Abstract

We present luminescence spectroscopy measurements of in situ Nd doped AlN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A Nd concentration as high as 0.08 at. % is incorporated into the host material. The Nd incorporation efficiency within the AlN matrix is found to be highly sensitive to the Al flux but independent of the substrate temperature (between 800 °C to 950 °C). Photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation, and combined excitation-emission spectroscopy (CEES) spectra are used to identify the Stark sublevels of the following manifolds: 4 I 9/2, 4 I 11/2, 4 I 13/2, 4 F 3/2, 4 F 5/2, 2 H 9/2, 4 F 7/2, 4 S 3/2, 4 G 5/2, and 4 G 7/2. A main Nd incorporation site and two minority sites are identified using CEES measurements.

© 2011 OSA

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  1. J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, C. R.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bensaoula, A.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

Berishev, I.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brown, I. G.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007).
[Crossref]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fleischman, Z.

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, Y.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heikenfeld, J.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hommerich, U.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jadwisienczak, W. M.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

L’Haridon, H.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

Le Guillou, Y.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lozykowski, H. J.

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

MacKenzie, J. D.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Metcalfe, G. D.

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, B.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moutonnet, D.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

Munasinghe, C.

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nishikawa, A.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pohl, R. O.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Poplawsky, J.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Readinger, E. D.

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rhee, S. J.

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

Salvi, M.

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sandmann, C.

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, R. N.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Slack, G. A.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Steckl, A. J.

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tanzilli, R. A.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Vandersande, J. W.

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wakahara, A.

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R. G.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Woodward, N.

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Woodward, N. T.

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J.

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zavada, J. M.

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Fleischman, C. Munasinghe, A. J. Steckl, A. Wakahara, J. Zavada, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation pathways and efficiency of Eu ions in GaN by site-selective spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 607–618 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. S. Lee, J. Heikenfeld, and A. J. Steckl, “Growth-temperature dependence of Er-doped GaN luminescent thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 344–346 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Woodward, J. Poplawsky, B. Mitchell, A. Nishikawa, Y. Fujiwara, and V. Dierolf, “Excitation of Eu3+ in gallium nitride epitaxial layers: Majority versus trap defect center,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(1), 011102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. D. MacKenzie, C. R. Abernathy, S. J. Pearton, U. Hommerich, X. Wu, R. N. Schwartz, R. G. Wilson, and J. M. Zavada, “Er doping of AlN during growth by metalorganic molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2083–2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. D. Readinger, G. D. Metcalfe, H. Shen, and M. Wraback, “GaN doped with neodymium by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061108 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. H. Kim and P. H. Holloway, “Near-infrared electroluminescence at room temperature from neodymium-doped gallium nitride thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1689–1691 (2004).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. N. Favennec, H. L’Haridon, M. Salvi, D. Moutonnet, and Y. Le Guillou, “Luminescence of erbium implanted in various semiconductors: IV, III-V and II-VI materials,” Electron. Lett. 25(11), 718 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

W. M. Jadwisienczak, H. J. Lozykowski, I. Berishev, A. Bensaoula, and I. G. Brown, “Visible emission from AlN doped with Eu and Tb ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(8), 4384–4390 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. D. Metcalfe, E. D. Readinger, H. Shen, N. T. Woodward, V. Dierolf, and M. Wraback, “Crystal-field split levels of Nd3+ ions in GaN measured by luminescence spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(5), 053101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

V. Dierolf and C. Sandmann, “Combined excitation emission spectroscopy of defects for site-selective probing of ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate,” J. Lumin. 125(1-2), 67–79 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

G. A. Slack, R. A. Tanzilli, R. O. Pohl, and J. W. Vandersande, “The intrinsic thermal-conductivity of AlN,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 48(7), 641–647 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Kim, S. J. Rhee, X. Li, J. J. Coleman, and S. G. Bishop, “Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy of multiple Nd3+ sites in Nd-implanted GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 57(23), 14588–14591 (1998).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

J. M. Zavada and D. Zhang, “Luminescence properties of erbium in III-V compound semiconductors,” Solid-State Electron. 38(7), 1285–1293 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The incorporated Nd concentration plotted as a function of peak PL intensity normalized by AlN:Nd layer thickness. The Al BEP is noted for each of the data points. The circled data points represent a fixed Al BEP while varying the substrate temperature from 800 to 950 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Room temperature and low temperature (~13 K) PL spectra in logarithmic scale from AlN:Nd optically excited at 837 nm showing transitions from the 4 F 3/2 level to the 4 I 13/2, 4 I 11/2, and 4 I 9/2 levels. (b) Low temperature PL spectra from AlN:Nd and GaN:Nd showing emission peaks corresponding to the 4 F 3/24 I 11/2 transition.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Room temperature and low temperature (~13 K) PLE spectra in logarithmic scale from AlN:Nd collected at 1108 nm showing transitions from the 4 I 9/2 ground state to the 4 F 15/2, 2 H 9/2, 4 F 7/2, and 4 S 3/2 upper levels. (b) Low temperature PLE spectra from AlN:Nd and GaN:Nd corresponding to the 4 I 9/24 F 15/2, 2 H 9/2 transition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CEES data at 4 K of emission intensity as a function of excitation and emission energies for a AlN:Nd film. The three identified incorporation sites are indicated by lines in different colors and lines styles. For site a, phonon-coupled excitation transitions are indicated with arrows.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energy of the Crystal Field-Split Levels of Nd3+ Ions in AlN for the Main Incorporation Site a and Two Minority Sites b and c As Determined by PL, PLE, and CEES

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