Abstract

This paper reviews the work of my group over the last 20 years on the role of chirality in second-order nonlinear optics of molecular systems and new developments linking my research to magneto-optics and organic magnetism.

© 2011 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Sioncke, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of chiral materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R42, 115–155 (2003).
  4. All serious students of nonlinear optics should have copies of the following books, in order of mathematical depth first editions given, but see subsequent editions also: G. C. Baldwin, An Introduction to Nonlinear Optics (Plenum Press, 1969); T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and V. Rodriguez, Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Characterization Techniques (CRC Press, 2009); P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991); D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic Press, 1987); R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 1992); A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley and Sons, 1967); Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984); N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1965).
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  20. T. Verbiest, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, M. Ikonen, J. Kurkela, and H. Lemmetyinen, “Nonlinear optical activity and biomolecular chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(20), 9203–9205 (1994).
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  21. M. M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, A. Persoons, E. W. Meijer, M. N. Teerenstra, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and E. E. Havinga, “Chiral effects in the second-order optical nonlinearity of a poly(isocyanide) monolayer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 7(7), 641–644 (1995).
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  22. M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, T. Verbiest, S. Van Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Quantitative determination of electric and magnetic second-order susceptibility tensors of chiral surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1985–R1988 (1997).
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  23. M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, J. J. Maki, and A. Persoons, “Nonlinear optical properties of chiral polymers,” Synth. Met. 81(2-3), 117–120 (1996).
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  24. J. J. Maki and A. Persoons, “One-electron second-order optical activity of a helix,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(23), 9340–9348 (1996).
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  25. M. Kauranen, C. Boutton, T. Verbiest, M. N. Teerenstra, K. Clays, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, “Supramolecular second-order nonlinearity of polymers with orientationally correlated chromophores,” Science 270(5238), 966–969 (1995).
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  26. S. Van Elshocht, T. Verbiest, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, and E. W. Meijer, “Direct evidence of the failure of electric-dipole approximation in second harmonic generation from a chiral polymer film,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(19), 8201–8203 (1997).
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  27. A. Persoons, M. Kauranen, S. Van Elshocht, T. Verbiest, L. Ma, L. Pu, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, and E. W. Meijer, “Chiral effects in second-order nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 315(1), 93–98 (1998).
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  28. T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, G. Koeckelberghs, C. Samyn, A. Persoons, E. Botek, J. M. André, and B. Champagne, ““Nonlinear optical properties of spincoated films of chiral polythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404(1-3), 112–115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, H. G. Kuball, S. Kiesewalter, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Persoons, “Circular dichroism and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the Langmuir-Blodgett films of an aggregating helicene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(34), 8656–8660 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, M. Kauranen, L. Hellemans, J. Snauwaert, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Strong enhancement of nonlinear optical properties through supramolecular chirality,” Science 282(5390), 913–915 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, A. Persoons, L. Vyklický, and T. J. Katz, “Electric-field-modulated circular-difference effects in second-harmonic generation from a chiral liquid crystal,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 41(20), 3882–3884 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. Busson, M. Kauranen, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Quasi-phase-matching in chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(1), 79–82 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. Beljonne, Z. Shuai, J. L. Bredas, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Electro-optic response of chiral helicenes in isotropic media,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(4), 1301–1304 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 055401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  35. E. S. Barr, “Men and milestones in optics. V: Michael faraday,” Appl. Opt. 6(4), 631–637 (1967).
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  36. M. Mansuripur, “Classical Optics and Its Applications” (Cambridge University Press, 2002), Chap. 10.
  37. J. P. van der Ziel, P. S. Pershan, and L. D. Malmstrom, “Optically-induced magnetization resulting from the inverse Faraday effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(5), 190–193 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).
  40. G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, K. V. Doorsselaere, E. Robijns, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Regioregularity in Poly(3-alkoxythiophene)s: effects on the Faraday Rotation and polymerization mechanism,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27(22), 1920–1925 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  41. P. Gangopadhyay, R. Voorakaranam, A. Lopez-Santiago, S. Foerier, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, A. Persoons, and N. Peyghambarian, “Faraday rotation measurements on thin films of regioregular alkyl-substituted polythiophene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8032–8037 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  42. P. Gangopadhyay, G. Koeckelberghs, and A. Persoons, “Magneto-optic properties of regioregular polyalkylthiophenes,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 516–521 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  43. G. Martin-Gassin, E. Benichou, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, Ch. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Compression induced chirality in dense molecular films at the air-water interface probed by second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(33), 12958–12965 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  44. M. J. Huttunen, M. Virkki, M. Erkintalo, E. Vuorimaa, A. Efimov, H. Lemmetyinen, and M. Kauranen, “Absolute probe of surface chirality based on focused circularly-polarized light,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(12), 1826–1829 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  45. M. Zdanowicz, S. Kujala, H. Husu, and M. Kauranen, “Effective medium multipolar tensor analysis of second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023025 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Smisdom, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Linearly polarized second harmonic generation microscopy reveals chirality,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8286–8293 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  49. V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, M. Belkin, Y. J. Shiu, and Y. R. Shen, “Toward chiral sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(27), 8845–8848 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  52. M. A. Belkin and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy as a novel probe for molecular chirality,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 24(2), 257–299 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  53. F. C. Boman, J. M. Gibbs-Davis, L. M. Heckman, B. R. Stepp, S. T. Nguyen, and F. M. Geiger, “DNA at aqueous/solid interfaces: chirality-based detection via second harmonic generation activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 844–848 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  54. S. R. Walter and F. M. Geiger, “DNA on stage: showcasing oligonucleotides at surfaces and interfaces with second harmonic and vibrational sum frequency generation,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(1), 9–15 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  55. V. Ostroverkhov, O. Ostroverkhova, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer, L. Sukhomlinova, and R. J. Twieg, “Prospects for chiral nonlinear optical media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 781–792 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  56. F. Hache, H. Mesnil, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Application of classical models of chirality to surface second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(14), 6707–6715 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  57. M. C. Schanne-Klein, T. Boulesteix, F. Hache, M. Alexandre, G. Lemercier, and C. Andraud, “Strong chiroptical effects in surface second harmonic generation obtained for molecules exhibiting excitonic coupling chirality,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(1-2), 103–108 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  58. G. J. Simpson, “Molecular origins of the remarkable chiral sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optics,” ChemPhysChem 5(9), 1301–1310 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  59. P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  60. P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  61. J. Hicks, Chirality: Physical Chemistry; ACS Symposium Series 810 (American Chemical Society, 2002).
  62. M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  63. M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  64. M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  65. P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Gangopadhyay, G. Koeckelberghs, and A. Persoons, “Magneto-optic properties of regioregular polyalkylthiophenes,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 516–521 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Zdanowicz, S. Kujala, H. Husu, and M. Kauranen, “Effective medium multipolar tensor analysis of second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023025 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Smisdom, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Linearly polarized second harmonic generation microscopy reveals chirality,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8286–8293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Walter and F. M. Geiger, “DNA on stage: showcasing oligonucleotides at surfaces and interfaces with second harmonic and vibrational sum frequency generation,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(1), 9–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, R. Zhao, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1593–1595 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Huttunen, M. Virkki, M. Erkintalo, E. Vuorimaa, A. Efimov, H. Lemmetyinen, and M. Kauranen, “Absolute probe of surface chirality based on focused circularly-polarized light,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(12), 1826–1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

F. C. Boman, J. M. Gibbs-Davis, L. M. Heckman, B. R. Stepp, S. T. Nguyen, and F. M. Geiger, “DNA at aqueous/solid interfaces: chirality-based detection via second harmonic generation activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 844–848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2501–2503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Voorakaranam, A. Lopez-Santiago, S. Foerier, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, A. Persoons, and N. Peyghambarian, “Faraday rotation measurements on thin films of regioregular alkyl-substituted polythiophene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8032–8037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Martin-Gassin, E. Benichou, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, Ch. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Compression induced chirality in dense molecular films at the air-water interface probed by second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(33), 12958–12965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).

G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, K. V. Doorsselaere, E. Robijns, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Regioregularity in Poly(3-alkoxythiophene)s: effects on the Faraday Rotation and polymerization mechanism,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27(22), 1920–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, M. Belkin, Y. J. Shiu, and Y. R. Shen, “Toward chiral sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(27), 8845–8848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. A. Belkin and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy as a novel probe for molecular chirality,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 24(2), 257–299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, G. Koeckelberghs, C. Samyn, A. Persoons, E. Botek, J. M. André, and B. Champagne, ““Nonlinear optical properties of spincoated films of chiral polythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404(1-3), 112–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Simpson, “Molecular origins of the remarkable chiral sensitivity of second-order nonlinear optics,” ChemPhysChem 5(9), 1301–1310 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sioncke, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties of chiral materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R42, 115–155 (2003).

2002

T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, A. Persoons, L. Vyklický, and T. J. Katz, “Electric-field-modulated circular-difference effects in second-harmonic generation from a chiral liquid crystal,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 41(20), 3882–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Schanne-Klein, T. Boulesteix, F. Hache, M. Alexandre, G. Lemercier, and C. Andraud, “Strong chiroptical effects in surface second harmonic generation obtained for molecules exhibiting excitonic coupling chirality,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(1-2), 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

V. Ostroverkhov, O. Ostroverkhova, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer, L. Sukhomlinova, and R. J. Twieg, “Prospects for chiral nonlinear optical media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 781–792 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Hache, H. Mesnil, and M.-C. Schanne-Klein, “Application of classical models of chirality to surface second harmonic generation,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(14), 6707–6715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Busson, M. Kauranen, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Quasi-phase-matching in chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(1), 79–82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Chiral materials in second-order nonlinear optics,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(2), 171–189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Beljonne, Z. Shuai, J. L. Bredas, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Electro-optic response of chiral helicenes in isotropic media,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(4), 1301–1304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, H. G. Kuball, S. Kiesewalter, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Persoons, “Circular dichroism and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the Langmuir-Blodgett films of an aggregating helicene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(34), 8656–8660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, M. Kauranen, L. Hellemans, J. Snauwaert, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Strong enhancement of nonlinear optical properties through supramolecular chirality,” Science 282(5390), 913–915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Persoons, M. Kauranen, S. Van Elshocht, T. Verbiest, L. Ma, L. Pu, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, and E. W. Meijer, “Chiral effects in second-order nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 315(1), 93–98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Van Elshocht, T. Verbiest, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, and E. W. Meijer, “Direct evidence of the failure of electric-dipole approximation in second harmonic generation from a chiral polymer film,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(19), 8201–8203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature 388(6645), 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, T. Verbiest, S. Van Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Quantitative determination of electric and magnetic second-order susceptibility tensors of chiral surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1985–R1988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, J. J. Maki, and A. Persoons, “Nonlinear optical properties of chiral polymers,” Synth. Met. 81(2-3), 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Maki and A. Persoons, “One-electron second-order optical activity of a helix,” J. Chem. Phys. 104(23), 9340–9348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Kauranen, C. Boutton, T. Verbiest, M. N. Teerenstra, K. Clays, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, “Supramolecular second-order nonlinearity of polymers with orientationally correlated chromophores,” Science 270(5238), 966–969 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, A. Persoons, E. W. Meijer, M. N. Teerenstra, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and E. E. Havinga, “Chiral effects in the second-order optical nonlinearity of a poly(isocyanide) monolayer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 7(7), 641–644 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. Verbiest, M. Kauranen, A. Persoons, M. Ikonen, J. Kurkela, and H. Lemmetyinen, “Nonlinear optical activity and biomolecular chirality,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116(20), 9203–9205 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Petralli-Mallow, T. M. Wong, J. D. Byers, H. I. Yee, and J. M. Hicks, “Circular dichroism spectroscopy at interfaces: a surface second harmonic generation study,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(7), 1383–1388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic-generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(5), 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1978

A. Persoons and L. Hellemans, “New electric field methods in chemical relaxation spectrometry,” Biophys. J. 24(1), 119–134 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

1966

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, and K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16(18), 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

J. A. Giordmaine, “Nonlinear optical properties of liquids,” Phys. Rev. 138(6A), A1599–A1606 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, P. S. Pershan, and L. D. Malmstrom, “Optically-induced magnetization resulting from the inverse Faraday effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(5), 190–193 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1961

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1956

A. D. Buckingham, “Theory of the dielectric constant at high field strengths,” J. Chem. Phys. 25(3), 428–434 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Smisdom, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Linearly polarized second harmonic generation microscopy reveals chirality,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8286–8293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandre, M.

M. C. Schanne-Klein, T. Boulesteix, F. Hache, M. Alexandre, G. Lemercier, and C. Andraud, “Strong chiroptical effects in surface second harmonic generation obtained for molecules exhibiting excitonic coupling chirality,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(1-2), 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ameloot, M.

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Smisdom, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Linearly polarized second harmonic generation microscopy reveals chirality,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8286–8293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

M. C. Schanne-Klein, T. Boulesteix, F. Hache, M. Alexandre, G. Lemercier, and C. Andraud, “Strong chiroptical effects in surface second harmonic generation obtained for molecules exhibiting excitonic coupling chirality,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(1-2), 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

André, J. M.

T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, G. Koeckelberghs, C. Samyn, A. Persoons, E. Botek, J. M. André, and B. Champagne, ““Nonlinear optical properties of spincoated films of chiral polythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404(1-3), 112–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Araoka, F.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bablumian, A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelier, G.

G. Martin-Gassin, E. Benichou, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, Ch. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Compression induced chirality in dense molecular films at the air-water interface probed by second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(33), 12958–12965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barr, E. S.

Beckwitt, K.

P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beljonne, D.

D. Beljonne, Z. Shuai, J. L. Bredas, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Electro-optic response of chiral helicenes in isotropic media,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(4), 1301–1304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belkin, M.

N. Ji, V. Ostroverkhov, M. Belkin, Y. J. Shiu, and Y. R. Shen, “Toward chiral sum-frequency spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(27), 8845–8848 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

M. A. Belkin and Y. R. Shen, “Nonlinear optical spectroscopy as a novel probe for molecular chirality,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 24(2), 257–299 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benichou, E.

G. Martin-Gassin, E. Benichou, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, Ch. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Compression induced chirality in dense molecular films at the air-water interface probed by second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(33), 12958–12965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biris, C. G.

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boman, F. C.

F. C. Boman, J. M. Gibbs-Davis, L. M. Heckman, B. R. Stepp, S. T. Nguyen, and F. M. Geiger, “DNA at aqueous/solid interfaces: chirality-based detection via second harmonic generation activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 844–848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botek, E.

E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, G. Koeckelberghs, C. Samyn, A. Persoons, E. Botek, J. M. André, and B. Champagne, ““Nonlinear optical properties of spincoated films of chiral polythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404(1-3), 112–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boulesteix, T.

M. C. Schanne-Klein, T. Boulesteix, F. Hache, M. Alexandre, G. Lemercier, and C. Andraud, “Strong chiroptical effects in surface second harmonic generation obtained for molecules exhibiting excitonic coupling chirality,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(1-2), 103–108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boutton, C.

M. Kauranen, C. Boutton, T. Verbiest, M. N. Teerenstra, K. Clays, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, “Supramolecular second-order nonlinearity of polymers with orientationally correlated chromophores,” Science 270(5238), 966–969 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bredas, J. L.

D. Beljonne, Z. Shuai, J. L. Bredas, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Electro-optic response of chiral helicenes in isotropic media,” J. Chem. Phys. 108(4), 1301–1304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brevet, P. F.

G. Martin-Gassin, E. Benichou, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, Ch. Jonin, and P. F. Brevet, “Compression induced chirality in dense molecular films at the air-water interface probed by second harmonic generation,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(33), 12958–12965 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buckingham, A. D.

P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Buckingham, “Theory of the dielectric constant at high field strengths,” J. Chem. Phys. 25(3), 428–434 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 31–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Busson, B.

B. Busson, M. Kauranen, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Quasi-phase-matching in chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(1), 79–82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byers, J. D.

T. Petralli-Mallow, T. M. Wong, J. D. Byers, H. I. Yee, and J. M. Hicks, “Circular dichroism spectroscopy at interfaces: a surface second harmonic generation study,” J. Phys. Chem. 97(7), 1383–1388 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, B.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Champagne, B.

E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Verbiest, S. Sioncke, G. Koeckelberghs, C. Samyn, A. Persoons, E. Botek, J. M. André, and B. Champagne, ““Nonlinear optical properties of spincoated films of chiral polythiophenes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 404(1-3), 112–115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clays, K.

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kauranen, C. Boutton, T. Verbiest, M. N. Teerenstra, K. Clays, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, “Supramolecular second-order nonlinearity of polymers with orientationally correlated chromophores,” Science 270(5238), 966–969 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Clercq, B.

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, N. Smisdom, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Linearly polarized second harmonic generation microscopy reveals chirality,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8286–8293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, M.

Doorsselaere, K. V.

G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, K. V. Doorsselaere, E. Robijns, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Regioregularity in Poly(3-alkoxythiophene)s: effects on the Faraday Rotation and polymerization mechanism,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27(22), 1920–1925 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

M. J. Huttunen, M. Virkki, M. Erkintalo, E. Vuorimaa, A. Efimov, H. Lemmetyinen, and M. Kauranen, “Absolute probe of surface chirality based on focused circularly-polarized light,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(12), 1826–1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Elshocht, S. V.

T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, M. Kauranen, L. Hellemans, J. Snauwaert, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Strong enhancement of nonlinear optical properties through supramolecular chirality,” Science 282(5390), 913–915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, H. G. Kuball, S. Kiesewalter, A. J. Lovinger, and A. Persoons, “Circular dichroism and UV-Visible absorption spectra of the Langmuir-Blodgett films of an aggregating helicene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120(34), 8656–8660 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erkintalo, M.

M. J. Huttunen, M. Virkki, M. Erkintalo, E. Vuorimaa, A. Efimov, H. Lemmetyinen, and M. Kauranen, “Absolute probe of surface chirality based on focused circularly-polarized light,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(12), 1826–1829 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fifield, L.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flores, D.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foerier, S.

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Voorakaranam, A. Lopez-Santiago, S. Foerier, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, A. Persoons, and N. Peyghambarian, “Faraday rotation measurements on thin films of regioregular alkyl-substituted polythiophene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8032–8037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).

Franken, P. A.

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, P.

P. Gangopadhyay, G. Koeckelberghs, and A. Persoons, “Magneto-optic properties of regioregular polyalkylthiophenes,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 516–521 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gangopadhyay, R. Voorakaranam, A. Lopez-Santiago, S. Foerier, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, A. Persoons, and N. Peyghambarian, “Faraday rotation measurements on thin films of regioregular alkyl-substituted polythiophene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8032–8037 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).

E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garner, S.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From molecules to opto-chips: organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geiger, F. M.

S. R. Walter and F. M. Geiger, “DNA on stage: showcasing oligonucleotides at surfaces and interfaces with second harmonic and vibrational sum frequency generation,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1(1), 9–15 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Boman, J. M. Gibbs-Davis, L. M. Heckman, B. R. Stepp, S. T. Nguyen, and F. M. Geiger, “DNA at aqueous/solid interfaces: chirality-based detection via second harmonic generation activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 844–848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs-Davis, J. M.

F. C. Boman, J. M. Gibbs-Davis, L. M. Heckman, B. R. Stepp, S. T. Nguyen, and F. M. Geiger, “DNA at aqueous/solid interfaces: chirality-based detection via second harmonic generation activity,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 844–848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillijns, W.

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
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V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic ratchet wheels: switching circular dichroism by arranging chiral nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3945–3948 (2009).
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P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).

E. Botek, B. Champagne, T. Verbiest, P. Gangopadhyay, and A. Persoons, “A joint theoretical-experimental investigation of the Faraday effect in benzene, toluene, and p-xylene,” ChemPhysChem 7(8), 1654–1656 (2006).
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ACS Nano

V. K. Valev, A. V. Silhanek, W. Gillijns, Y. Jeyaram, H. Paddubrouskaya, A. Volodin, C. G. Biris, N. C. Panoiu, B. De Clercq, M. Ameloot, O. A. Aktsipetrov, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmons reveal the direction of magnetization in nickel nanostructures,” ACS Nano 5(1), 91–96 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional bi-chiral photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(46), 4680–4682 (2009).
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Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. Ostroverkhov, O. Ostroverkhova, R. G. Petschek, K. D. Singer, L. Sukhomlinova, and R. J. Twieg, “Prospects for chiral nonlinear optical media,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 781–792 (2001).
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Macromol. Rapid Commun.

G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, K. V. Doorsselaere, E. Robijns, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Regioregularity in Poly(3-alkoxythiophene)s: effects on the Faraday Rotation and polymerization mechanism,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 27(22), 1920–1925 (2006).
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A. Persoons, M. Kauranen, S. Van Elshocht, T. Verbiest, L. Ma, L. Pu, B. M. W. Langeveld-Voss, and E. W. Meijer, “Chiral effects in second-order nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 315(1), 93–98 (1998).
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M. Zdanowicz, S. Kujala, H. Husu, and M. Kauranen, “Effective medium multipolar tensor analysis of second-harmonic generation from metal nanoparticles,” N. J. Phys. 13(2), 023025 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

S. R. Marder, B. Kippelen, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Design and synthesis of chromophores and polymers for electro-optic and photorefractive applications,” Nature 388(6645), 845–851 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

J. A. Giordmaine, “Nonlinear optical properties of liquids,” Phys. Rev. 138(6A), A1599–A1606 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

F. Araoka, T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and A. Persoons, “Interactions of twisted light with chiral molecules: an experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 055401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, T. Verbiest, S. Van Elshocht, and A. Persoons, “Quantitative determination of electric and magnetic second-order susceptibility tensors of chiral surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 55(4), R1985–R1988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Busson, M. Kauranen, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Quasi-phase-matching in chiral materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(1), 79–82 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. van der Ziel, P. S. Pershan, and L. D. Malmstrom, “Optically-induced magnetization resulting from the inverse Faraday effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15(5), 190–193 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Rentzepis, J. A. Giordmaine, and K. W. Wecht, “Coherent optical mixing in optically active liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 16(18), 792–794 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Franken, A. E. Hill, C. W. Peters, and G. Weinreich, “Generation of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 7(4), 118–119 (1961).
[CrossRef]

P. Fischer, A. D. Buckingham, K. Beckwitt, D. S. Wiersma, and F. W. Wise, “New electro-optic effect: sum-frequency generation from optically active liquids in the presence of a dc electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(17), 173901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fischer, D. S. Wiersma, R. Righini, B. Champagne, and A. D. Buckingham, “Three-wave mixing in chiral liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(20), 4253–4256 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, N. Saito, Y. Ino, M. Kauranen, K. Jefimovs, T. Vallius, J. Turunen, and Y. Svirko, “Giant optical activity in quasi-two-dimensional planar nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

P. Gangopadhyay, S. Foerier, G. Koeckelberghs, M. Vangheluwe, A. Persoons, and T. Verbiest, “Efficient Faraday rotation in conjugated polymers,” Proc. SPIE 6331, 63310Z (2006).

Science

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kauranen, C. Boutton, T. Verbiest, M. N. Teerenstra, K. Clays, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, and A. Persoons, “Supramolecular second-order nonlinearity of polymers with orientationally correlated chromophores,” Science 270(5238), 966–969 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, S. V. Elshocht, M. Kauranen, L. Hellemans, J. Snauwaert, C. Nuckolls, T. J. Katz, and A. Persoons, “Strong enhancement of nonlinear optical properties through supramolecular chirality,” Science 282(5390), 913–915 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met.

M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, J. J. Maki, and A. Persoons, “Nonlinear optical properties of chiral polymers,” Synth. Met. 81(2-3), 117–120 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Mansuripur, “Classical Optics and Its Applications” (Cambridge University Press, 2002), Chap. 10.

F. Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (The Free Press, 1992).

All serious students of nonlinear optics should have copies of the following books, in order of mathematical depth first editions given, but see subsequent editions also: G. C. Baldwin, An Introduction to Nonlinear Optics (Plenum Press, 1969); T. Verbiest, K. Clays, and V. Rodriguez, Second-Order Nonlinear Optical Characterization Techniques (CRC Press, 2009); P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, 1991); D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic Press, 1987); R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 1992); A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley and Sons, 1967); Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, 1984); N. Bloembergen, Nonlinear Optics (W. A. Benjamin, 1965).

M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds., Characterisation Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials (Marcel Dekker, 1998).

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University Press, 1982).

A. Lakhtakia, Selected Papers on Natural Optical Activity (SPIE, 1990).

J. Hicks, Chirality: Physical Chemistry; ACS Symposium Series 810 (American Chemical Society, 2002).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

An intuitive view of (the optical activity in) a helical molecule.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P   =  χ (1)  E   +    χ (2)  E  2     +    ...
μ i n d    =    α  E   +    β  E 2     +        
H   =   -  μ .E  
H  =    -  μ .E  -  m .B   -   Q: E   +    ...  
P NL    =    χ e e e   EE   +     χ e e m  EB 
M NL    =       χ mee   EE  
P  =   χ ee ( ω ω ) E( ω )  +   χ eee ( ω ω , 0)E( ω ) E(0)  =  [ χ ee ( ω ω ) +  χ eee ( ω ω , 0)E( ω )]E(0)
P   =    χ eff   E( ω )
P  =   χ ee ( ω ω ) E( ω )  +   χ eem ( ω ω , 0)E( ω ) B(0) = [ χ ee ( ω ω ) +  χ eem ( ω ω , 0)B(0)]E( ω )
P   =    χ e f f   B  E( ω )
θ    =   V L B
V   =   4 π 2  i  χ eem  /n 0   λ  

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