Abstract

High quality KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 lattice matched layers activated with Er3+ and Tm3+ have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy on KY(WO4)2 substrates. From these active layers, we have fabricated channel waveguides by dry etching of their surface through Ar ion milling. The effects on the confinement and overlap of pump and laser modes and on the optical losses of the waveguides due to a cladding layer with the same composition of the substrate grown on these microstructured waveguides have been analyzed. The results clearly show the beneficial effects that this strategy presents, such as a better confinement, a better overlap and specially reduced optical losses when compared to the surface channel waveguides.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
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  9. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).
  10. D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8853–8858 (2010).
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  14. W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (5)

2009 (4)

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, S. V. Kurilchick, V. E. Kisel, S. A. Guretsky, A. M. Luginets, N. A. Kalanda, I. M. Kolesova, N. V. Kuleshov, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a compact, diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1666–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1971 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aguilo, M.

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulus, V.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aravazhi, S.

Bain, F. M.

Bernhardi, E.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Bolaños, W.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borca, C. N.

Brown, C. T. A.

Cantelar, E.

Carvajal, J. J.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cinta Pujol, M.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ehrentraut, D.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardillou, F.

Gavalda, J.

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Geskus, D.

Griebner, U.

Grivas, C.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8853–8858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Güell, F.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Günther, D.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Guretsky, S. A.

Hametner, K.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Harkema, S.

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Huber, G.

Jaque, D.

Kalanda, N. A.

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Kisel, V. E.

Klevtsov, P. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kolesova, I. M.

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kurilchick, S. V.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Li, L.

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luginets, A. M.

Massons, J.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

Murugan, G. S.

Panyutin, V. L.

Pasiskevicius, V.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Podlipensky, A. V.

Pollnau, M.

Psaila, N. D.

Pujol, M. C.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rico, M.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivier, S.

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, M. Pollnau, S. Rivier, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Yb-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 53–55 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Silvestre, O.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silvestre, Ò.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sole, R.

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R. M.

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, A. Z.

Thilmann, N.

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Utke, I.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valiente, R.

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Wörhoff, K.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, M. Rico, F. Güell, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Thulium doped monoclinic KLu(WO4)2 single crystals: growth and spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(4), 707–716 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial growth of lattice matched KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 thin films on KY(WO4)2 substrates for waveguiding applications,” Cryst. Growth Des. 9(8), 3525–3531 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. E. Romanyuk, I. Utke, D. Ehrentraut, V. Apostolopoulus, M. Pollnau, S. García-Revilla, and R. Valiente, “Low temperature liquid-phase epitaxy and optical waveguiding of rare-earth-ion doped KY(WO4)2 thin layers,” J. Cryst. Growth 269(2-4), 377–384 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics. Rev. (1)

V. Petrov, M. Cinta Pujol, X. Mateos, Ò. Silvestre, S. Rivier, M. Aguiló, R. M. Solé, J. Liu, U. Griebner, and F. Díaz, “Growth and properties of KLu(WO4)2, and novel ytterbium and thulium lasers based on this monoclinic crystalline host,” Laser Photonics. Rev. 1(2), 179–212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, E. Bernhardi, C. Grivas, S. Harkema, K. Hametner, D. Günther, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Low threshold, highly efficient Gd3+, Lu3+ co-doped KY(WO4)2:Yb planar waveguide lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6, 800–805 (2009).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

O. Silvestre, M. C. Pujol, R. Solé, W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, J. Massons, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Ln3+:KLu(WO4)2/ KLu(WO4)2 epitaxial layers: Crystal growth and physical characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 146(1-3), 59–65 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Rivier, X. Mateos, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. E. Romanyuk, C. N. Borca, F. Gardillou, and M. Pollnau, “Tm:KY(WO4)2 waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5885–5892 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, S. V. Kurilchick, V. E. Kisel, S. A. Guretsky, A. M. Luginets, N. A. Kalanda, I. M. Kolesova, N. V. Kuleshov, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a compact, diode-pumped Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1666–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. M. Bain, A. A. Lagatsky, R. R. Thomson, N. D. Psaila, N. V. Kuleshov, A. K. Kar, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Ultrafast laser inscribed Yb:KGd(WO4)2 and Yb:KY(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22417–22422 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Microstructured KY(WO4)2:Gd3+, Lu3+, Yb3+ channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8853–8858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Geskus, S. Aravazhi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “High power, broadly tunable and low-quantum- defect KGd1-xLuy(WO4)2 channel waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26107–26112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, G. S. Murugan, A. Z. Subramanian, J. S. Wilkinson, E. Cantelar, D. Jaque, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Mirrorless buried waveguide laser in monoclinic double tungstates fabricated by a novel combination of ion milling and liquid phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26937–26945 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (2)

X. Mateos, R. Sole, J. Gavalda, M. Aguilo, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, “Crystal growth, optical and spectroscopic characterisation of monoclinic KY(WO) co-doped with Er and Yb,” Opt. Mater. 28(4), 423–431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, M. C. Pujol, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, G. Lifante, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Epitaxial layer of KY1-x-yGdxLuy(WO4)2 doped with Er3+ and Tm3+ for planar waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. 32(3), 469–474 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, P. V. Klevtsov, L. Li, and A. A. Pavlyuk, “Stimulated emission from KY(WO4)2:Nd3+ crystal laser,” Phys. Status Solidi A 5(2), K79–K81 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Physics Procedia (1)

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Monoclinic double tungstate lattice matched epitaxial layers for integrated optics applications,” Physics Procedia 8, 151–156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

OlympiOs Integrated Optics Software, Alcatel Optronics, Version 5.0 (2002).

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991).

F. Trager, ed., Handbook of Lasers and Electrooptics (Springer Science + Business Media, LCC, 2007), Part C.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing steps developed to produce surface channel waveguides from epitaxial layers of Er3+- and Tm3+- doped KY0.58Gd0.22Lu0.20(WO4)2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Processing steps developed to produce buried channel waveguides of Er3+- and Tm3+- doped KY0.58Gd0.22Lu0.20(WO4)2 from microstructured KY(WO4)2 substrates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cross sectional ESEM images of surface rib waveguides obtained after milling a 10 μm thick KY0.59Gd0.18Lu0.22Tm0.01(WO4)2 slab waveguide. (b) Zoomed image of a representative channel and (c) schematic showing the dimensions of the milled channel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of the intensity profiles of the fundamental TE modes. (a) Pump wavelength at 981 nm and (b) the potential laser wavelength at 1550 nm for KY0.60Gd0.18Lu0.21Er0.01(WO4)2 surface rib waveguides. (c) Pump wavelength at 802 nm and (d) the potential laser wavelength at 1900 nm for KY0.59Gd0.18Lu0.22Tm0.01(WO4)2 surface rib waveguides. (e) and (f) show the observed mode intensity distribution at 980 nm and 1600nm, respectively for the 1% mol Er doped waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-sectional profile of two typical channels milled on the surface of a KY(WO4)2 substrate. (b) Cross-section of the as grown KY0.58Gd0.22Lu0.17Tm0.03(WO4)2 epitaxial layer over the structured substrate. The inset shows a 18000 × magnification image of a typical channel in which it is possible to observe the good quality of the guiding structures after ELO. (c) Waveguides end face after growing the KY(WO4)2 top cladding.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation of the intensity profiles of the fundamental TE modes. (a) Pump wavelength at 981 nm and (b) the potential laser wavelength at 1550 nm for KY0.58Gd0.19Lu0.20Er0.03(WO4)2 buried rib waveguides. (c) Pump wavelength at 802 nm and (d) the potential laser wavelength at 1900 nm for KY0.58Gd0.19Lu0.20Tm0.03(WO4)2 buried rib waveguides.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Indices of the Substrate and the Er3+- and Tm3+-Doped Guiding Layers Calculated from the Cauchy Dispersion Relations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Confinement Factor (Γ) and Overlap (Ω) of the Fundamental Guided TE Modes of the Surface Rib Waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 3 Calculated Confinement Factor (Γ) and Overlap (Ω) of the Fundamental Guided TE Modes of the Buried Rib Waveguides

Metrics