Abstract

Large-area split ring resonators (SRRs) array is fabricated by laser micro-lens array (MLA) lithography on flexible Polyethylene Naphthalate (PEN) substrates. Multi-layer metamaterials are formed by stacking and bonding several layers of the laser fabricated metamaterials together. The resonance of the multi-layer metamaterials is enhanced significantly as compared to the single-layer metamaterials. The roll-off value of the half-wavelength resonant dip, which reflects the strength of resonance, increases significantly from 4.9 to 11.2 as the layer number increases from 1 to 5. A logarithm relationship between the amplitude of the resonant dip and the layer number is also studied, which indicates a flexible method to tune the strength of resonance by changing the layer number. The multi-layer metamaterials with the enhanced resonance can be used to make narrow band terahertz filters.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011 (2)

2010 (11)

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Service, “Materials science. Next wave of metamaterials hopes to fuel the revolution,” Science 327(5962), 138–139 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (8)

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Super-resolution imaging by one-dimensional, microwave left-handed metamaterials with an effective negative index,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(30), 304216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

Averitt, R. D.

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Ozbay, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Super-resolution imaging by one-dimensional, microwave left-handed metamaterials with an effective negative index,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(30), 304216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

Brener, I.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burckel, D. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. X.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. C.

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, A. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eyck, G. A. T.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, N. R.

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. H.

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19, 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

Kuboda, S.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

Lederer, F.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

E. Ozbay, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Super-resolution imaging by one-dimensional, microwave left-handed metamaterials with an effective negative index,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(30), 304216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C. S.

N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19, 6990–6998 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. L.

Lu, X.

Luk’yanchuk, B.

Menzel, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, B.

O’Hara, J. F.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Super-resolution imaging by one-dimensional, microwave left-handed metamaterials with an effective negative index,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(30), 304216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peralta, X. G.

Plum, E.

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Service, R. F.

R. F. Service, “Materials science. Next wave of metamaterials hopes to fuel the revolution,” Science 327(5962), 138–139 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L. P.

Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, M. B.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

Smirnova, E. I.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taima, K.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takano, K.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M. W.

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

Taylor, A. J.

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. B.

Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wendt, J. R.

D. B. Burckel, J. R. Wendt, G. A. T. Eyck, A. R. Ellis, I. Brener, and M. B. Sinclair, “Fabrication of 3D metamaterial resonators using self-aligned membrane projection lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22, 3171–3175 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J. W.

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Sharp Fano resonances in THz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6312–6319 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
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R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
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R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Adv. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

F. Miyamaru, S. Kuboda, K. Taima, K. Takano, M. Hangyo, and M. W. Takeda, “Three-dimensional bulk metamaterials operating in the terahertz range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081105 (2010).
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Y. Lin, M. H. Hong, T. C. Chong, C. S. Lim, G. X. Chen, L. S. Tan, Z. B. Wang, and L. P. Shi, “Ultrafast laser induced parallel phase change nanolithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041108 (2006).
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Z. C. Chen, M. H. Hong, C. S. Lim, N. R. Han, L. P. Shi, and T. C. Chong, “Parallel laser microfabrication of large-area asymmetric split ring resonator metamaterials and its structural tuning for terahertz resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(18), 181101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, Z. Tian, J. Han, C. Rockstuhl, J. Gu, and W. Zhang, “Cryogenic temperatures as a path toward high-Q terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, and W. Zhang, “Strong influence of packing density in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Gu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, W. Cao, Q. Xing, M. He, J. W. Zhang, J. Han, H.-T. Chen, and W. Zhang, “Terahertz superconductor metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071102 (2010).
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S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Controlling metamaterial resonances via dielectric and aspect ratio effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 191906 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

E. Ozbay, Z. Li, and K. Aydin, “Super-resolution imaging by one-dimensional, microwave left-handed metamaterials with an effective negative index,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 20(30), 304216 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (10)

R. Singh, E. Plum, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Highly tunable optical activity in planar achiral terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13425–13430 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. L. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
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N. R. Han, Z. C. Chen, C. S. Lim, B. Ng, and M. H. Hong, “Broadband multi-layer terahertz metamaterials fabrication and characterization on flexible substrates,” Opt. Express 19, 6990–6998 (2011).
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X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
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H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
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R. Singh, I. A. I. Al-Naib, M. Koch, and W. Zhang, “Asymmetric planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13044–13050 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Lim, M. H. Hong, Z. C. Chen, N. R. Han, B. Luk’yanchuk, and T. C. Chong, “Hybrid metamaterial design and fabrication for terahertz resonance response enhancement,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12421–12429 (2010).
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J. Gu, J. Han, X. Lu, R. Singh, Z. Tian, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “A close-ring pair terahertz metamaterial resonating at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20307–20312 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterials with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
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R. F. Service, “Materials science. Next wave of metamaterials hopes to fuel the revolution,” Science 327(5962), 138–139 (2010).
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J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Microscopic image of the metamaterials in 2D plane, (B) Illustration of the bonding process of the multi-layer metamaterials, and (C) Image of multi-layer metamaterials with 5 layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of multi-layer metamaterials with 1, 3, and 5 layers, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Transmission at LC and half-wavelength resonance frequencies of multi-layer metamaterials of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 layers, and (B) Roll-off values of LC and half-wavelength resonant dips of multi-layer metamaterials at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 layers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Illustration of terahertz wave transmission through multi-layer metamaterials, (B) Electric field distribution at the LC resonance frequency of the multi-layer metamaterials, and (C) Electric field distribution at the half-wavelength resonance frequency of the multi-layer metamaterials.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L C :                                 L o g ( T r a n s m i s s i o n ) = - 0.3924 N + 0.3029 ,
H a l f w a v e l e n g t h :         L o g ( T r a n s m i s s i o n ) = - 0.7650 N + 0.3019 ,
R o l l o f f v a l u e = T ( f 0 ) T ( f r ) f 0 f r ,

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