” Opt. Commun. 199(5-6), 375–381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, “Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures,” Opt. Commun. 209(1-3), 45–54 (2002).
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L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrewicz, “Writing of permanent birefringent microlayers in bulk fused silica with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 171(4-6), 279–284 (1999).
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Opt. Eng.

N. Kitaura, S. Ogata, and Y. Mori, “Spectrometer employing a micro-Fresnel lens,” Opt. Eng. 34(2), 584–588 (1995).
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Opt. Express

Y. Bellouard, A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Fabrication of high-aspect ratio, micro-fluidic channels and tunnels using femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2120–2129 (2004).
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S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, P. R. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
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Q. W. Zhan and J. R. Leger, “Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams,” Opt. Express 10(7), 324–331 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. Watanabe, D. Kuroda, K. Itoh, and J. Nishii, “Fabrication of Fresnel zone plate embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 10(19), 978–983 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
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M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Study of the influence of femtosecond laser polarisation on direct writing of waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(26), 13158–13163 (2006).
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B. Hao and J. Leger, “Experimental measurement of longitudinal component in the vicinity of focused radially polarized beam,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3550–3556 (2007).
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Y. Bellouard, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, “Integrating optics and micro-mechanics in a single substrate: a step toward monolithic integration in fused silica,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6635–6644 (2005).
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W. J. Cai, A. R. Libertun, and R. Piestun, “Polarization selective computer-generated holograms realized in glass by femtosecond laser induced nanogratings,” Opt. Express 14(9), 3785–3791 (2006).
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D. Wortmann, J. Gottmann, N. Brandt, and H. Horn-Solle, “Micro- and nanostructures inside sapphire by fs-laser irradiation and selective etching,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1517–1522 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bellouard, E. Barthel, A. A. Said, M. Dugan, and P. Bado, “Scanning thermal microscopy and Raman analysis of bulk fused silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19520–19534 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mishchik, G. Cheng, G. Huo, I. M. Burakov, C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, A. Rosenfeld, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, O. Parriaux, and R. Stoian, “Nanosize structural modifications with polarization functions in ultrafast laser irradiated bulk fused silica,” Opt. Express 18(24), 24809–24824 (2010).
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Opt. Lett.

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. W. Zhan, “Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1726–1728 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Papazoglou, I. Zergioti, and S. Tzortzakis, “Plasma strings from ultraviolet laser filaments drive permanent structural modifications in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2055–2057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, J. D. Mills, P. G. Kazansky, B. G. Klappauf, and J. J. Baumberg, “Birefringent Fresnel zone plates in silica fabricated by femtosecond laser machining,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2200–2202 (2002).
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D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 923–925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Polarization-selective etching in femtosecond laser-assisted microfluidic channel fabrication in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1867–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 29(1), 119–121 (2004).
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A. Marcinkevi Ius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
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J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Structural changes in fused silica after exposure to focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(21), 1726–1728 (2001).
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K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
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E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21(24), 2023–2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, K. Miura, J. Qiu, K. Hirao, and F. Starrost, “Anomalous anisotropic light scattering in Ge-doped silica glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(10), 2199–2202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(18), 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Lancry, F. Brisset, and B. Poumellec, “In the Heart of Nanogratings Made up During Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), BWC3.

M. Beresna, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. Kavokin, “Freezing ultrashort light pulses by exciton-polariton interference in glass,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (CLEO: S and I), (Baltimore, Maryland, 2011), p. CTuAA4.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section of the nanograting induced in fused silica with femtosecond laser. Two periodicities can be distinguished; one along light propagation k and another along the electric field direction E.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Left) Femtosecond laser inscribed Fresnel zone plate, blue regions corresponds to laser processed regions. (Right) Image of the University of Southampton logo projected onto the CCD camera with embedded Fresnel zone plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Left) Grayscale map representation of birefringent grating phase variation measured with digital holography microscope. (Right) Optical path variation along the green line indicated above.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field diffraction images for circular (right (a) and left (b)) and linear (c) incident polarizations. Respective profiles measured for 515 nm with a beam profile meter: (d,e) diffraction patterns for right and left handed circular polarizations respectively, (f) diffraction pattern for linear polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Modeled and (b) measured vortex intensity profiles, (c) diffraction pattern of two interfering vortices, (d) zoomed central part, red circles indicate ‘fork’ pattern formed due to phase discontinuity present in the interfering electric field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retardance values for nanogratings written with 0.16 NA aspheric lens (Left) and 0.35 NA objective (Right) at two translation speeds (1 and 2 mm/s). Dotted lines indicate retardance values of quarter and half wave for 530 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic drawings of nanogratings distribution in quarter- (a) and half-wave (b) polarization converters. Femtosecond laser written radial polarization converters for circular (c) and linear (d) incident polarizations. The pseudo color indicates direction of the slow axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Modeled near- and far-field (top and middle) and measured (bottom) intensity distributions after the polarization converter for incident linear polarization (a) and for left handed circular polarization (i.e., azimuthal polarization with the orbital angular momentum l = 1 is generated) at different angles of polarizer 0° (b), 45° (c), 90° (d), 135° (e). White arrows indicate incident polarization state.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction patterns of radially/azimuthally polarized optical vortices produced with the polarization grating discussed in section 4.2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Modeled (top) and measured (bottom) profiles of generated radial polarization directly after converter (a) and after polarizer (b-d). White arrows indicate transmission axis of the polarizer inserted between the converter and the CCD camera.

Equations (14)

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n e = n 1 2 n 2 2 f f n 2 2 + ( 1 f f ) n 1 2 ,
n o = f f n 1 2 + ( 1 f f ) n 2 2 ,
n e 2 n o 2 = f f ( 1 f f ) ( n 1 2 n 2 2 ) 2 f f n 2 2 + ( 1 f f ) n 1 2 0 ,
R m = m f λ ,
θ ( x ) = π x d | mod π ,
η 0 = 1 2 ( 1 + cos φ ) , η 1 , 1 = 1 2 ( 1 cos φ ) E i n | R H , L H 2 ,
E o u t = M E i n
M ( θ ) = R ( θ ) M R ( θ ) ,
R ( θ ) = ( cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) sin ( θ ) cos ( θ ) ) .
M q w = ( cos 2 θ + i sin 2 θ ( 1 i ) cos θ sin θ ( 1 i ) cos θ sin θ i cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ ) ,
E a z i = M q w 1 2 ( 1 i ) = ( sin ϕ cos ϕ ) e i ϕ e i π / 4 .
M h w = ( cos ϕ sin ϕ sin ϕ cos ϕ ) .
E r a d = M h w ( 0 1 ) = ( sin ϕ cos ϕ ) .
E v o r = M h w ( 1 i ) = ( cos ϕ + i sin ϕ sin ϕ i cos ϕ ) = e i ϕ ( 1 i ) .

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