Abstract

Measurements of refractive indices, electro-optic coefficients and photorefractivity are performed for a set of Zirconium-doped congruent lithium niobate (Zr:LN) crystals as functions of the dopant concentration in the range 0.0-3.0 mol%. The photorefractive properties are studied by measuring the green-light induced birefringence change and by direct observation of the transmitted-beam distortion. The index of refraction data show that the threshold concentration, above which there is a change in the Zr incorporation mechanism, is about 2.0 mol%, but photorefractivity results suggest that the concentration of ZrO2 required to strongly reduce the photorefractive effect is somewhat larger than the 2.0 mol% “threshold” concentration derived from index-of-refraction data. The electro-optic coefficients are little influenced by Zr-doping. All the reported results confirm that Zr:LN is a very promising candidate for the realization of efficient electro-optic and all-optical nonlinear devices working at room temperature.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Increased optical-damage resistance in tin-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 883–885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abarkan, M.

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abdi, F.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aillerie, M.

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aillerie, M. A.

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bacci, L.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bazzan, M.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bourson, P.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1743–1748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Increased optical-damage resistance in tin-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 883–885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ciampolillo, M. V.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, M.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, M. D.

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Galinetto, P.

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grando, D.

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Z.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Kokanyan, E.

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1743–1748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Increased optical-damage resistance in tin-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 883–885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kryukova, E. B.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Li, Y.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Q.

Liu, H.

Liu, S.

H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1743–1748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Increased optical-damage resistance in tin-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 883–885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maximov, B.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minzioni, P.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nava, G.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nazaryants, V. O.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Parravicini, J.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Hafnium-doped lithium-niobate crystals,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14171–14176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pozzobon, P.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Razzari, L.

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rossella, F.

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, N.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rupp, R.

Sada, C.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Salvestrini, J. P.

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saoner, L.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sulyanov, S.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wöhlecke, M.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

Xu, J.

H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1743–1748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. Liu, Y. Kong, S. Chen, Z. Huang, L. Wu, R. Rupp, and J. Xu, “Increased optical-damage resistance in tin-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Lett. 35(6), 883–885 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zaltron, A. M.

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

H. Liu, Q. Liang, M. Zhu, W. Li, S. Liu, L. Zhang, S. Chen, Y. Kong, and J. Xu, “An excellent crystal for high resistance against optical damage in visible-UV range: near-stoichiometric zirconium-doped lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1743–1748 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Appl. Phys. B (3)

M. Abarkan, M. A. Aillerie, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Electro-optic and dielectric properties of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 92(4), 603–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, M. Fontana, P. Bourson, T. Volk, B. Maximov, S. Sulyanov, N. Rubinina, and M. Wöhlecke, “Influence of Zn doping on electooptical properties and structure parameters of lithium niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68(5), 795–799 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Abarkan, J. P. Salvestrini, M. D. Fontana, and M. Aillerie, “Frequency and wavelength dependences of electro-optic coefficients in inorganic crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 76(7), 765–769 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Razzari, P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Photorefractivity of Hafnium-doped congruent lithium-niobate crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(13), 131914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “Highly optical damage resistant crystal: Zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (1)

F. Rossella, D. Grando, P. Galinetto, V. Degiorgio, and E. Kokanyan, “Photoconductive and electro-optical properties of Hf doped lithium niobate crystals,” Ferroelectrics 352, 143–147 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and E. P. Kokanyan, “Strongly sublinear growth of the photorefractive effect for increasing pump intensities in doped lithium-niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(11), 116105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, M. V. Ciampolillo, P. Pozzobon, C. Sada, L. Saoner, A. M. Zaltron, L. Bacci, P. Minzioni, G. Nava, J. Parravicini, W. Yan, I. Cristiani, and V. Degiorgio, “Structural and optical properties of zirconium doped lithium niobate crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, D. Deng, G. Gao, Y. Li, H. Gao, L. Zhang, Z. Hang, S. Chen, and J. Xu, “The optical damage resistance and absorption spectra of LiNbO3:Hf crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(13), 3527–3534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

V. G. Plotnichenko, V. O. Nazaryants, E. B. Kryukova, and E. M. Dianov, “Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(10), 105402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Lithium Niobate Defects, Photorefraction and Ferroelectric Switching, Springer Series in Material Science (Springer-Verlag, 2008), Vol. 115.

P. Minzioni, G. Nava, I. Cristiani, W. Yan, and V. Degiorgio, “Wide-band measurement of refractive index and birefringence in lithium niobate crystals with different Li content” (unpublished).

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Application of Photorefractive Materials (Clarendon Press, 1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

no (left) and ne (right) versus λ for different Zr concentrations in the melt. A significant increase of both refractive indices is observed when the crystal doped with 3.0 mol% is compared with the undoped one.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the refractive indices on the Zr content, at two different wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence versus Zr content in the melt, calculated at the wavelength λ = 1550 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Birefringence variation induced on Zr-doped LN crystals by the photorefractive effect. Left: δΔn as a function of the ZrO2 concentration in the melt. Each dashed line corresponds to a fixed value of the pump-beam intensity. Right: the δΔn value is plotted as a function of the pump-beam intensity (measured in W/cm2) on a Log-Log scale to highlight the different impact of intensity on pure and doped samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beam distortion observed in the far-field when a pump beam of intensity 7 kW/cm2 is sent on the different crystals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effective EO coefficient of Zr:LN as a function of Zr concentration (λ = 632.8 nm, AC electric field frequency = 400 Hz).

Equations (1)

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Γ m = 2 π λ [ 1 2 n e 3 r c ] V m d L

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