Abstract

We report the 3D structuring and metallization of a zirconium-based organic-inorganic photosensitive material doped with metal-binding tertiary amine moieties. The influence of the amine group content on the material structurability, the structure resolution and the metallization efficiency was examined. The silver plating technique was also optimized by investigating the metal seeding and reduction parameters. We have compared the silver plating vs. the metal bath techniques and we have found that while the metal bath technique gives good quality metal coatings, ohmic conductivity can only be obtained by silver plating.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Farsari and B. N. Chichkov, “Materials processing: two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 450–452 (2009).
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  4. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
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  5. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
    [PubMed]
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  11. Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
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  22. E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. 3DPoli@gmail.com.
  27. K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (7)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Gold helix photonic metamaterials: a numerical parameter study,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1059–1069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farsari and B. N. Chichkov, “Materials processing: two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 450–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaneko, K. Yamamoto, S. Kawata, H. Xia, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Metal-nanoshelled three-dimensional photonic lattices,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1999–2001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 90(2), 205–209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Livage and C. Sanchez, “Sol-gel chemistry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 11–19 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anastasiadis, S. H.

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bensebaa, F.

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhuian, B.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

Cao, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.-Q.

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B. N.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farsari and B. N. Chichkov, “Materials processing: two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 450–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulakis, K. E.

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Copperwhite, R.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crean, G. M.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dedoussis, V.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Z.

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.-Z.

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. M.

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.-M.

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Enright, G.

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, P.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsari, M.

M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Farsari and B. N. Chichkov, “Materials processing: two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 450–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fotakis, C.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadonas, R.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaidukeviciute, A.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Gold helix photonic metamaterials: a numerical parameter study,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1059–1069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giakoumaki, A.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilbergs, H.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendren, W.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hrapovic, S.

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaneko, K.

K. Kaneko, K. Yamamoto, S. Kawata, H. Xia, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Metal-nanoshelled three-dimensional photonic lattices,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1999–2001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karalekas, D.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kaneko, K. Yamamoto, S. Kawata, H. Xia, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Metal-nanoshelled three-dimensional photonic lattices,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1999–2001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 90(2), 205–209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kribich, R. K.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Wegener, S. Burger, and S. Linden, “Gold helix photonic metamaterials: a numerical parameter study,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1059–1069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. L.

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Livage, J.

J. Livage and C. Sanchez, “Sol-gel chemistry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 11–19 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luong, J. H. T.

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacCraith, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, M.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melissinaki, V.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, Y.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, S.

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’Dwyer, K.

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohrt, C.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oubaha, M.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ovsianikov, A.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paipulas, D.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palioura, D.

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pastkovsky, S.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, R.

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purlys, V.

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakellari, I.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, C.

J. Livage and C. Sanchez, “Sol-gel chemistry,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 145, 11–19 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schizas, C.

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shizhou, X.

Shoji, S.

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. F.

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

K. Kaneko, K. Yamamoto, S. Kawata, H. Xia, J. F. Song, and H. B. Sun, “Metal-nanoshelled three-dimensional photonic lattices,” Opt. Lett. 33(17), 1999–2001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Takeyasu, N.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 90(2), 205–209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tal, A.

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 90(2), 205–209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torrance, D. B.

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vamvakaki, M.

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, X. Shizhou, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Fotakis, and B. N. Chichkov, “Shrinkage of microstructures produced by two-photon polymerization of Zr-based hybrid photosensitive materials,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2143–2148 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viertl, J.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. S.

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
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M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y.-S. Chen, A. Tal, D. B. Torrance, and S. M. Kuebler, “Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silver-coated polymeric microstructures,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(13), 1739–1744 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Brasselet, M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, and S. Juodkazis, “Photopolymerized microscopic vortex beam generators: Precise delivery of optical orbital angular momentum,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (3)

N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Fabrication of 3D metal/polymer microstructures by site-selective metal coating,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 90(2), 205–209 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Sakellari, A. Gaidukeviciute, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, C. Reinhardt, A. Ovsianikov, and B. N. Chichkov, “Two-photon polymerization of titanium-containing sol-gel composites for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 100(2), 359–364 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Cao, X. Z. Dong, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, Z. S. Zhao, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Morphology and size dependence of silver microstructures in fatty salts-assisted multiphoton photoreduction microfabrication,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 453–458 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

B. Bhuian, R. J. Winfield, S. O’Brien, and G. M. Crean, “Investigation of the two-photon polymerisation of a Zr-based inorganic–organic hybrid material system,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(13), 4845–4849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

C. Schizas, V. Melissinaki, A. Gaidukeviciute, C. Reinhardt, C. Ohrt, V. Dedoussis, B. N. Chichkov, C. Fotakis, M. Farsari, and D. Karalekas, “On the design and fabrication by two-photon polymerization of a readily assembled micro-valve,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 48(5-8), 435–441 (2010).
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M. Farsari, M. Vamvakaki, and B. N. Chichkov, “Multiphoton polymerization of hybrid materials,” J. Opt. 12(12), 124001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, H. Gilbergs, A. Zukauskas, V. Purlys, D. Paipulas, and R. Gadonas, “A femtosecond laser-induced two-photon photopolymerization technique for structuring microlenses,” J. Opt. 12(3), 035204 (2010).
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Langmuir (1)

S. Hrapovic, Y. L. Liu, G. Enright, F. Bensebaa, and J. H. T. Luong, “New strategy for preparing thin gold films on modified glass surfaces by electroless deposition,” Langmuir 19(9), 3958–3965 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

Z. B. Sun, X.-Z. Dong, W.-Q. Chen, S. Shoji, X.-M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two- and three-dimensional micro/nanostructure patterning of CdS-polymer nanocomposites with a laser interference technique and in situ synthesis,” Nanotechnology 19(3), 035611 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater. 7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kabashin, P. Evans, S. Pastkovsky, W. Hendren, G. A. Wurtz, R. Atkinson, R. Pollard, V. A. Podolskiy, and A. V. Zayats, “Plasmonic nanorod metamaterials for biosensing,” Nat. Mater. 8(11), 867–871 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Farsari and B. N. Chichkov, “Materials processing: two-photon fabrication,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 450–452 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Oubaha, R. K. Kribich, R. Copperwhite, P. Etienne, K. O’Dwyer, B. D. MacCraith, and Y. Moreau, “New organic inorganic sol-gel material with high transparency at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Commun. 253(4-6), 346–351 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Y. Y. Cao, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, X. M. Duan, and S. Kawata, “3D metallic nanostructure fabrication by surfactant-assisted multiphoton-induced reduction,” Small 5(10), 1144–1148 (2009).
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Thin Solid Films (1)

X. M. Duan, H. B. Sun, K. Kaneko, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon polymerization of metal ions doped acrylate monomers and oligomers for three-dimensional structure fabrication,” Thin Solid Films 453–454, 518–521 (2004).
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Top. Catal. (1)

K. E. Christodoulakis, D. Palioura, S. H. Anastasiadis, and M. Vamvakaki, “Metal nanocrystals embedded within polymeric nanostructures: effect of polymer-metal compound interactions,” Top. Catal. 52(4), 394–411 (2009).
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Other (2)

3DPoli@gmail.com.

G. O. Mallory and J. B. Hajdu, eds., Electroless Plating: Fundamentals and Applications (American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society, 1990).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Details of 3D structures fabricated using DMAEMA (a) 5%, (b) 10% (c) 30% and (d) 50%. (b) insert: a view of the full structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Large 3D structures fabricated using a composite that contains 50% DMAEMA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Metalated 3D structures fabricated using a composite material containing (a) 5%, (b) 10%, (c) 30% and (d) 50% DMAEMA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-ray Diffraction pattern of a hybrid film seeded with gold nanoparticles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of reduction time (a) 2 hrs, (b) 6 hrs, (c) 8 hrs, (d) 10 hrs and (e) 12 hrs on particle size.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ohmic response of structures containing 30% and 50% DMAEMA.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effect of Seeding and Reduction Time on Film Resistance (samples containing 50% DMAEMA)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Effect of the DMAEMA Content on the Resistance of the Structures

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