Abstract

InGaN/GaN devices are currently used for many applications, for example, full color display, white (RGB) illumination systems and for the realization of shorter wavelength emitters for optical data storage. We previously reported a blinking phenomenon in the photo-luminescence of InGaN device ready single quantum well materials. In this study we observe in high resolution this optical instability with a near-field nano-probe. The phenomenon appears only in local confined domains and does not seem to behave as a bistable state process like reported on quantum dots generated photo-luminescence. We investigated by a modified scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) and studied the time/intensity profile of the optical signal with a resolution in the range of 100nm. The dynamics of the blinking was time-resolved and its behaviour studied with Fourier analysis. Despite the intensity oscillations were found to have chaotic component (autocorrelation coefficient is about 0.63), the optical oscillations appear to include regular characteristics. Fourier analysis of the light intensity from confined domains exhibit peaks in the range of 4–5 s. The emergence of these intriguingly slow and partially regular dynamics should shed light on the inner mechanism that are involved in the fundamental processes of optical emission in these devices.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).
  11. Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics, microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 5067, 189–195 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics, microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 5067, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abiko, M.

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

An, T.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).

Barkai, E.

F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics, microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 5067, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brosseau, C.-N.

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brus, L. E.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cragg, G. E.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabbousi, B. O.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Den-Baars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, S.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, M. A.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoogenboom, J.

F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kahen, K.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaneta, A.

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. D.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leonelli, R.

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maccagnano-Zacher, S.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macklin, J. J.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marutsuki, G.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Micheletto, R.

R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mononobe, S.

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nair, S. V.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naya, M.

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nirmal, M.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, K.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, Y.

T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Omae, K.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, M.

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rajeswaran, M.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.-W.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saiki, T.

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shikanai, A.

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, C.

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F.

F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sugisaki, M.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).

Trautman, J. K.

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics, microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 5067, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokokawa, M.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, N.

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).

App. Opt. (1)

S. Mononobe, M. Naya, T. Saiki, and M. Ohtsu, “Reproducible fabrication of a fiber probe with a nanometric protrusion for near-field optics,” App. Opt. 36, 1496–1500 (1997).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Micheletto, M. Abiko, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai “Observation of optical instabilities in the photoluminescence of InGaN single quantum well,” App. Phys. Lett. 88, 061118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Micheletto, M. Allegrini, and Y. Kawakami, “Near-field evidence of local polarized emission centers in InGaN/GaN materials,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 211904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, Y. Nishikawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Room-temperature random telegraph noise in luminescence from macroscopic InGaN clusters,” App. Phys. Lett. 78, 1065–1067 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Design Analysis of Staggered InGaN Quantum Wells Light-Emitting Diodes at 500–540nm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron . 15, 4, 1104–1114 (2009).

Nature (2)

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nirmal, B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, J. J. Macklin, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, and L. E. Brus, “Fluorescence intermittency in single cadmium selenide nanocrystals,” Nature 383, 802–804 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mat. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Den-Baars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-Containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nature Mat. 5, 810 816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Micheletto, N. Yoshimatsu, M. Yokokawa, T. An, H. Lee, and S. Okazaki, “Optical study of a polymeric led with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified snom setup,” Opt. Commun. 196, 47 – 53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

C.-N. Brosseau, M. Perrin, C. Silva, and R. Leonelli, “Carrier recombination dynamics in InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 085305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaneta, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Nanoscopic recombination processes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells emitting violet, blue, and green spectra,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 125317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, “External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) (1)

Y. Kawakami, A. Kaneta, K. Omae, A. Shikanai, K. Okamoto, G. Marutsuki, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and S. Fujita, “Recombination dynamics in low-dimensional nitride semiconductors,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (B) 240, 337–343 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

F. Stefani, J. Hoogenboom, and E. Barkai, “Beyond quantum jumps: Blinking nanoscale light emitters,” Phys. Today 62, 34–39 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, “Near-field optics, microscopy, spectroscopy and surface modification beyond the diffraction limit,” Science 5067, 189–195 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (2098 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (8305 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope PL images of a 510 nm In x Ga(1– x )N sample. An unstable blinking point is circled and indicated by an arrow. The figures (a) and (b) are gray scaled and contrast enhanced for clarity. Images are taken about a few seconds apart. The sample was excited by Ultra violet Hg lamp (about 425 nm). Bar is 10μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The recording by CCD camera of a region containing more than one blinking point (Media 1). The sample and conditions are similar to those in the digital pictures of Fig. 1, however CCD camera media processing is different so image contrast appear different.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A schematic explanation of detection mechanism: A photomultiplier tube (PM) collects the photoluminescence signal from confined 100nm area. Then a photon counter integrates each photon spike over 30ms and the digital signal obtained is fed to the oscilloscope that maps the entire sample or plots the time/intensity profile shown in Figs. 5 and 6.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The PL mapping of (a) 510 nm and (b) 540 nm samples taken in near-field. Image size is 15×15 μm2 composed of 128×128 pixels. The position of three domains where the photoluminescence time-profile was recorded are indicated by the dark spots and named by numbers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) PL intensity trace of In x Ga(1– x )N SQW as a function of time. Recorded at spot “1” in figure 4(b); the point is blinking, but this fact is not apparent from the time-domain plot (plot is 2250 points). In panel (b) the frequency/intensity profile reveals the blinking characteristics of the signal (panel (a) a.u. fluctuations correspond to about 5% absolute intensity differences). An evident peak is noticeable around 5 Hz. We cannot clarify the nature of this peak at this stage, however it is presumably related to slow trapping and de-trapping processes within the quantum well.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fourier trasform of signal taken from point “2” in Fig. 4. The frequency/intensity profile shows again a regular oscillation of about 5–6 Hz. This behaviour is compatible to what observed in other blinking points on the same sample.

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