Abstract

Germanium nanocrystals are being extensively examined. Their unique optical properties (brought about by the quantum confinement effect) could potentially be applied in wide areas of nonlinear optics, light emission and solid state memory etc. In this paper, Ge nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix were formed by complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible technology, e.g. plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and annealing. Different sizes of the Ge nanocrystals were prepared and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with respect to their size, distribution and crystallization. The samples of different size Ge nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 matrix were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence. Interplayed size and strain effect of Ge nanocystals was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy after excluding the thermal effect with proper excitation laser power. It was clarified that two strong emission peaks at 3.19 eV and 4.40 eV are from the interface between Ge nanocrystals and SiO2 matrix.

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  1. A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Maeda, “Visible photoluminescence from nanocrystallite Ge embedded in a glassy SiO2 matrix: Evidence in support of the quantum-confinement mechanism,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(3), 1658–1670 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. K. Dutta, “Visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystal embedded into a SiO2 matrix fabricated by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(9), 1189–1191 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).
  10. Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. P. Yue and Y. Z. He, “A study of the nonlinear absorption of Ge nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 thin films by the z-scan technique,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(3), 263–265 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. T. Chang and S. H. Liao, “Light emission and photoluminescence from high-k dielectrics containing Ge nanocrystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 535–537 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Nataraj, F. Xu, and S. G. Cloutier, “Direct-bandgap luminescence at room-temperature from highly-strained Germanium nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7085–7091 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. W. Berg and T. Nørbygaard, “Wavenumber calibration of CCD detector Raman spectrometers controlled by a sinus arm drive,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41(2), 165–183 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold corrdinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149(1-2), 77–95 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Nataraj, F. Xu, and S. G. Cloutier, “Direct-bandgap luminescence at room-temperature from highly-strained Germanium nanocrystals,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7085–7091 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

S. T. Chang and S. H. Liao, “Light emission and photoluminescence from high-k dielectrics containing Ge nanocrystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 535–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Berg and T. Nørbygaard, “Wavenumber calibration of CCD detector Raman spectrometers controlled by a sinus arm drive,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41(2), 165–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

2000 (2)

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. K. Dutta, “Visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystal embedded into a SiO2 matrix fabricated by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(9), 1189–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Yue and Y. Z. He, “A study of the nonlinear absorption of Ge nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 thin films by the z-scan technique,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(3), 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Maeda, “Visible photoluminescence from nanocrystallite Ge embedded in a glassy SiO2 matrix: Evidence in support of the quantum-confinement mechanism,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(3), 1658–1670 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold corrdinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149(1-2), 77–95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar-Hernandex, J.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avella, M.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, C.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baron, T.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behar, M.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Berg, R. W.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Berg and T. Nørbygaard, “Wavenumber calibration of CCD detector Raman spectrometers controlled by a sinus arm drive,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41(2), 165–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, S.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Busseret, C.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chahboun, A.

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. T.

S. T. Chang and S. H. Liao, “Light emission and photoluminescence from high-k dielectrics containing Ge nanocrystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 535–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chevallier, J.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. K.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cloutier, S. G.

Conde, O.

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Das, K.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, A.

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dun, S.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, A. K.

A. K. Dutta, “Visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystal embedded into a SiO2 matrix fabricated by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(9), 1189–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elliman, R. G.

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fichtner, P. F. P.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Finstad, T. G.

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gan, R.

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, E.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giri, P. K.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, Y.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, M. J. M.

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grumsen, F.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. L.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
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L. P. Yue and Y. Z. He, “A study of the nonlinear absorption of Ge nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 thin films by the z-scan technique,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(3), 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heng, C. L.

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. W.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horsewell, A.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, N.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jedrzejewski, J.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. S.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jie, Y. X.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaganovich, E. B.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, K.

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Kanemitsu, Y.

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanoun, M.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kesavamoorthy, R.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, A.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

Kolobov, A.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korbutyak, D. V.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kryuchenko, Yu. V.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumari, S.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kupchak, I. M.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kushida, T.

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Larsen, A. N.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Liao, S. H.

S. T. Chang and S. H. Liao, “Light emission and photoluminescence from high-k dielectrics containing Ge nanocrystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 535–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lopes, J. M. J.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, Y.

Y. Maeda, “Visible photoluminescence from nanocrystallite Ge embedded in a glassy SiO2 matrix: Evidence in support of the quantum-confinement mechanism,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(3), 1658–1670 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manoilov, E. G.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Many, A.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, K. G. M.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nataraj, L.

Ng, S. P.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ng, V.

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, B. B.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nørbygaard, T.

R. W. Berg and T. Nørbygaard, “Wavenumber calibration of CCD detector Raman spectrometers controlled by a sinus arm drive,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41(2), 165–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, M. I.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

Panigrahi, B. K.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, T. P. L.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, R.

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polupan, G.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Poncet, A.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prieto, A. C.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, S. K.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rebohle, L.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, T.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, A.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rolo, A. G.

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rørdam, T. P.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rottwitt, K.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S. K.

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sachenko, A. V.

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samoc, M.

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sangrador, J.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schacht Hernandez, L.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shi, P.

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skorupa, W.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold corrdinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149(1-2), 77–95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Souifi, A.

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeoka, S.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tang, B.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torchynska, T. V.

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Torres, A.

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uto, H.

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasilevskiy, M. I.

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. N.

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Yamamoto, K.

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

You, C.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yue, J.

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yue, L. P.

L. P. Yue and Y. Z. He, “A study of the nonlinear absorption of Ge nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 thin films by the z-scan technique,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(3), 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zawislak, F. C.

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, Y. X. Jie, W. Ji, A. T. S. Wee, and C. H. A. Huan, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in silica matrix with excitation of femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 611–615 (2001).

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, R. W. Berg, and P. Shi, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass caused only by heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. B 91(1), 177–181 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, A. Horsewell, and R. W. Berg, “Ge nanoclusters in PECVD-deposited glass after heat treatment and electron-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. B 87(2), 327–331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. X. Jie, Y. N. Xiong, A. T. S. Wee, C. H. A. Huan, and W. Ji, “Dynamics of optical nonlinearity of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 3926–3928 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dowd, R. G. Elliman, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals in a silica matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 239–241 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanemitsu, H. Uto, Y. Masumoto, and Y. Maeda, “On the origin of visible photoluminescence in nanometer-size Ge crystallites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(18), 2187–2189 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Dutta, “Visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystal embedded into a SiO2 matrix fabricated by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(9), 1189–1191 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. S. Jensen, T. P. L. Pedersen, R. Pereira, J. Chevallier, J. L. Hansen, B. B. Nielsen, and A. N. Larsen, “Ge nanocrystals in magnetron sputtered SiO2,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 83(1), 41–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

R. W. Berg and T. Nørbygaard, “Wavenumber calibration of CCD detector Raman spectrometers controlled by a sinus arm drive,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41(2), 165–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Ou, T. P. Rørdam, K. Rottwitt, F. Grumsen, and A. Horsewell, “Ge-nanoclusters embedded in Ge-doped sililca-on-silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 42(9), 532–534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Sun, J. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Toward a germanium laser for integrated silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 124–131 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

W. K. Choi, Y. W. Ho, S. P. Ng, and V. Ng, “Microstructural and photoluminescence studies of germanium nanocrystals in amorphous silicon oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2168–2172 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumari, K. Das, S. K. Ray, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “Ultraviolet and blue photoluminescence from sputter deposited Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrix,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103534 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. J. Lopes, F. C. Zawislak, M. Behar, P. F. P. Fichtner, L. Rebohle, and W. Skorupa, “Cluster coarsening and luminescence emission intensity of Ge nanoclusters in SiO2 layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6059–6064 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. L. Heng, Y. J. Liu, A. T. S. Wee, and T. G. Finstad, “The formation of Ge nanocrystals in a metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and its memory effect,” J. Cryst. Growth 262(1-4), 95–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. Kanemitsu, K. Masuda, M. Yamamoto, K. Kajiyama, and T. Kushida, “Near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 matrices,” J. Lumin. 87–89, 457–459 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Lett. (1)

L. P. Yue and Y. Z. He, “A study of the nonlinear absorption of Ge nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 thin films by the z-scan technique,” J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 15(3), 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Skuja, “Isoelectronic series of twofold corrdinated Si, Ge, and Sn atoms in glassy SiO2: a luminescence study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 149(1-2), 77–95 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. T. Chang and S. H. Liao, “Light emission and photoluminescence from high-k dielectrics containing Ge nanocrystals,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(1), 535–537 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, Y. Yang, Y. Guo, J. Yue, and R. Gan, “Raman scattering and room-temperature visible photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films,” Mater. Lett. 29(1-3), 159–164 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. V. Torchynska, J. Aguilar-Hernandex, L. Schacht Hernandez, G. Polupan, Y. Goldstein, A. Many, J. Jedrzejewski, and A. Kolobov, “Mechanism of photoluminescence of silicon oxide films enriched by Si and Ge,” Microelectron. Eng. 66(1-4), 83–90 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

A. Rodríguez, M. I. Ortiz, J. Sangrador, T. Rodriguez, M. Avella, A. C. Prieto, A. Torres, J. Jimenez, A. Kling, and C. Ballesteros, “Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films,” Nanotechnology 18(6), 065702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Kaganovich, D. V. Korbutyak, Yu. V. Kryuchenko, I. M. Kupchak, E. G. Manoilov, and A. V. Sachenko, “Exciton states and photoluminescence in Ge quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 18(29), 295401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (2)

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Dun, T. Lu, Q. Hu, Y. Hu, C. You, S. Zhang, B. Tang, J. Dai, and N. Huang, “Photoluminescence study of Ge nanocrystals irradiated by reactor neutron flux,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264(2), 272–276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

H. Yang, X. Yao, S. Xie, X. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Fang, X. Gu, and F. Wang, “Structure and photoluminescence of Ge nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 gel glasses fabricated at different temperatures,” Opt. Mater. 27(4), 725–730 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Takeoka, M. Fujii, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, “Size-dependent near-infrared photoluminescence from Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 matrices,” Phys. Rev. B 58(12), 7921–7925 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Maeda, “Visible photoluminescence from nanocrystallite Ge embedded in a glassy SiO2 matrix: Evidence in support of the quantum-confinement mechanism,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 51(3), 1658–1670 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E (1)

A. G. Rolo, A. Chahboun, O. Conde, M. I. Vasilevskiy, and M. J. M. Gomes, “Annealing effect on the photoluminescence of Ge-doped silica films,” Physica E 40(3), 674–679 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. K. Giri, S. Bhattacharyya, K. Das, S. K. Roy, R. Kesavamoorthy, B. K. Panigrahi, and K. G. M. Nair, “A comparative study of the vibrational and luminescence properties of embedded Ge nanocrystals prepared by ion implantation and sputter deposition methods: role of strain and defects,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22(12), 1332–1338 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Kanoun, C. Busseret, A. Poncet, A. Souifi, T. Baron, and E. Gautier, “Electronic properties of Ge nanocrystals for non volatile memory applications,” Solid-State Electron. 50(7-8), 1310–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic drawing of the multilayer structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TEM cross-sectional images of samples Ge0.25(a), Ge0.5(b) and Ge1_A(c).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM cross-sectional image of sample Ge1_B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Raman spectra for sample Ge1_B with varied excitation powers from 1mW to 21mW, (b) Raman peak shift and FWHM with relation to the excitation powers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of samples Ge0.25, Ge0.5, Ge1_A, Ge1_B and the reference Ge wafer. The inset is a zoom-in on the Ge peak.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence of samples Ge0, Ge0.25, Ge0.5, Ge1_A and Ge1_B.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Samples Prepared and Their Structures

Tables Icon

Table 2 Detailed Information on the Ge Nanocrystal Size, the Raman Peak Shifts and the FWHMs for Samples Ge0.25, Ge0.5, Ge1_A, Ge1_B, Compared to the Ge Wafer Reference

Metrics