Abstract

We report the direct high-voltage poling of the chromophores 4-methoxy-4’-nitrostilbene (MNS) and 2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (MNA) in a 1.2 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) host. The DC fields used to pole the guest-host system varied in strength from 58 to 67 Vμm−1, and the presence of chromophore orientation in the poled samples was subsequently analyzed via Maker fringe analysis. We observed values of the SHG coefficient d 33 of 0.7 to 1.75pm/V at 532nm.

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  1. A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).
  8. A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).
  12. C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1999

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1962

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Apostoluk, A.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bhogala, B. R.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blart, E.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, V.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Broder, C. K.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunner, F. D. J.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Desiraju, G. R.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dey, A.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, R.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Essahlaoui, A.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

French, J.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghosal, S.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gundel, H. W.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hay, A.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995).
[CrossRef]

He, M.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W. N.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Herman and L. M. Hayden, “Maker fringes revisited; second harmonic generation from birefringent or absorbing materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(3), 416–427 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howard, J. A. K.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, C.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.-D.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitaoka, K.

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.-P.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-J.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leahy, M. R.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Lindahl, P.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Luo, J.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, N.

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, C. V.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mondal, R.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monnereau, C.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.-M.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Odobel, F.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, C.-K.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polishak, B.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J.-I.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seveno, R.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. J.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Si, J.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A.

A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A. M.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films,” Opt. Lett. 27(1), 55–57 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. S.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vangala, V. R.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, C. C.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Yang, Q. G.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Ye, P.

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Yun, H.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

O.-P. Kwon, S.-J. Kwon, M. Jazbinsek, F. D. J. Brunner, J.-I. Seo, C. Hunziker, A. Schneider, H. Yun, Y.-S. Lee, and P. Günter, “Organic phenolic configurationally locked polyene single crystals for electro-optic and terahertz wave applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(20), 3242–3250 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (Berl.)

G. Xu, J. Si, X. Liu, Q. G. Yang, P. Ye, Z. Li, and Y. J. Shen, “Comparison of the temperature dependence of optical poling between guest-host and side-chain polymer films,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 85, 681–685 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Kitaoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of azo-dye-doped thin films using an ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 157–159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

C. Zhao, C.-K. Park, P. N. Prasad, Y. Zhang, S. Ghosal, and R. Burzynski, “Photorefractive polymer with side-chain second-order nonlinear optical and charge-transporting groups,” Chem. Mater. 7(6), 1237–1242 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Natansohn, P. Rochon, C. Barrett, and A. Hay, “Stability of photoinduced orientation of an azo compound into a high-Tg polymer,” Chem. Mater. 7(9), 1612–1615 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

V. R. Vangala, B. R. Bhogala, A. Dey, G. R. Desiraju, C. K. Broder, P. S. Smith, R. Mondal, J. A. K. Howard, and C. C. Wilson, “Correspondence between molecular functionality and crystal structures. supramolecular chemistry of a family of homologated aminophenols,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(47), 14495–14509 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

A. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, “Efficient electrooptic polymers for THz applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(25), 8515–8522 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys.

L. M. Hayden, A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, J. French, P. Lindahl, W. N. Herman, R. J. Twieg, and M. He, “New materials for optical rectification and electrooptic sampling of ultrashort pulses in the terahertz regime,” J. Polym. Sci., B, Polym. Phys. 41(21), 2492–2500 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Kitaoka, N. Matsuoka, J. Si, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Optical poling of phenyl-silica hybrid thin films doped with azo-dye chromophore,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 2, No. 9A/B), L1029–L1031 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, V. Boucher, A. Essahlaoui, R. Seveno, H. W. Gundel, C. Monnereau, E. Blart, and F. Odobel, “Permanent light-induced polar orientation via all-optical poling and photothermal cross-linking in a polymer thin film,” Opt. Commun. 260(2), 708–711 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8(1), 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. C. Hoffman, T. M. Pritchett, J. A. Orlicki, J. M. Dougherty, R. H. Lambeth, A. M. Rawlett, W. N. Herman, and D. H. Park, “High-voltage poling of bulk guest-host polymers, chapter 7 in organic thin films for photonics applications,” (ACS Symposium Series, Washington DC 2010).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromophores used in poled guest-host system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Poling clamp open (top), showing MNA plaque (left) and MNS plaque (right); poling clamp closed (bottom).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical setup to measure Maker fringes in poled samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maker fringes for 10% MNS (blue: experimental; black: theory).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maker fringes for 10% MNA, 1217μm fit; inset 1222μm fit (blue: experimental; black: theory).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maker fringes for x-cut quartz (red: experimental; black: theory).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maker fringes for 15% MNS (blue: experimental; black: theory).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maker fringes for 10% MNA (blue: experimental; black: theory).

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