Abstract

Interest in two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide materials has recently grown due to their tunable band gap, large exciton binding energy, and flexibility in designing a wide range of optoelectronic devices. However, the presence of adsorbates, strain, and aging-induced heterogeneities can severely influence their excitonic photoluminescence (PL). Therefore, precise nanoscale correlation between the optical and structural heterogeneities is of paramount importance and needs further investigation. In this report, we used tip-enhanced photoluminescence (TEPL) imaging of the nanoscale exciton emission of air-aged monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 multijunction lateral heterostructures with subwavelength spatial resolution of 40 nm. Distinct regions corresponding to monolayer MoSe2 and WSe2 were identified. Near-field excitation was used for the quantitative evaluation of the optical transition width: 40 nm sharp transition (WSe2→MoSe2), and 230 nm smooth interface (MoSe2→WSe2). Nanoscale composition of the alloying properties of the junction was estimated using TEPL. Furthermore, localized optical fluctuations and the role of the aging-induced nanoparticles in the excitonic PL suppression were investigated. The observed linear dependence of the PL suppression as a function of the nanoparticle size indicates the contribution of the chemical aging effects. The correlation between the nanoscale optical and structural characteristics will be useful for controlling and manipulating excitons in the next-generation atomically thin devices.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (9)

P. K. Sahoo, S. Memaran, Y. Xin, L. Balicas, and H. R. Gutiérrez, “One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy,” Nature 553(7686), 63–67 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ge, X. Wu, M. Kim, J. Shi, S. Sonde, L. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. C. Lee, and D. Akinwande, “Atomristor: Nonvolatile Resistance Switching in Atomic Sheets of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 434–441 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, M. Y. Li, J. Tersoff, Y. Han, Y. Su, L. J. Li, D. A. Muller, and C. K. Shih, “Strain distributions and their influence on electronic structures of WSe2-MoS2 laterally strained heterojunctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(2), 152–158 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Mohamed, H. E. Lim, F. J. Wang, S. Koirala, S. Mouri, K. Shinokita, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Long radiative lifetimes of excitons in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se),” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 015201 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Xue, P. K. Sahoo, J. Liu, H. Zong, X. Lai, S. Ambardar, and D. V. Voronine, “Nano-optical imaging of monolayer MoSe2 -WSe2 lateral heterostructure with subwavelength domains,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 36(5), 05G502 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Tang, Z. He, W. Chen, S. Jia, J. Lou, and D. V. Voronine, “Quantum plasmonic hot-electron injection in lateral WSe2/MoSe2 heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 98(4), 041402 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Jariwala, A. Krayev, J. Wong, A. E. Robinson, M. C. Sherrott, S. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, M. Terrones, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale doping heterogeneity in few-layer WSe2 exfoliated onto noble metals revealed by correlated SPM and TERS imaging,” 2D Mater. 5(3), 035003 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. K. H. Smithe, A. V. Krayev, C. S. Bailey, H. R. Lee, E. Yalon, Ö. B. Aslan, M. Muñoz Rojo, S. Krylyuk, P. Taheri, A. V. Davydov, T. F. Heinz, and E. Pop, “Nanoscale Heterogeneities in Monolayer MoSe2 Revealed by Correlated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(2), 572–579 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Lin, E. Cao, L. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrically enhanced hot hole driven oxidation catalysis at the interface of a plasmon-exciton hybrid,” Nanoscale 10(12), 5482–5488 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (19)

E. Cao, X. Guo, L. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Fang, L. Zhou, Y. Sun, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrooptical Synergy on Plasmon–Exciton‐Codriven Surface Reduction Reactions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(24), 1700869 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, H. Yu, X. Guo, Q. Ding, T. Pullerits, R. Wang, G. Zhang, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Plasmon-exciton coupling of monolayer MoS2-Ag nanoparticles hybrids for surface catalytic reaction,” Mater. Today Energy 5, 72–78 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Lin, Y. Shi, X. Yang, J. Li, E. Cao, X. Xu, T. Pullerits, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Physical mechanism on exciton-plasmon coupling revealed by femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy,” Mater. Today Phys. 3, 33–40 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Meng and M. Sun, “Tip-enhanced photoluminescence spectroscopy of monolayer MoS2,” Photon. Res. 5(6), 745–749 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. He, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liege, B. Birmingham, A. V. Sokolov, Z. Zhang, and M. O. Scully, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Bulk MoS2 Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(2), 113–118 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Martincová, M. Otyepka, and P. Lazar, “Is Single Layer MoS2 Stable in the Air?” Chemistry 23(53), 13233–13239 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lee, S. J. Yun, Y. Kim, M. S. Kim, G. H. Han, A. K. Sood, and J. Kim, “Near-field spectral mapping of individual exciton complexes of monolayer WS2 correlated with local defects and charge population,” Nanoscale 9(6), 2272–2278 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Cao, A. J. Robson, A. Alharbi, J. Roberts, C. S. Woodhead, Y. J. Noori, R. Bernardo-Gavito, D. Shahrjerdi, U. Roedig, V. I. Fal’ko, and R. J. Young, “Optical identification using imperfections in 2D materials,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045021 (2017).
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W. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, W. Li, Z. Wang, J. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10608–10615 (2017).
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Y. J. Chen, J. D. Cain, T. K. Stanev, V. P. Dravid, and N. P. Stern, “Valley-polarized exciton-polaritons in a monolayer semiconductor,” Nat. Photonics 11(7), 431–435 (2017).
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V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
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E. M. Alexeev, A. Catanzaro, O. V. Skrypka, P. K. Nayak, S. Ahn, S. Pak, J. Lee, J. I. Sohn, K. S. Novoselov, H. S. Shin, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5342–5349 (2017).
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R. Zhou, V. Ostwal, and J. Appenzeller, “Vertical versus Lateral Two-Dimensional Heterostructures: On the Topic of Atomically Abrupt p/n-Junctions,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4787–4792 (2017).
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D. Jariwala, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 170–181 (2017).
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S. Dubey, S. Lisi, G. Nayak, F. Herziger, V. D. Nguyen, T. Le Quang, V. Cherkez, C. González, Y. J. Dappe, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. Magaud, P. Mallet, J. Y. Veuillen, R. Arenal, L. Marty, J. Renard, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, and V. Bouchiat, “Weakly Trapped, Charged, and Free Excitons in Single-Layer MoS2 in the Presence of Defects, Strain, and Charged Impurities,” ACS Nano 11(11), 11206–11216 (2017).
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T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
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K. S. Thygesen, “Calculating excitons, plasmons, and quasiparticles in 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” 2D Mater. 4, 022004 (2017).

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Z. Zhang, P. Chen, X. Duan, K. Zang, J. Luo, and X. Duan, “Robust epitaxial growth of two-dimensional heterostructures, multiheterostructures, and superlattices,” Science 357(6353), 788–792 (2017).
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2016 (13)

M. Massicotte, P. Schmidt, F. Vialla, K. G. Schädler, A. Reserbat-Plantey, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, K. J. Tielrooij, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Picosecond photoresponse in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 42–46 (2016).
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K. F. Mak and J. Shan, “Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 216–226 (2016).
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H. Y. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, T. H. Ly, G. H. Han, H. Kim, H. Nam, Z. Jiong, B. G. Shin, S. J. Yun, J. Kim, U. J. Kim, S. Hwang, and Y. H. Lee, “Visualizing Point Defects in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Using Optical Microscopy,” ACS Nano 10(1), 770–777 (2016).
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D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
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K. D. Park, O. Khatib, V. Kravtsov, G. Clark, X. Xu, and M. B. Raschke, “Hybrid Tip-Enhanced Nanospectroscopy and Nanoimaging of Monolayer WSe2 with Local Strain Control,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2621–2627 (2016).
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X. Yang, F. Zhai, H. Hu, D. Hu, R. Liu, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2931–2938 (2016).
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W. Su, N. Kumar, S. Mignuzzi, J. Crain, and D. Roy, “Nanoscale mapping of excitonic processes in single-layer MoS2 using tip-enhanced photoluminescence microscopy,” Nanoscale 8(20), 10564–10569 (2016).
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G. Mirabelli, C. McGeough, M. Schmidt, E. K. McCarthy, S. Monaghan, I. M. Povey, M. McCarthy, F. Gity, R. Nagle, G. Hughes, A. Cafolla, P. K. Hurley, and R. Duffy, “Air sensitivity of MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, and HfSe2,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(12), 125102 (2016).
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J. Gao, B. Li, J. Tan, P. Chow, T.-M. Lu, and N. Koratkar, “Aging of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2628–2635 (2016).
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Z. Lin, B. R. Carvalho, E. Kahn, R. T. Lv, R. Rao, H. Terrones, M. A. Pimenta, and M. Terrones, “Defect engineering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 022002 (2016).
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Y. Zhang, D. V. Voronine, S. Qiu, A. M. Sinyukov, M. Hamilton, Z. Liege, A. V. Sokolov, Z. Zhang, and M. O. Scully, “Improving resolution in quantum subnanometre-gap tip-enhanced Raman nanoimaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25788 (2016).
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A. E. Yore, K. K. H. Smithe, W. Crumrine, A. Miller, J. A. Tuck, B. Redd, E. Pop, B. Wang, and A. K. M. Newaz, “Visualization of Defect-Induced Excitonic Properties of the Edges and Grain Boundaries in Synthesized Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(42), 24080–24087 (2016).
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2015 (9)

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 491–496 (2015).
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M.-Y. Li, Y. Shi, C.-C. Cheng, L.-S. Lu, Y.-C. Lin, H.-L. Tang, M.-L. Tsai, C.-W. Chu, K.-H. Wei, J.-H. He, W.-H. Chang, K. Suenaga, and L.-J. Li, “NANOELECTRONICS. Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface,” Science 349(6247), 524–528 (2015).
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D. Nam, J. U. Lee, and H. Cheong, “Excitation energy dependent Raman spectrum of MoSe2.,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 17113 (2015).
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Y. Lee, S. Park, H. Kim, G. H. Han, Y. H. Lee, and J. Kim, “Characterization of the structural defects in CVD-grown monolayered MoS2 using near-field photoluminescence imaging,” Nanoscale 7(28), 11909–11914 (2015).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
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F. Withers, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, A. Mishchenko, A. P. Rooney, A. Gholinia, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. J. Haigh, A. K. Geim, A. I. Tartakovskii, and K. S. Novoselov, “Light-emitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14(3), 301–306 (2015).
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D. Sarkar, X. Xie, W. Liu, W. Cao, J. Kang, Y. Gong, S. Kraemer, P. M. Ajayan, and K. Banerjee, “A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel,” Nature 526(7571), 91–95 (2015).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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Y. M. Li, J. Li, L. K. Shi, D. Zhang, W. Yang, and K. Chang, “Light-Induced Exciton Spin Hall Effect in van der Waals Heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(16), 166804 (2015).
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2014 (5)

C.-H. Lee, G.-H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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C. Huang, S. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, J. J. P. Peters, R. Beanland, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1096–1101 (2014).
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S. Tongay, D. S. Narang, J. Kang, W. Fan, C. H. Ko, A. V. Luce, K. X. Wang, J. Suh, K. D. Patel, V. M. Pathak, J. B. Li, and J. Q. Wu, “Two-dimensional semiconductor alloys: Monolayer Mo1−xWxSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 012101 (2014).
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M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y.-S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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2013 (5)

J. Kang, S. Tongay, J. B. Li, and J. Q. Wu, “Monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys: Stability and band bowing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143703 (2013).
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P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, P. Böttger, X. Zhang, J. Börner, A. Liebig, M. Albrecht, C. Kloc, O. Gordan, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Photoluminescence emission and Raman response of monolayer MoS₂, MoSe₂, and WSe₂,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4908–4916 (2013).
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H. Terrones, F. López-Urías, and M. Terrones, “Novel hetero-layered materials with tunable direct band gaps by sandwiching different metal disulfides and diselenides,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1549 (2013).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2831–2836 (2013).
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A. M. van der Zande, P. Y. Huang, D. A. Chenet, T. C. Berkelbach, Y. You, G. H. Lee, T. F. Heinz, D. R. Reichman, D. A. Muller, and J. C. Hone, “Grains and grain boundaries in highly crystalline monolayer molybdenum disulphide,” Nat. Mater. 12(6), 554–561 (2013).
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Ahn, S.

E. M. Alexeev, A. Catanzaro, O. V. Skrypka, P. K. Nayak, S. Ahn, S. Pak, J. Lee, J. I. Sohn, K. S. Novoselov, H. S. Shin, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5342–5349 (2017).
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Aivazian, G.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
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Ajayan, P. M.

D. Sarkar, X. Xie, W. Liu, W. Cao, J. Kang, Y. Gong, S. Kraemer, P. M. Ajayan, and K. Banerjee, “A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel,” Nature 526(7571), 91–95 (2015).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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R. Ge, X. Wu, M. Kim, J. Shi, S. Sonde, L. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. C. Lee, and D. Akinwande, “Atomristor: Nonvolatile Resistance Switching in Atomic Sheets of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 434–441 (2018).
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Y. M. Cao, A. J. Robson, A. Alharbi, J. Roberts, C. S. Woodhead, Y. J. Noori, R. Bernardo-Gavito, D. Shahrjerdi, U. Roedig, V. I. Fal’ko, and R. J. Young, “Optical identification using imperfections in 2D materials,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045021 (2017).
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A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoğlu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(6), 491–496 (2015).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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W. Xue, P. K. Sahoo, J. Liu, H. Zong, X. Lai, S. Ambardar, and D. V. Voronine, “Nano-optical imaging of monolayer MoSe2 -WSe2 lateral heterostructure with subwavelength domains,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 36(5), 05G502 (2018).
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R. Zhou, V. Ostwal, and J. Appenzeller, “Vertical versus Lateral Two-Dimensional Heterostructures: On the Topic of Atomically Abrupt p/n-Junctions,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4787–4792 (2017).
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C.-H. Lee, G.-H. Lee, A. M. van der Zande, W. Chen, Y. Li, M. Han, X. Cui, G. Arefe, C. Nuckolls, T. F. Heinz, J. Guo, J. Hone, and P. Kim, “Atomically thin p-n junctions with van der Waals heterointerfaces,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 676–681 (2014).
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S. Dubey, S. Lisi, G. Nayak, F. Herziger, V. D. Nguyen, T. Le Quang, V. Cherkez, C. González, Y. J. Dappe, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. Magaud, P. Mallet, J. Y. Veuillen, R. Arenal, L. Marty, J. Renard, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, and V. Bouchiat, “Weakly Trapped, Charged, and Free Excitons in Single-Layer MoS2 in the Presence of Defects, Strain, and Charged Impurities,” ACS Nano 11(11), 11206–11216 (2017).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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K. K. H. Smithe, A. V. Krayev, C. S. Bailey, H. R. Lee, E. Yalon, Ö. B. Aslan, M. Muñoz Rojo, S. Krylyuk, P. Taheri, A. V. Davydov, T. F. Heinz, and E. Pop, “Nanoscale Heterogeneities in Monolayer MoSe2 Revealed by Correlated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(2), 572–579 (2018).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2831–2836 (2013).
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D. Jariwala, A. Krayev, J. Wong, A. E. Robinson, M. C. Sherrott, S. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, M. Terrones, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale doping heterogeneity in few-layer WSe2 exfoliated onto noble metals revealed by correlated SPM and TERS imaging,” 2D Mater. 5(3), 035003 (2018).
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T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
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K. K. H. Smithe, A. V. Krayev, C. S. Bailey, H. R. Lee, E. Yalon, Ö. B. Aslan, M. Muñoz Rojo, S. Krylyuk, P. Taheri, A. V. Davydov, T. F. Heinz, and E. Pop, “Nanoscale Heterogeneities in Monolayer MoSe2 Revealed by Correlated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(2), 572–579 (2018).
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P. K. Sahoo, S. Memaran, Y. Xin, L. Balicas, and H. R. Gutiérrez, “One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy,” Nature 553(7686), 63–67 (2018).
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D. Sarkar, X. Xie, W. Liu, W. Cao, J. Kang, Y. Gong, S. Kraemer, P. M. Ajayan, and K. Banerjee, “A subthermionic tunnel field-effect transistor with an atomically thin channel,” Nature 526(7571), 91–95 (2015).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Polaritons in van der Waals materials,” Science 354(6309), aag1992 (2016).
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C. Huang, S. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, J. J. P. Peters, R. Beanland, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1096–1101 (2014).
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S. Dubey, S. Lisi, G. Nayak, F. Herziger, V. D. Nguyen, T. Le Quang, V. Cherkez, C. González, Y. J. Dappe, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. Magaud, P. Mallet, J. Y. Veuillen, R. Arenal, L. Marty, J. Renard, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, and V. Bouchiat, “Weakly Trapped, Charged, and Free Excitons in Single-Layer MoS2 in the Presence of Defects, Strain, and Charged Impurities,” ACS Nano 11(11), 11206–11216 (2017).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
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Y. M. Li, J. Li, L. K. Shi, D. Zhang, W. Yang, and K. Chang, “Light-Induced Exciton Spin Hall Effect in van der Waals Heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(16), 166804 (2015).
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X. Yang, H. Yu, X. Guo, Q. Ding, T. Pullerits, R. Wang, G. Zhang, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Plasmon-exciton coupling of monolayer MoS2-Ag nanoparticles hybrids for surface catalytic reaction,” Mater. Today Energy 5, 72–78 (2017).
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W. Lin, Y. Shi, X. Yang, J. Li, E. Cao, X. Xu, T. Pullerits, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Physical mechanism on exciton-plasmon coupling revealed by femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy,” Mater. Today Phys. 3, 33–40 (2017).
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X. Yang, F. Zhai, H. Hu, D. Hu, R. Liu, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2931–2938 (2016).
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Yang, Y.

M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y.-S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
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C. Huang, S. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, J. J. P. Peters, R. Beanland, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1096–1101 (2014).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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A. E. Yore, K. K. H. Smithe, W. Crumrine, A. Miller, J. A. Tuck, B. Redd, E. Pop, B. Wang, and A. K. M. Newaz, “Visualization of Defect-Induced Excitonic Properties of the Edges and Grain Boundaries in Synthesized Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(42), 24080–24087 (2016).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2831–2836 (2013).
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X. Yang, H. Yu, X. Guo, Q. Ding, T. Pullerits, R. Wang, G. Zhang, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Plasmon-exciton coupling of monolayer MoS2-Ag nanoparticles hybrids for surface catalytic reaction,” Mater. Today Energy 5, 72–78 (2017).
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Y. Lee, S. J. Yun, Y. Kim, M. S. Kim, G. H. Han, A. K. Sood, and J. Kim, “Near-field spectral mapping of individual exciton complexes of monolayer WS2 correlated with local defects and charge population,” Nanoscale 9(6), 2272–2278 (2017).
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Zahn, D. R. T.

Zang, K.

Z. Zhang, P. Chen, X. Duan, K. Zang, J. Luo, and X. Duan, “Robust epitaxial growth of two-dimensional heterostructures, multiheterostructures, and superlattices,” Science 357(6353), 788–792 (2017).
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Zhai, F.

X. Yang, F. Zhai, H. Hu, D. Hu, R. Liu, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2931–2938 (2016).
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C. Zhang, M. Y. Li, J. Tersoff, Y. Han, Y. Su, L. J. Li, D. A. Muller, and C. K. Shih, “Strain distributions and their influence on electronic structures of WSe2-MoS2 laterally strained heterojunctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(2), 152–158 (2018).
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Y. M. Li, J. Li, L. K. Shi, D. Zhang, W. Yang, and K. Chang, “Light-Induced Exciton Spin Hall Effect in van der Waals Heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(16), 166804 (2015).
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X. Yang, H. Yu, X. Guo, Q. Ding, T. Pullerits, R. Wang, G. Zhang, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Plasmon-exciton coupling of monolayer MoS2-Ag nanoparticles hybrids for surface catalytic reaction,” Mater. Today Energy 5, 72–78 (2017).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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W. Lin, E. Cao, L. Zhang, X. Xu, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrically enhanced hot hole driven oxidation catalysis at the interface of a plasmon-exciton hybrid,” Nanoscale 10(12), 5482–5488 (2018).
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E. Cao, X. Guo, L. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Fang, L. Zhou, Y. Sun, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrooptical Synergy on Plasmon–Exciton‐Codriven Surface Reduction Reactions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(24), 1700869 (2017).
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W. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, W. Li, Z. Wang, J. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10608–10615 (2017).
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Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y.-S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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Zhang, S.

X. Yang, F. Zhai, H. Hu, D. Hu, R. Liu, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2931–2938 (2016).
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Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, W. Li, Z. Wang, J. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10608–10615 (2017).
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Zhang, X.

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R. Ge, X. Wu, M. Kim, J. Shi, S. Sonde, L. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. C. Lee, and D. Akinwande, “Atomristor: Nonvolatile Resistance Switching in Atomic Sheets of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 434–441 (2018).
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Y. Zhang, D. V. Voronine, S. Qiu, A. M. Sinyukov, M. Hamilton, Z. Liege, A. V. Sokolov, Z. Zhang, and M. O. Scully, “Improving resolution in quantum subnanometre-gap tip-enhanced Raman nanoimaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25788 (2016).
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W. Bao, N. J. Borys, C. Ko, J. Suh, W. Fan, A. Thron, Y. Zhang, A. Buyanin, J. Zhang, S. Cabrini, P. D. Ashby, A. Weber-Bargioni, S. Tongay, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, J. Wu, M. B. Salmeron, and P. J. Schuck, “Visualizing nanoscale excitonic relaxation properties of disordered edges and grain boundaries in monolayer molybdenum disulfide,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7993 (2015).
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Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, P. Chen, X. Duan, K. Zang, J. Luo, and X. Duan, “Robust epitaxial growth of two-dimensional heterostructures, multiheterostructures, and superlattices,” Science 357(6353), 788–792 (2017).
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Z. He, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liege, B. Birmingham, A. V. Sokolov, Z. Zhang, and M. O. Scully, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Bulk MoS2 Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(2), 113–118 (2017).
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V. Carozo, Y. Wang, K. Fujisawa, B. R. Carvalho, A. McCreary, S. Feng, Z. Lin, C. Zhou, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, B. Kabius, V. H. Crespi, and M. Terrones, “Optical identification of sulfur vacancies: Bound excitons at the edges of monolayer tungsten disulfide,” Sci. Adv. 3(4), e1602813 (2017).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2831–2836 (2013).
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Zhou, L.

E. Cao, X. Guo, L. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Fang, L. Zhou, Y. Sun, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrooptical Synergy on Plasmon–Exciton‐Codriven Surface Reduction Reactions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(24), 1700869 (2017).
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Zhou, R.

R. Zhou, V. Ostwal, and J. Appenzeller, “Vertical versus Lateral Two-Dimensional Heterostructures: On the Topic of Atomically Abrupt p/n-Junctions,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4787–4792 (2017).
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Zhou, W.

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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Zhu, L.

W. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, W. Li, Z. Wang, J. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10608–10615 (2017).
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Zhu, Y.

M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y.-S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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Zong, H.

W. Xue, P. K. Sahoo, J. Liu, H. Zong, X. Lai, S. Ambardar, and D. V. Voronine, “Nano-optical imaging of monolayer MoSe2 -WSe2 lateral heterostructure with subwavelength domains,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 36(5), 05G502 (2018).
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Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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2D Mater. (4)

K. S. Thygesen, “Calculating excitons, plasmons, and quasiparticles in 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” 2D Mater. 4, 022004 (2017).

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D. Jariwala, A. Krayev, J. Wong, A. E. Robinson, M. C. Sherrott, S. Wang, G.-Y. Liu, M. Terrones, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale doping heterogeneity in few-layer WSe2 exfoliated onto noble metals revealed by correlated SPM and TERS imaging,” 2D Mater. 5(3), 035003 (2018).
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Z. Lin, B. R. Carvalho, E. Kahn, R. T. Lv, R. Rao, H. Terrones, M. A. Pimenta, and M. Terrones, “Defect engineering of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” 2D Mater. 3(2), 022002 (2016).
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ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (1)

K. K. H. Smithe, A. V. Krayev, C. S. Bailey, H. R. Lee, E. Yalon, Ö. B. Aslan, M. Muñoz Rojo, S. Krylyuk, P. Taheri, A. V. Davydov, T. F. Heinz, and E. Pop, “Nanoscale Heterogeneities in Monolayer MoSe2 Revealed by Correlated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” ACS Appl. Nano Mater. 1(2), 572–579 (2018).
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ACS Nano (5)

M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y.-S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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J. Gao, B. Li, J. Tan, P. Chow, T.-M. Lu, and N. Koratkar, “Aging of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” ACS Nano 10(2), 2628–2635 (2016).
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H. Y. Jeong, S. Y. Lee, T. H. Ly, G. H. Han, H. Kim, H. Nam, Z. Jiong, B. G. Shin, S. J. Yun, J. Kim, U. J. Kim, S. Hwang, and Y. H. Lee, “Visualizing Point Defects in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Using Optical Microscopy,” ACS Nano 10(1), 770–777 (2016).
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W. Zhang, Y. Lin, Q. Wang, W. Li, Z. Wang, J. Song, X. Li, L. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10608–10615 (2017).
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S. Dubey, S. Lisi, G. Nayak, F. Herziger, V. D. Nguyen, T. Le Quang, V. Cherkez, C. González, Y. J. Dappe, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, L. Magaud, P. Mallet, J. Y. Veuillen, R. Arenal, L. Marty, J. Renard, N. Bendiab, J. Coraux, and V. Bouchiat, “Weakly Trapped, Charged, and Free Excitons in Single-Layer MoS2 in the Presence of Defects, Strain, and Charged Impurities,” ACS Nano 11(11), 11206–11216 (2017).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Yang, F. Zhai, H. Hu, D. Hu, R. Liu, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Sun, J. Chen, and Q. Dai, “Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures,” Adv. Mater. 28(15), 2931–2938 (2016).
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Adv. Mater. Interfaces (1)

E. Cao, X. Guo, L. Zhang, Y. Shi, W. Lin, X. Liu, Y. Fang, L. Zhou, Y. Sun, Y. Song, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Electrooptical Synergy on Plasmon–Exciton‐Codriven Surface Reduction Reactions,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces 4(24), 1700869 (2017).
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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

N. B. Mohamed, H. E. Lim, F. J. Wang, S. Koirala, S. Mouri, K. Shinokita, Y. Miyauchi, and K. Matsuda, “Long radiative lifetimes of excitons in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se),” Appl. Phys. Express 11(1), 015201 (2018).
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S. Tongay, D. S. Narang, J. Kang, W. Fan, C. H. Ko, A. V. Luce, K. X. Wang, J. Suh, K. D. Patel, V. M. Pathak, J. B. Li, and J. Q. Wu, “Two-dimensional semiconductor alloys: Monolayer Mo1−xWxSe2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(1), 012101 (2014).
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J. Martincová, M. Otyepka, and P. Lazar, “Is Single Layer MoS2 Stable in the Air?” Chemistry 23(53), 13233–13239 (2017).
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IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (1)

Z. He, D. V. Voronine, A. M. Sinyukov, Z. Liege, B. Birmingham, A. V. Sokolov, Z. Zhang, and M. O. Scully, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering on Bulk MoS2 Substrate,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 23(2), 113–118 (2017).
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J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Kang, S. Tongay, J. B. Li, and J. Q. Wu, “Monolayer semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide alloys: Stability and band bowing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143703 (2013).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (2)

A. E. Yore, K. K. H. Smithe, W. Crumrine, A. Miller, J. A. Tuck, B. Redd, E. Pop, B. Wang, and A. K. M. Newaz, “Visualization of Defect-Induced Excitonic Properties of the Edges and Grain Boundaries in Synthesized Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(42), 24080–24087 (2016).
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J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

W. Xue, P. K. Sahoo, J. Liu, H. Zong, X. Lai, S. Ambardar, and D. V. Voronine, “Nano-optical imaging of monolayer MoSe2 -WSe2 lateral heterostructure with subwavelength domains,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 36(5), 05G502 (2018).
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Mater. Today Energy (1)

X. Yang, H. Yu, X. Guo, Q. Ding, T. Pullerits, R. Wang, G. Zhang, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Plasmon-exciton coupling of monolayer MoS2-Ag nanoparticles hybrids for surface catalytic reaction,” Mater. Today Energy 5, 72–78 (2017).
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Mater. Today Phys. (1)

W. Lin, Y. Shi, X. Yang, J. Li, E. Cao, X. Xu, T. Pullerits, W. Liang, and M. Sun, “Physical mechanism on exciton-plasmon coupling revealed by femtosecond pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy,” Mater. Today Phys. 3, 33–40 (2017).
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Nano Lett. (5)

E. M. Alexeev, A. Catanzaro, O. V. Skrypka, P. K. Nayak, S. Ahn, S. Pak, J. Lee, J. I. Sohn, K. S. Novoselov, H. S. Shin, and A. I. Tartakovskii, “Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5342–5349 (2017).
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K. D. Park, O. Khatib, V. Kravtsov, G. Clark, X. Xu, and M. B. Raschke, “Hybrid Tip-Enhanced Nanospectroscopy and Nanoimaging of Monolayer WSe2 with Local Strain Control,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2621–2627 (2016).
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S. Tongay, J. Zhou, C. Ataca, J. Liu, J. S. Kang, T. S. Matthews, L. You, J. Li, J. C. Grossman, and J. Wu, “Broad-range modulation of light emission in two-dimensional semiconductors by molecular physisorption gating,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2831–2836 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure. (b) Low magnification optical image of a nine-junction monolayer lateral heterostructure with MoSe2 and WSe2 domains; and (c) larger magnification from a section of the heterostructure in (b); arrows indicate thin MoSe2 strips. Dark and bright regions correspond to MoSe2 and WSe2, respectively. (d) Atomic ball model showing the MoSe2-WSe2 lateral junctions. (e) Raman spectra and (f) photoluminescence (PL) spectra of individual MoSe2 and WSe2 domains.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Nanoscale imaging of MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure. (a) AFM height image, (b) AFM phase image. (c) Far-field (FF) PL peak position map, and (d) near-field (NF) PL peak position map. (e) Line profiles showing FF and NF PL peak position variations across different interfaces as indicated by arrows in (c) and (d), respectively. The highlighted regions in (e) show the width of the two transitions: 40 nm sharp (WSe2→MoSe2) and 230 nm smooth (MoSe2→WSe2). (f) 3D plot of the NF PL peak position corresponding to the lower-left corner in (d), and (g) higher magnification 3D plot of the NF PL peak position across the WSe2 ← MoSe2 ←WSe2 (right-to-left side) transition corresponding to the box region in (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Nanoscale imaging of MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure. (a) Integrated intensity FF PL map over the spectral range of 770-810 nm. (b) Integrated intensity NF PL image over the spectral range of 770-810 nm and (c) the corresponding NF PL spectra of WSe2, MoSe2 and WSe2-MoSe2 interface. (d) FF and (e) NF PL spectra which correspond to the selected areas highlighted by the square boxes in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively. Line profiles showing FF and NF PL intensity distributions across different interfaces, which correspond to the long (blue) (f) and short (orange) (g) arrows in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Three-dimensional nanoscale images of MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure. (a) AFM topography and (b) AFM phase image. (c) NF PL intensity variation map, and (d) magnified image of a section of (c) showing the heterogeneous spatial modulation of the NF PL intensity and the interface transition. Arrows indicate the localized PL suppression sites.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) NF nano-PL (n-PL) intensity map integrated over the spectral range of 770-810 nm (left panel) and peak position map (right panel); (b) the corresponding PL spectra from pristine monolayer (1L) WSe2, close to interface, and nanoparticle (NP) on monolayer WSe2, as indicated by the dashed squares in (a). Histograms of (c) the distribution of nanoparticles on MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure obtained from the AFM topography, and (d) the corresponding change (decrease) in n-PL NF total intensity. (e) linear correlation between nanoparticle height and area to the reduction of the NF n-PL intensity.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Integrated intensity NF PL image over the spectral range of 770-810 nm of MoSe2-WSe2 lateral heterostructure; (b), (c) and (d) line profiles showing NF PL intensity distributions across different nanoparticles which correspond to the selected areas highlighted by the arrows in (a).

Equations (1)

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E g ( x ) W 1x M o (x) S e 2 ( 1x ) E g (WS e 2 )+x E g (MoS e 2 )bx(1x)

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