Abstract

We have fabricated and studied mechanically tunable elastomer dye lasers constructed in large area sheets by a single-step layer-multiplying co-extrusion process. The laser films consist of a central dye-doped (Rhodamine-6G) elastomer layer between two 128-layer distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) films comprised of alternating elastomer layers with different refractive indices. The central gain layer is formed by folding the coextruded DBR film to enclose a dye-doped skin layer. By mechanically stretching the elastomer laser film from 0% to 19%, a tunable miniature laser source was obtained with ~50 nm continuous tunability from red to green. Optically pumped by a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, the elastomer laser showed a lasing threshold of 0.9 mJ/cm2 at 600 nm.

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  1. I. P. Ilchishin, “Generation of a tunable radiation by impurity cholesteric liquid-crystals,” JETP Lett. 32, 24–27 (1980).
  2. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).
  3. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Mechanically tunable optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10494–10499 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. R. Lee, S. H. Lin, H. C. Yeh, and T. D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18038–18043 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

2008

2007

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 36–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Mechanically tunable optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10494–10499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1986

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).

1980

I. P. Ilchishin, “Generation of a tunable radiation by impurity cholesteric liquid-crystals,” JETP Lett. 32, 24–27 (1980).

Andrews, J.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, E.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, G. Chilaya, and R. Barberi, “Wide band gap materials as a new tuning strategy for dye doped cholesteric liquid crystals laser,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4553–4558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolino, R.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).

Blinov, L. M.

Caputo, R.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, G. Chilaya, and R. Barberi, “Wide band gap materials as a new tuning strategy for dye doped cholesteric liquid crystals laser,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4553–4558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chum, S. P.

H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, V. V. Lazarev, P. Pagliusi, and T. Rugiero, “Liquid crystal as laser medium with tunable gain spectra,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6625–6630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).

Coles, H. J.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 36–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Santo, M. P.

Finkelmann, H.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A. D.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 36–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gimenez, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanelt, E.

Hiltner, A.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. S.

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilchishin, I. P.

I. P. Ilchishin, “Generation of a tunable radiation by impurity cholesteric liquid-crystals,” JETP Lett. 32, 24–27 (1980).

Iskra, K. F.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ji, T. D.

Ji, Y.

Kavc, T.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, T.

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kniesel, S.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kranzelbinder, G.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lazarev, V. V.

Lee, C. R.

Li, Z.

Lin, S. H.

Lott, J.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsico, S.

Matranga, M. A.

Mazzulla, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, S.

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 36–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neger, T.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oriol, L.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pagliusi, P.

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, G. Chilaya, and R. Barberi, “Wide band gap materials as a new tuning strategy for dye doped cholesteric liquid crystals laser,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4553–4558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petschek, R. G.

Pinol, M.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prattipati, V.

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, G. N.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

Ramakrishnan, V.

Rivera, P.

Rugiero, T.

Samuel, I. D. W.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanzari, M.

Scaramuzza, N.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serra, F.

Shibaev, P. V.

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).

Singer, K.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

Song, H.

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, W.

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofludic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Strangi, G.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taheri, B.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terentjev, E. M.

Teter, D.

Toussaere, E.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Turnbull, G. A.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Versace, C.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. P.

H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weder, C.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinberger, M. R.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Yeh, H. C.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, J.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zojer, E.

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and B. Taheri, “Tunable Mirrorless Lasing in Cholesteric Liquid Crystalline Elastomers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Weinberger, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, A. Haase, E. Zojer, and W. Kern, “Continuously color-tunable rubber laser,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(2), 130–133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, “Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, J. Zyss, T. Kavc, G. Langer, and W. Kern, “Organic surface emitting laser based on a deep-ultraviolet photopolymer containing thiocyanate groups,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2203–2205 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Song and D. Psaltis, “Pneumatically tunable optofludic dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(8), 081101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

T. Kavc, G. Langer, W. Kern, G. Kranzelbinder, E. Toussaere, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, K. F. Iskra, T. Neger, and A. Pogantsch, “Index and relief gratings in polymer films for organic distributed feedback lasers,” Chem. Mater. 14(10), 4178–4185 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

H. P. Wang, S. P. Chum, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Comparing Elastomeric Behavior of Block and Random Ethylene-Octoene Copolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 113(5), 3236–3244 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

H. Song, K. Singer, J. Lott, Y. Wu, J. Zhou, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Continuously melt processing of all-polymer distributed feedback lasers,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7520–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

I. P. Ilchishin, “Generation of a tunable radiation by impurity cholesteric liquid-crystals,” JETP Lett. 32, 24–27 (1980).

Macromol. Rapid Commun.

T. Kazmierczak, H. Song, A. Hiltner, and E. Baer, “Polymeric one-dimensional photonic crystals by continuous coextrusion,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 28(23), 2210–2216 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

J. Schmidtke, S. Kniesel, and H. Finkelmann, “Probing the photonic properties of a cholesteric elastomer under biaxial stress,” Macromolecules 38(4), 1357–1363 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

A. D. Ford, S. M. Morris, and H. J. Coles, “Photonics and lasing in liquid crystals,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 36–42 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Effect of tuning of a dye-laser induced by a liquid-crystal device,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 1, 3–4 (1985).

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, and R. Bartolino, “Tuning of a dye-laser by a liquid-crystal,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 139(1), 161–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, “Mechanically tunable optofluidic distributed feedback dye laser,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10494–10499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Blinov, G. Cipparrone, V. V. Lazarev, P. Pagliusi, and T. Rugiero, “Liquid crystal as laser medium with tunable gain spectra,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6625–6630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Shibaev, P. Rivera, D. Teter, S. Marsico, M. Sanzari, V. Ramakrishnan, and E. Hanelt, “Color changing and lasing stretchable cholesteric films,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2965–2970 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Petriashvili, M. A. Matranga, M. P. De Santo, G. Chilaya, and R. Barberi, “Wide band gap materials as a new tuning strategy for dye doped cholesteric liquid crystals laser,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4553–4558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Lee, S. H. Lin, H. C. Yeh, and T. D. Ji, “Band-tunable color cone lasing emission based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals with various pitches and a pitch gradient,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22616–22623 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Serra, M. A. Matranga, Y. Ji, and E. M. Terentjev, “Single-mode laser tuning from cholesteric elastomers using a “notch” band-gap configuration,” Opt. Express 18(2), 575–581 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wu, K. D. Singer, R. G. Petschek, H. Song, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, “Mode delocalization in 1D photonic crystal lasers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18038–18043 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. D. Singer, T. Kazmierczak, J. Lott, H. Song, Y. Wu, J. Andrews, E. Baer, A. Hiltner, and C. Weder, “Melt-processed all-polymer distributed Bragg reflector laser,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10358–10363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Strangi, V. Barna, R. Caputo, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, C. Umeton, R. Bartolino, and G. N. Price, “Color-tunable organic microcavity laser array using distributed feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polymer (Guildf.)

Y. S. Hu, V. Prattipati, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, and S. Mehta, “Improving transparency of stretched PET/MXD6 blends by modifying PET with isophthalate,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(14), 5202–5210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the melt-processing extrusion technique, followed by folding into the stacked structure shown at right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) is the folded elastomeric laser film mounted on the uniaxially stretchable stage; The region marked out by 4 dots locates where the doubled Nd:YAG laser pumped the sample and lasing took place. (b) is an AFM image of the Bragg reflector of the extruded elastomer film with histogram inset showing the layer thickness distribution. (c) is the experiment setup. OOS: fiber-coupled Ocean Optics spectrometer, BD: beam dump, PM: photodiode, θ = 20. (d) is a picture taken while the elastomer laser film was lasing at 600 nm. The left round bright spot is the laser and the right spot is the leftover pump light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift of photonic band peak vs. the stretching strain. The blue diamond dots and the pink square dots are the experimental data for stretching and recovery, respectively, and the triangle dots are the calculated results using a pseudo-affine Model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission and emission spectra of the folded unstretched elastomer laser film. (b) The emission spectrum at specified pump powers below and above the lasing threshold. Note: the vertical axes for the two curves are not to the same scale. The curve in the inset shows the optical conversion efficiency at 600nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorbance, emission, tuning transmission and tuning emission spectra of the tunable DBR elastomer laser. The series of curves in (a) (top) are the transmission curves of a single extruded film while stretching from 0% to 19%. The series of curves in (b) (bottom) are the output laser wavelength at different stretching ratios for the folded laser film. In (b), the black and the pink colored curves are the absorbance and emission spectra of the R6G laser dye doped in lotader elastomer polymer.

Equations (1)

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λ = λ 0 ( n 1 + n 2 ) ( n 01 + n 02 ) 1 + ε

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