Abstract

Solid-core photonic crystal fibers with the core derived from non-doped or Erbium-doped sol-gel silica rods are fabricated. The results demonstrate that the direct polymeric sol-gel route constitutes a promising method to prepare large high quality glass pieces that can be integrated into microstructured optical fibers suitable for passive and active optical fiber applications.

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2010

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pal, A. Mandal, G. De, E. Trave, V. Bello, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, and C. Sada, “Improved photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Er3+ doped silica films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4729–4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers-fundamentals and applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(1), 2–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Bhandarkar, “Sol-gel processing for optical communication technology,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 87(7), 1180–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, “Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 7–10 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

1999

E. M. Pawlik, W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, J. Wójcik, G. E. Malaskevich, and V. E. Gaishun, “Optical properties of erbium-doped silica fibers obtained by sol-gel method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 55(2), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Guizard, A. C. Julbe, and A. Ayral, “Design of nanosized structures in sol-gel derived porous solids. Applications in catalyst and inorganic membrane preparation,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 55–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, K. Maruszewski, E. Pawlik, W. Wojcik, G. E. Malashkevich, and V. I. Gaishun, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium doped silica glasses obtained by sol-gel method,” J. Alloy. Comp. 275–277, 420–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90(1), 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1974

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Astle, H. W.

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).

Ayral, A.

C. G. Guizard, A. C. Julbe, and A. Ayral, “Design of nanosized structures in sol-gel derived porous solids. Applications in catalyst and inorganic membrane preparation,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 55–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bello, V.

S. Pal, A. Mandal, G. De, E. Trave, V. Bello, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, and C. Sada, “Improved photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Er3+ doped silica films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berdichevskii, G. M.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, E.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhandarkar, S.

S. Bhandarkar, “Sol-gel processing for optical communication technology,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 87(7), 1180–1199 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bisutti, J.

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers-fundamentals and applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(1), 2–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boiko, A. A.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouazaoui, M.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boukenter, A.

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, E.

Canning, J.

Capoen, B.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Costa, L.

L. Costa and D. Kerner, “High purity glass forms by a colloidal sol-gel process,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 63–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Courtheoux, L.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De, G.

S. Pal, A. Mandal, G. De, E. Trave, V. Bello, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, and C. Sada, “Improved photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Er3+ doped silica films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Deren, P. J.

E. M. Pawlik, W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, J. Wójcik, G. E. Malaskevich, and V. E. Gaishun, “Optical properties of erbium-doped silica fibers obtained by sol-gel method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 55(2), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, K. Maruszewski, E. Pawlik, W. Wojcik, G. E. Malashkevich, and V. I. Gaishun, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium doped silica glasses obtained by sol-gel method,” J. Alloy. Comp. 275–277, 420–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

El Hamzaoui, H.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evreinov, O. B.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, H.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Favre, A.

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Courtheoux, V. Nguyen, E. Berrier, A. Favre, L. Bigot, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From porous silica xerogels to bulk optical glasses: The control of densification,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121(1–2), 83–88 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araújo, and L. A. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaishun, V. E.

E. M. Pawlik, W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, J. Wójcik, G. E. Malaskevich, and V. E. Gaishun, “Optical properties of erbium-doped silica fibers obtained by sol-gel method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 55(2), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaishun, V. I.

W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, K. Maruszewski, E. Pawlik, W. Wojcik, G. E. Malashkevich, and V. I. Gaishun, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium doped silica glasses obtained by sol-gel method,” J. Alloy. Comp. 275–277, 420–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golubkov, V. V.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grzesik, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guizard, C. G.

C. G. Guizard, A. C. Julbe, and A. Ayral, “Design of nanosized structures in sol-gel derived porous solids. Applications in catalyst and inorganic membrane preparation,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 55–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gusarov, A.

B. Tortech, A. Gusarov, M. Van Uffelen, J. Bisutti, S. Girard, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J. P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Pulsed x-ray and continuous gamma radiation effects on erbium doped optical fibers properties,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2598–2603 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haken, U.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hench, L. L.

L. L. Hench and J. K. West, “The sol-gel process,” Chem. Rev. 90(1), 33–72 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Humbach, O.

O. Humbach, H. Fabian, U. Grzesik, U. Haken, and W. Heitmann, “Analysis of OH absorption bands in synthetic silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 19–26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Julbe, A. C.

C. G. Guizard, A. C. Julbe, and A. Ayral, “Design of nanosized structures in sol-gel derived porous solids. Applications in catalyst and inorganic membrane preparation,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(1), 55–65 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P.

P. Kaiser and H. W. Astle, “Low-loss single-material fibres made from pure fused silica,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53(6), 1021–1039 (1974).

Ken’ko, V. M.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kerner, D.

L. Costa and D. Kerner, “High purity glass forms by a colloidal sol-gel process,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 26(1–3), 63–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khimich, N. N.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koptelova, L. A.

N. N. Khimich, G. M. Berdichevskii, E. N. Poddenezhnyi, V. V. Golubkov, A. A. Boiko, V. M. Ken’ko, O. B. Evreinov, and L. A. Koptelova, “Sol-gel synthesis of an optical silica glass doped with rare-earth elements,” Glass Phys. Chem. 33(2), 152–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard and A. Bjarklev, “Microstructured optical fibers-fundamentals and applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(1), 2–12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, J. A.

Lyytikainen, K.

Malashkevich, G. E.

W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, K. Maruszewski, E. Pawlik, W. Wojcik, G. E. Malashkevich, and V. I. Gaishun, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium doped silica glasses obtained by sol-gel method,” J. Alloy. Comp. 275–277, 420–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malaskevich, G. E.

E. M. Pawlik, W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, J. Wójcik, G. E. Malaskevich, and V. E. Gaishun, “Optical properties of erbium-doped silica fibers obtained by sol-gel method,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 55(2), 369–373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, A.

S. Pal, A. Mandal, G. De, E. Trave, V. Bello, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, and C. Sada, “Improved photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Er3+ doped silica films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maruszewski, K.

W. Stręk, P. J. Dereń, K. Maruszewski, E. Pawlik, W. Wojcik, G. E. Malashkevich, and V. I. Gaishun, “Spectroscopic properties of erbium doped silica glasses obtained by sol-gel method,” J. Alloy. Comp. 275–277, 420–423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

S. Pal, A. Mandal, G. De, E. Trave, V. Bello, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, and C. Sada, “Improved photoluminescence properties of sol-gel derived Er3+ doped silica films,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(11), 113116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Photograph of the sol-gel silica xerogel stabilized at 1000 °C (b) silica glass rod prepared from this xerogel after dehydration and densification.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Light scattered intensity of sol-gel and Suprasil glasses as a function of angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation spectrum of undoped pure silica Sol-gel core PCF. In the inset, a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of the cross-section of pure silica sol-gel core PCF.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Erbium concentration profile of SiO2Er3 preform determined using EPMA analysis. In the inset, a zoom in the rod central zone.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room temperature PL kinetics of 4I13/2 state of Er3+ ions recorded at 1530 nm under excitation at 980 nm for SiO2Er1, SiO2Er2 and SiO2Er3 preforms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of the cross-section of PCFEr1 fiber (left). Zoom on this image showing the sol-gel Er-doped solid core of this fiber (right).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Room temperature spectra of PCFEr1 and PCFEr3 microstructured fibers in the infrared region: (a) absorption spectra and (b) PL spectra upon excitation at 980 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Gain profile at 122 mW and (b) gain at 1535 nm, as function of pump power for the PCFEr3 fiber (4.9 m length fiber).

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