Abstract

Three-dimensional direct laser writing has become a well established, versatile, widespread, and even readily commercially available “workhorse” of nano- and micro-technology. However, its lateral and axial spatial resolution is inherently governed by Abbe’s diffraction limitation – analogous to optical microscopy. In microscopy, stimulated-emission-depletion approaches have lately circumvented Abbe’s barrier and lateral resolutions down to 5.6 nm using visible light have been achieved. In this paper, after very briefly reviewing our previous efforts with respect to translating this success in optical microscopy to optical lithography, we present our latest results regarding resolution improvement in the lateral as well as in the much more relevant axial direction. The structures presented in this paper set a new resolution-benchmark for next-generation direct-laser-writing optical lithography. In particular, we break the lateral and the axial Abbe criterion for the first time.

© 2011 OSA

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2011 (2)

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, T. Ergin, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional polarization-independent visible-frequency carpet invisibility cloak,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2059–2061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (9)

I. Staude, M. Thiel, S. Essig, C. Wolff, K. Busch, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Fabrication and characterization of silicon woodpile photonic crystals with a complete bandgap at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1094–1096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ledermann, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Rhombicuboctahedral three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2363–2366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36, 67–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nature Methods 6, 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nature Photon. 3, 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale Resolution in the Focal Plane of an Optical Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19, 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barlow, S.

Bastmeyer, M.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, C. N.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, M. Thiel, S. Essig, C. Wolff, K. Busch, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Fabrication and characterization of silicon woodpile photonic crystals with a complete bandgap at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1094–1096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36, 67–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cademartiri, L.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Chan, C. T.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, V. W.

Decker, M.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, W.

Dyba, M.

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggeling, C.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Egner, A.

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nature Photon. 3, 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergin, T.

J. Fischer, T. Ergin, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional polarization-independent visible-frequency carpet invisibility cloak,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2059–2061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essig, S.

Fischer, A. J.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer, T. Ergin, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional polarization-independent visible-frequency carpet invisibility cloak,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2059–2061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franz, C. M.

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franz, C.M.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansel, J.K.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershgoren, E.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Hales, J. M.

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haske, W.

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nature Methods 6, 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nature Photon. 3, 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Hell, “Far-Field Optical Nanoscopy,” Science 316, 1153–1158 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale Resolution in the Focal Plane of an Optical Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19, 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermatschweiler, M.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Ho, K.-M.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jahn, R.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobs, S.

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M. S.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R. H.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Klar, T.A.

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, F.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koleske, D. D.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, B. A.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledermann, A.

A. Ledermann, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Rhombicuboctahedral three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2363–2366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Lee, K. S.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving λ/20 Resolution by One-Color Initiation and Deactivation of Polymerization,” Science 324, 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, T. W.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Linden, S.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, R. R.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G.A.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

Richter, B.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rizzoli, S. O.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, R.

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nature Photon. 3, 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scott, T. F.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigalas, M.

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Staude, I.

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Straub, M.

Striebel, T.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramania, G.

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, A. C.

T. F. Scott, B. A. Kowalski, A. C. Sullivan, C. N. Bowman, and R. R. McLeod, “Two-Color Single-Photon Initiation and Photoinhibition for Subdiffraction Photolithography,” Science 324, 913–917 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, M. Thiel, S. Essig, C. Wolff, K. Busch, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Fabrication and characterization of silicon woodpile photonic crystals with a complete bandgap at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1094–1096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toninelli, C.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

von Freymann, G.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ledermann, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Rhombicuboctahedral three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2363–2366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36, 67–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, M. Thiel, S. Essig, C. Wolff, K. Busch, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Fabrication and characterization of silicon woodpile photonic crystals with a complete bandgap at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1094–1096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Wegener, M.

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, T. Ergin, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional polarization-independent visible-frequency carpet invisibility cloak,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2059–2061 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Invisibility Cloak at Optical Wavelengths,” Science 328, 337–339 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ledermann, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Rhombicuboctahedral three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2363–2366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Staude, M. Thiel, S. Essig, C. Wolff, K. Busch, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Fabrication and characterization of silicon woodpile photonic crystals with a complete bandgap at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1094–1096 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic-band-gap materials by direct laser writing and silicon double inversion,” Opt. Lett. 36, 67–69 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325, 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Westphal, V.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale Resolution in the Focal Plane of an Optical Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wichmann, J.

Wiersma, D.S.

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

Willig, K. I.

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, C.

Yang, D.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, and M. Wegener, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures for Photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (5)

A. Ledermann, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Rhombicuboctahedral three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2363–2366 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, T. Striebel, J. Fischer, Z. Jiang, C. M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Elastic Fully Three-dimensional Microstructure Scaffolds for Cell Force Measurements,” Adv. Mater. 22, 868–871 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, B. Richter, T. Striebel, C.M. Franz, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component Polymer Scaffolds for Controlled Three-dimensional Cell Culture,” Adv. Mater. 23, 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Subramania, Y.-J. Lee, A. J. Fischer, and D. D. Koleske, “Log-Pile TiO2 Photonic Crystal for Light Control at Near-UV and Visible Wavelengths,” Adv. Mater. 22, 487–491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, “Angle-resolved transmission spectroscopy of three-dimensional Photonic Crystals fabricated by direct laser writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization of resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Res. (1)

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Yang, R. H. Kim, and K. Lee, “Improvement of spatial resolution in nanostereolithography using radical quencher,” Macromol. Res. 14, 559–564 (2006).

Nature (2)

K. I. Willig, S. O. Rizzoli, V. Westphal, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals that synaptotagmin remains clustered after synaptic vesicle exocytosis,” Nature 440, 935–939 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (2)

A. Ledermann, L. Cademartiri, M. Hermatschweiler, C. Toninelli, G.A. Ozin, D.S. Wiersma, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, “Three-dimensional silicon inverse photonic quasicrystals for infrared wavelengths,” Nature Mater. 5, 942–945 (2036).

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Templates for Telecommunications,” Nature Mater. 3, 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature Methods (1)

S. W. Hell, “Microscopy and its focal switch,” Nature Methods 6, 24–32 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (2)

S. W. Hell, R. Schmidt, and A. Egner, “Diffraction-unlimited three-dimensional optical nanoscopy with opposing lenses,” Nature Photon. 3, 381–387 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nature Photon. 3, 144–147 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

V. Westphal and S. W. Hell, “Nanoscale Resolution in the Focal Plane of an Optical Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 143903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (1)

T.A. Klar, S. Jakobs, M. Dyba, A. Egner, and S. W. Hell, “Fluorescence microscopy with diffraction resolution barrier broken by stimulated emission,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97, 8206–8210 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (5)

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Solid State Comm. (1)

K.-M. Ho, C. T. Chan, C. M. Soukoulis, R. Biswas, and M. Sigalas, “Photonic band gaps in three dimensions: New layer-by-layer periodic structures,” Solid State Comm. 89, 413–416 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

T. Wolf, J. Fischer, M. Wegener, and A.-N. Unterreiner, “Pump-probe spectroscopy on photoinitiators for stimulated-emission-depletion optical lithography,” submitted (2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Energy level scheme with transitions in a photoinitiator molecule for stimulated-emission-depletion (STED) direct-laser-writing (DLW) optical lithography. SE: stimulated emission, ESA: excited-state absorption, TTA: triplet-triplet absorption, ISC: inter-system crossing. (b) Ingredients of our current photoresist: pentaerythritol tetraacrylate (monomer) and 7-diethylamino-3-thenoylcoumarin (photoinitiator).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Calculated iso-intensity surfaces of the foci of the femtosecond excitation beam (red) and the continuous-wave depletion beam (green). This combination reduces the effective exposure volume (blue), both in axial (z) and lateral (xy) direction. (b) Measured intensity profiles of the two beams in the xz-plane and in the focal plane (xy). All scale bars correspond to 200 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) True-color reflection-mode optical micrographs of woodpile photonic crystals fabricated via regular DLW. (b) Same, but using STED-DLW. All woodpiles have 24 layers and a footprint of 20 × 20μm2. The rod spacing is decreased from a = 450 nm to a = 250 nm along the vertical, the exposure power is increased in steps of 1% from left to right. (c) and (d) Selected (see asterisks in (a) and (b)) transmittance (solid) and reflectance (dashed) spectra for DLW and STED-DLW, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(f) Oblique-view electron micrographs of ZnO-filled woodpile photonic crystals after focused-ion-beam milling. The viewing angle with respect to the surface normal is 54°. (g) Width, height and calculated aspect ratio of polymer rods inside the three-dimensional woodpiles ((a)-(f)). Height measurements have been corrected for the viewing angle. The measurements are averaged over 10 rods. The error bars indicate ± one standard deviation of the corresponding ensembles. The bars for height and width in (a)-(f) correspond to the averaged values shown in (g).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Oblique-view electron micrograph of a woodpile photonic crystal with 52 layers and a rod spacing of a = 350 nm made by STED-DLW. The sample has been milled with a focused-ion-beam to reveal its interior. (b) Corresponding reflectance and transmitted spectra (normalized to substrate transmittance and the reflectance of an 80-nm silver film, respectively).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electron micrographs of simple line gratings fabricated via regular DLW ((a) and (c)) and STED-DLW ((b) and (d)). The center-to-center distance of the lines is a = 200 nm and a = 175 nm as indicated within the panels. The depletion power of the donut mode used is 50 mW in front of the microscope-objective-lens entrance pupil.

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