Abstract

Many optical approaches have been used to examine the composition and structure of gemstones, both recently and throughout history. The nonlinear optical behavior of different gemstones has not been investigated, and the higher order terms to the refractive index represent an unused tool for qualifying and examining a stone. We have used a multiphoton microscope to examine the nonlinear optical properties of 36 different gemstones and demonstrate that it is a useful tool for imaging them three-dimensionally up to the millimeter scale below the sample surface. The polarization dependence of second harmonic generation signals was used to examine the crystal orientations inside the minerals.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

C. B. Howard and A. Rabinovitch, “A new model of agate geode formation based on a combination of morphological features and silica sol–gel experiments,” Eur. J. Mineral. 30, 97–106 (2018).

2017 (4)

D. Turner, L. A. Groat, B. Rivard, and P. M. Belley, “Reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging of sapphire-bearing marble from the beluga occurrence, baffin island, nunavut,” The Can. Mineral. 55, 787–797 (2017).

B. Amirsolaimani, B. Cromey, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “All-reflective multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Express 25, 23399–23407 (2017).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

2016 (3)

R. K. Sahoo, S. K. Singh, and B. K. Mishra, “Surface and bulk 3d analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and x-ray micro CT scan,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 211, 55–63 (2016).

G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

A. Culka, J. Hyrsl, and J. Jehlicka, “Gem and mineral identification using GL gem raman and comparison with other portable instruments,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 959 (2016).

2015 (2)

D. Han, H. Jeong, Y. Song, J. S. Ahn, and J. Ahn, “Lattice vibrations of natural seraphinite gemstone probed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 1021–1027 (2015).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

2013 (3)

K. Kieu, S. Mehravar, R. Gowda, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2187–2195 (2013).

R. Venkateswara Rao, P. Venkateswarulu, C. Kasipathi, and S. SivaJyothi, “Trace elemental analysis of indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 211–222 (2013).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

2012 (3)

C. Martin-Olmos, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials,” Nanotechnology 23, 235701 (2012).

M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, M. Barberio, and D. Ajó, “Raman spectroscopy in gemmology as seen from a ’jeweller’s’ point of view,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 1828–1832 (2012).

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

H. G. Dill, “The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium,” Earth-Science Rev. 100, 1–420 (2010).

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

D. Bersani and P. P. Lottici, “Applications of raman spectroscopy to gemology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397, 2631–2646 (2010).

2008 (1)

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

2007 (1)

E. Pirard, S. Lebichot, and W. Krier, “Particle texture analysis using polarized light imaging and grey level intercepts,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 84, 299–309 (2007).

2005 (1)

H. M. Gonnermann and M. Manga, “Flow banding in obsidian: A record of evolving textural heterogeneity during magma deformation,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 236, 135–147 (2005).

2004 (1)

I. Reiche, S. Pages-Camagna, and L. Lambacher, “In situ raman spectroscopic investigations of the adorning gemstones on the reliquary heinrich’s cross from the treasury of basel cathedral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 719–725 (2004).

2003 (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat Biotech 21, 1369–1377 (2003).

P. J. Heaney and D. M. Fisher, “New interpretation of the origin of tiger’s-eye,” Geology 31, 323 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. A. Hope, R. Woods, and C. G. Munce, “Raman microprobe mineral identification,” Miner. Eng. 14, 1565–1577 (2001).

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).

1987 (1)

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

1972 (1)

A. Mukhopadhyay and S. K. Chanda, “Silica diagenesis in the banded hematite jasper and bedded chert associated with the iron ore group of jamda-koira valley, orissa, india,” Sedimentary Geol. 8, 113–135 (1972).

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Optical nonlinear susceptibilities: Accurate relative values for quartz, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739–1744 (1970).

1895 (1)

H. A. Miers, “Precious stones, and how to distinguish them,” Nature 51, 545 (1895).

Ahn, J.

D. Han, H. Jeong, Y. Song, J. S. Ahn, and J. Ahn, “Lattice vibrations of natural seraphinite gemstone probed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 1021–1027 (2015).

Ahn, J. S.

D. Han, H. Jeong, Y. Song, J. S. Ahn, and J. Ahn, “Lattice vibrations of natural seraphinite gemstone probed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 1021–1027 (2015).

Ajó, D.

M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, M. Barberio, and D. Ajó, “Raman spectroscopy in gemmology as seen from a ’jeweller’s’ point of view,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 1828–1832 (2012).

Amirsolaimani, B.

B. Amirsolaimani, B. Cromey, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “All-reflective multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Express 25, 23399–23407 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

Arganda-Carreras, I.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Autere, A.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

Barberio, M.

M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, M. Barberio, and D. Ajó, “Raman spectroscopy in gemmology as seen from a ’jeweller’s’ point of view,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 1828–1832 (2012).

Barone, G.

G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

Belley, P. M.

D. Turner, L. A. Groat, B. Rivard, and P. M. Belley, “Reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging of sapphire-bearing marble from the beluga occurrence, baffin island, nunavut,” The Can. Mineral. 55, 787–797 (2017).

Bersani, D.

G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

D. Bersani and P. P. Lottici, “Applications of raman spectroscopy to gemology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397, 2631–2646 (2010).

Bewersdorf, J.

Bormuth, V.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 3Edition (Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL, USA, 2008), 3rd ed.

Cardona, A.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chalain, J.-P.

L. Kiefert, H. A. Haenni, and J.-P. Chalain, “Identification of gemstone treatments with raman spectroscopy,” in Optical Devices and Diagnostics in Materials Science, vol. 4098 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), pp. 241–252.

Chanda, S. K.

A. Mukhopadhyay and S. K. Chanda, “Silica diagenesis in the banded hematite jasper and bedded chert associated with the iron ore group of jamda-koira valley, orissa, india,” Sedimentary Geol. 8, 113–135 (1972).

Chisholm, M. F.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Corbin, G. J.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Cromey, B.

Cui, Y.

Z. Yu, Y. Cui, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Identification of ores and gems using THz polarization information,” in Infrared, Millimeter Wave, and Terahertz Technologies, vol. 7854 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), p. 78541U.

Culka, A.

A. Culka, J. Hyrsl, and J. Jehlicka, “Gem and mineral identification using GL gem raman and comparison with other portable instruments,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 959 (2016).

Dellby, N.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).

Dieudonné, S.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

Dill, H. G.

H. G. Dill, “The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium,” Earth-Science Rev. 100, 1–420 (2010).

Dugué, G. P.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

Eda, G.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

Eliceiri, K.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feltz, A.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

Ferrari, A. C.

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L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

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B. Amirsolaimani, B. Cromey, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “All-reflective multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Express 25, 23399–23407 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

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J. Jerphagnon and S. K. Kurtz, “Optical nonlinear susceptibilities: Accurate relative values for quartz, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 1739–1744 (1970).

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I. Reiche, S. Pages-Camagna, and L. Lambacher, “In situ raman spectroscopic investigations of the adorning gemstones on the reliquary heinrich’s cross from the treasury of basel cathedral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 719–725 (2004).

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A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

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Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

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G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

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A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

K. Kieu, S. Mehravar, R. Gowda, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2187–2195 (2013).

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O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

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O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

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L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

K. Kieu, S. Mehravar, R. Gowda, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2187–2195 (2013).

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Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

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O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Oxley, M. P.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

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I. Reiche, S. Pages-Camagna, and L. Lambacher, “In situ raman spectroscopic investigations of the adorning gemstones on the reliquary heinrich’s cross from the treasury of basel cathedral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 719–725 (2004).

Pantelides, S. T.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

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O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Pennycook, T. J.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Peyghambarian, N.

B. Amirsolaimani, B. Cromey, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “All-reflective multiphoton microscope,” Opt. Express 25, 23399–23407 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

K. Kieu, S. Mehravar, R. Gowda, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Label-free multi-photon imaging using a compact femtosecond fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2187–2195 (2013).

Pick, R.

Pietzsch, T.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pirard, E.

E. Pirard, S. Lebichot, and W. Krier, “Particle texture analysis using polarized light imaging and grey level intercepts,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 84, 299–309 (2007).

Polini, M.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

Preibisch, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabinovitch, A.

C. B. Howard and A. Rabinovitch, “A new model of agate geode formation based on a combination of morphological features and silica sol–gel experiments,” Eur. J. Mineral. 30, 97–106 (2018).

Raneri, S.

G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

Reiche, I.

I. Reiche, S. Pages-Camagna, and L. Lambacher, “In situ raman spectroscopic investigations of the adorning gemstones on the reliquary heinrich’s cross from the treasury of basel cathedral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 719–725 (2004).

Rhee, B. K.

Riikonen, J.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

Rivard, B.

D. Turner, L. A. Groat, B. Rivard, and P. M. Belley, “Reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging of sapphire-bearing marble from the beluga occurrence, baffin island, nunavut,” The Can. Mineral. 55, 787–797 (2017).

Rodriguez, R. D.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

Rostami, H.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

Rueden, C.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saalfeld, S.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahoo, R. K.

R. K. Sahoo, S. K. Singh, and B. K. Mishra, “Surface and bulk 3d analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and x-ray micro CT scan,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 211, 55–63 (2016).

Säynätjoki, A.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

Schindelin, J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, B.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Singh, S. K.

R. K. Sahoo, S. K. Singh, and B. K. Mishra, “Surface and bulk 3d analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and x-ray micro CT scan,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 211, 55–63 (2016).

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

SivaJyothi, S.

R. Venkateswara Rao, P. Venkateswarulu, C. Kasipathi, and S. SivaJyothi, “Trace elemental analysis of indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 211–222 (2013).

Song, Y.

D. Han, H. Jeong, Y. Song, J. S. Ahn, and J. Ahn, “Lattice vibrations of natural seraphinite gemstone probed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 1021–1027 (2015).

Stieg, A. Z.

C. Martin-Olmos, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials,” Nanotechnology 23, 235701 (2012).

Strickler, J.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).

Sun, Z.

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

Szilagyi, Z. S.

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

Tinevez, J.-Y.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomancak, P.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turner, D.

D. Turner, L. A. Groat, B. Rivard, and P. M. Belley, “Reflectance spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging of sapphire-bearing marble from the beluga occurrence, baffin island, nunavut,” The Can. Mineral. 55, 787–797 (2017).

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).

Venkateswara Rao, R.

R. Venkateswara Rao, P. Venkateswarulu, C. Kasipathi, and S. SivaJyothi, “Trace elemental analysis of indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 211–222 (2013).

Venkateswarulu, P.

R. Venkateswara Rao, P. Venkateswarulu, C. Kasipathi, and S. SivaJyothi, “Trace elemental analysis of indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 211–222 (2013).

Wang, X.

Z. Yu, Y. Cui, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Identification of ores and gems using THz polarization information,” in Infrared, Millimeter Wave, and Terahertz Technologies, vol. 7854 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), p. 78541U.

Webb, W.

W. Denk, J. Strickler, and W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat Biotech 21, 1369–1377 (2003).

White, D. J.

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat Biotech 21, 1369–1377 (2003).

Wong, J.

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

Woods, R.

G. A. Hope, R. Woods, and C. G. Munce, “Raman microprobe mineral identification,” Miner. Eng. 14, 1565–1577 (2001).

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, Y. Cui, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Identification of ores and gems using THz polarization information,” in Infrared, Millimeter Wave, and Terahertz Technologies, vol. 7854 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), p. 78541U.

Zahn, D. R. T.

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

Zhang, Y.

Z. Yu, Y. Cui, X. Wang, and Y. Zhang, “Identification of ores and gems using THz polarization information,” in Infrared, Millimeter Wave, and Terahertz Technologies, vol. 7854 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), p. 78541U.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat Biotech 21, 1369–1377 (2003).

ACS Nano (1)

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, J. Riikonen, W. Kim, S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, and K. Kieu, “Rapid large-area multiphoton microscopy for characterization of graphene,” ACS Nano 7, 8441–8446 (2013).

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

D. Bersani and P. P. Lottici, “Applications of raman spectroscopy to gemology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397, 2631–2646 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

A. Culka, J. Hyrsl, and J. Jehlicka, “Gem and mineral identification using GL gem raman and comparison with other portable instruments,” Appl. Phys. A 122, 959 (2016).

Appl. Radiat. Isot. (1)

R. Venkateswara Rao, P. Venkateswarulu, C. Kasipathi, and S. SivaJyothi, “Trace elemental analysis of indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques,” Appl. Radiat. Isot. 82, 211–222 (2013).

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1)

H. M. Gonnermann and M. Manga, “Flow banding in obsidian: A record of evolving textural heterogeneity during magma deformation,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 236, 135–147 (2005).

Earth-Science Rev. (1)

H. G. Dill, “The “chessboard” classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium,” Earth-Science Rev. 100, 1–420 (2010).

Eur. J. Mineral. (1)

C. B. Howard and A. Rabinovitch, “A new model of agate geode formation based on a combination of morphological features and silica sol–gel experiments,” Eur. J. Mineral. 30, 97–106 (2018).

Geology (1)

P. J. Heaney and D. M. Fisher, “New interpretation of the origin of tiger’s-eye,” Geology 31, 323 (2003).

IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Han, H. Jeong, Y. Song, J. S. Ahn, and J. Ahn, “Lattice vibrations of natural seraphinite gemstone probed by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 1021–1027 (2015).

Int. J. Miner. Process. (1)

E. Pirard, S. Lebichot, and W. Krier, “Particle texture analysis using polarized light imaging and grey level intercepts,” Int. J. Miner. Process. 84, 299–309 (2007).

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

R. K. Sahoo, S. K. Singh, and B. K. Mishra, “Surface and bulk 3d analysis of natural and processed ruby using electron probe micro analyzer and x-ray micro CT scan,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 211, 55–63 (2016).

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

Y. Otsu, V. Bormuth, J. Wong, B. Mathieu, G. P. Dugué, A. Feltz, and S. Dieudonné, “Optical monitoring of neuronal activity at high frame rate with a digital random-access multiphoton (RAMP) microscope,” J. Neurosci. Methods 173, 259–270 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (3)

I. Reiche, S. Pages-Camagna, and L. Lambacher, “In situ raman spectroscopic investigations of the adorning gemstones on the reliquary heinrich’s cross from the treasury of basel cathedral,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 719–725 (2004).

G. Barone, D. Bersani, P. P. Lottici, P. Mazzoleni, S. Raneri, and U. Longobardo, “Red gemstone characterization by micro-raman spectroscopy: the case of rubies and their imitations,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47, 1534–1539 (2016).

M. Giarola, G. Mariotto, M. Barberio, and D. Ajó, “Raman spectroscopy in gemmology as seen from a ’jeweller’s’ point of view,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43, 1828–1832 (2012).

Miner. Eng. (1)

G. A. Hope, R. Woods, and C. G. Munce, “Raman microprobe mineral identification,” Miner. Eng. 14, 1565–1577 (2001).

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Martin-Olmos, A. Z. Stieg, and J. K. Gimzewski, “Electrostatic force microscopy as a broadly applicable method for characterizing pyroelectric materials,” Nanotechnology 23, 235701 (2012).

Nat Biotech (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat Biotech 21, 1369–1377 (2003).

Nat Methods (1)

J. Schindelin, I. Arganda-Carreras, E. Frise, V. Kaynig, M. Longair, T. Pietzsch, S. Preibisch, C. Rueden, S. Saalfeld, B. Schmid, J.-Y. Tinevez, D. J. White, V. Hartenstein, K. Eliceiri, P. Tomancak, and A. Cardona, “Fiji - an open source platform for biological image analysis,” Nat Methods 9, 2019 (2012). . [pmid].
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

A. Säynätjoki, L. Karvonen, H. Rostami, A. Autere, S. Mehravar, A. Lombardo, R. A. Norwood, T. Hasan, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, K. Kieu, A. C. Ferrari, M. Polini, and Z. Sun, “Ultra-strong nonlinear optical processes and trigonal warping in MoS 2 layers,” Nat. Commun. 8, 893 (2017).

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, M. J. Huttunen, A. Autere, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Li, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, H. Lipsanen, G. Eda, K. Kieu, and Z. Sun, “Rapid visualization of grain boundaries in monolayer mos2 by multiphoton microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15714 (2017). Article.

Nature (2)

O. L. Krivanek, M. F. Chisholm, V. Nicolosi, T. J. Pennycook, G. J. Corbin, N. Dellby, M. F. Murfitt, C. S. Own, Z. S. Szilagyi, M. P. Oxley, S. T. Pantelides, and S. J. Pennycook, “Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy,” Nature 464, 571–574 (2010).

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Sci. Reports (1)

L. Karvonen, A. Säynätjoki, S. Mehravar, R. D. Rodriguez, S. Hartmann, D. R. T. Zahn, S. Honkanen, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, H. Lipsanen, and J. Riikonen, “Investigation of second- and third-harmonic generation in few-layer gallium selenide by multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Reports 5, 10334 (2015).

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       This movie shows a set of images through focus of the Blue Lace Agate sample, commonly called a Zstack. Each frame is a different depth, as denoted in the label on the bottom left corner. These false color images overlay second harmonic generation in
» Visualization 2       This movie shows a set of images through focus of the Amethyst sample, commonly called a Zstack. Each frame is a different depth, as denoted in the label on the bottom left corner. These false color images overlay second harmonic generation in red an
» Visualization 3       A half wave plate is rotated, and the polarization dependence of the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal from the Dumortierite sample. The angle of the HWP is shown on the bottom left. We can clearly see the strong dependence on the polarization

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Left: Gemstone Sample Collection. The individual gemstones were cut out of the large cardboard backing to fit underneath the microscope objective. This can be seen in the bottom row of the figure. The names and locations of each mineral were labeled by the vendor. Right: The Blue Lace Agate sample underneath the microscope. This sample had particularly strong SHG, as can be seen from the green glow from the sample (excitation laser was at 1040 nm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A collection of image results from some of the more interesting looking samples. Left: An optical microscope image. Center left: SHG information. Center Right: THG information. Right: Composite image with SHG red and THG green. See Visualization 1 for a Zstack of the first sample, Blue Lace Agate. Each MPM image has the same scale of 250 μm across, with a scale bar shown on the bottom right.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Signal spectra from selected samples are displayed. Most samples predominantly showed strong SHG and relatively strong THG. For comparison, the inset shows the spectra from the laser to create this data.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 A Zstack of images from the Amethyst sample. On the left, all of the images taken in the stack are displayed as a function of depth. On the right, six highlighted depths are displayed. Red is SHG, and Green denotes THG. All numbered distances are in microns. See Visualization 2 for a through focus video.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Top left: SHG signal with a HWP angle of 0°. Top Center: SHG signal with a HWP angle of 40°. Top Right: The first two images are subtracted, and the difference is displayed, highlighting regions where the signal changed significantly. A scale bar is displayed for the intensity of each pixel. The dimensions on each picture are in microns. Bottom: the signal intensity at three regions of interest (ROI) are plotted as a function of angle. See Visualization 3 for a video showing the change in signal as a function of polarization angle.