Abstract

The conformal coating of a 50 nm-thick layer of copper nanoparticles deposited with pulse chemical vapor deposition of a copper (I) guanidinate precursor on the cladding of a single mode optical fiber was monitored by using a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) photo-inscribed in the fiber core. The pulse-per-pulse growth of the copper nanoparticles is readily obtained from the position and amplitudes of resonances in the reflection spectrum of the grating. In particular, we confirm that the real part of the effective complex permittivity of the deposited nano-structured copper layer is an order of magnitude larger than that of a bulk copper film at an optical wavelength of 1550 nm. We further observe a transition in the growth behavior from granular to continuous film (as determined from the complex material permittivity) after approximately 20 pulses (corresponding to an effective thickness of 25 nm). Finally, despite the remaining granularity of the film, the final copper-coated optical fiber is shown to support plasmon waves suitable for sensing, even after the growth of a thin oxide layer on the copper surface.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2009 (1)

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Brazeau and S. T. Barry, “Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide thin films from a heteroleptic, amidinate-containing precursor,” Chem. Mater. 20(23), 7287–7291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen and R. G. Horn, “Refractive index of sparse layers of adsorbed gold nanoparticles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315(2), 814–817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Zawada and J. Bukowska, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of phenylpyridines interacting with a copper electrode surface,” Surf. Sci. 507–510(1-3), 34–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 12(3), 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Albert, J.

Alexander, R. W.

Barry, S. T.

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Brazeau and S. T. Barry, “Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide thin films from a heteroleptic, amidinate-containing precursor,” Chem. Mater. 20(23), 7287–7291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Berini, P.

Brazeau, A. L.

A. L. Brazeau and S. T. Barry, “Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide thin films from a heteroleptic, amidinate-containing precursor,” Chem. Mater. 20(23), 7287–7291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bukowska, J.

K. Zawada and J. Bukowska, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of phenylpyridines interacting with a copper electrode surface,” Surf. Sci. 507–510(1-3), 34–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caucheteur, C.

Chan, C.-F.

Chan, G. H.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Chen, M.

M. Chen and R. G. Horn, “Refractive index of sparse layers of adsorbed gold nanoparticles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315(2), 814–817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, G. B.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, J. P.

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakka, M. A.

DiLabio, G. A.

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, D. C.

R. Rosenberg, D. C. Edelstein, C.-K. Hu, and K. P. Rodbell, “Copper metallization for high performance silicon technology,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 229–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Gelfond, N. V.

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J.

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.-Y.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, E. M.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn, R. G.

M. Chen and R. G. Horn, “Refractive index of sparse layers of adsorbed gold nanoparticles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315(2), 814–817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, C.-K.

R. Rosenberg, D. C. Edelstein, C.-K. Hu, and K. P. Rodbell, “Copper metallization for high performance silicon technology,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 229–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, E.-S.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Igumenov, I. K.

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jafari, A.

Johnson, P. A.

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorgenson, R. C.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 12(3), 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawk, N.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

Lee, S. W.

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Monillas, W. H.

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozova, N. B.

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ordal, M. A.

Pyi, S.-H.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rodbell, K. P.

R. Rosenberg, D. C. Edelstein, C.-K. Hu, and K. P. Rodbell, “Copper metallization for high performance silicon technology,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 229–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, R.

R. Rosenberg, D. C. Edelstein, C.-K. Hu, and K. P. Rodbell, “Copper metallization for high performance silicon technology,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 229–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semyannikov, P. P.

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.-Y.

Shevchenko, Y.

Sohn, H.

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanev, S.

Thomson, D. J.

Trubin, S. V.

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tzolov, V.

Van Duyne, R. P.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Wen, L. S.

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wuilpart, M.

Yap, G. P. A.

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yee, S. S.

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 12(3), 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zawada, K.

K. Zawada and J. Bukowska, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of phenylpyridines interacting with a copper electrode surface,” Surf. Sci. 507–510(1-3), 34–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

R. Rosenberg, D. C. Edelstein, C.-K. Hu, and K. P. Rodbell, “Copper metallization for high performance silicon technology,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 229–262 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Mater. (1)

A. L. Brazeau and S. T. Barry, “Atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide thin films from a heteroleptic, amidinate-containing precursor,” Chem. Mater. 20(23), 7287–7291 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ECS Trans. (1)

N. V. Gelfond, P. P. Semyannikov, S. V. Trubin, N. B. Morozova, and I. K. Igumenov, “Deposition of Ir nanostructured thin films by pulse CVD,” ECS Trans. 25, 871–874 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

S.-H. Kim, E.-S. Hwang, S.-Y. Han, S.-H. Pyi, N. Kawk, H. Sohn, J. Kim, and G. B. Choi, “Pulsed CVD of tungsten thin film as a nucleation layer for tungsten plug-fill,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7(9), G195–G197 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (2)

J. P. Coyle, W. H. Monillas, G. P. A. Yap, and S. T. Barry, “Synthesis and thermal chemistry of copper (I) guanidinates,” Inorg. Chem. 47(2), 683–689 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Coyle, P. A. Johnson, G. A. DiLabio, S. T. Barry, and J. Müller, “Gas-phase thermolysis of a guanidinate precursor of copper studied by matrix isolation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and computational chemistry,” Inorg. Chem. 49(6), 2844–2850 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

M. Chen and R. G. Horn, “Refractive index of sparse layers of adsorbed gold nanoparticles,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315(2), 814–817 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

H. Du, S. W. Lee, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L. S. Wen, “Size effect of nano-copper films on complex optical constant and permittivity in infrared region,” Mater. Lett. 58(6), 1117–1120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

G. H. Chan, J. Zhao, E. M. Hicks, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Plasmonic properties of copper nanoparticles fabricated by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1947–1952 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

R. C. Jorgenson and S. S. Yee, “A fiber-optic chemical sensor based on surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 12(3), 213–220 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

K. Zawada and J. Bukowska, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of phenylpyridines interacting with a copper electrode surface,” Surf. Sci. 507–510(1-3), 34–39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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