Abstract

Graphene plasmons with tunable resonance wavelengths and low loss have attracted considerable attention in the past decade. However, the weatk interaction between graphene and light, which is attributed to the low carrier concentration and small thickness of graphene, severely hinders the practical application of graphene plasmon. In the infrared wavelength range, graphene can act as a tunable load to modify both the resonance wavelength and the damping of metal plasmon, which has been successfully used for light intensity and phase modulations. In this work, a synthetic phase meta-atom composed of a split ring resonator and a graphene patch is designed with a switchable reflection phase of either 0 or π. The large phase tuning range arises from the graphene induced strong modification of metal plasmon. By arranging the 0/π phase bits in different spatial orders, one-dimensional grating with a dynamically tunable period and orientation can be obtained.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Highly improved, non-localized field enhancement enabled by hybrid plasmon of crescent resonator/graphene in infrared wavelength

Chen Chen, Guan Wang, Lilan Peng, and Kai Zhang
Opt. Express 25(19) 23302-23311 (2017)

Low-energy high-speed plasmonic enhanced modulator using graphene

Baohu Huang, Weibing Lu, Zhenguo Liu, and Siping Gao
Opt. Express 26(6) 7358-7367 (2018)

Tunable absorption as multi-wavelength at infrared on graphene/hBN/Al grating structure

Qinghui Pan, Guohua Zhang, Ruming Pan, Jiahui Zhang, Yong Shuai, and Heping Tan
Opt. Express 26(14) 18230-18237 (2018)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. Chen, G. Wang, Z. Zhang, and K. Zhang, “Dual narrow-band absorber based on metal-insulator-metal configuration for refractive index sensing,” Opt. Lett. 43(15), 3630–3633 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1115–1127 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. C. Jun, E. Gonzales, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, A. Gabbay, and I. Brener, “Active tuning of mid-infrared metamaterials by electrical control of carrier densities,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1903–1911 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of Mid-Infrared Light Using Graphene-Metal Plasmonic Antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene Induced Spectral Tuning of Metamaterial Absorbers at MidInfrared Frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s Functions and Guided Surface Waves for a Surface Conductivity Model of Graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. Chen, G. Wang, L. Peng, and K. Zhang, “Highly improved, non-localized field enhancement enabled by hybrid plasmon of crescent resonator/graphene in infrared wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23302–23311 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chen, G. Wang, L. Peng, and K. Zhang, “Highly improved, non-localized field enhancement enabled by hybrid plasmon of crescent resonator/graphene in infrared wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23302–23311 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Jun, E. Gonzales, J. L. Reno, E. A. Shaner, A. Gabbay, and I. Brener, “Active tuning of mid-infrared metamaterials by electrical control of carrier densities,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1903–1911 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of Mid-Infrared Light Using Graphene-Metal Plasmonic Antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene Induced Spectral Tuning of Metamaterial Absorbers at MidInfrared Frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s Functions and Guided Surface Waves for a Surface Conductivity Model of Graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alici, K. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alsing, P. M.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arju, N.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brener, I.

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardimona, D. A.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cataldo, S.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, D. J.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, T. F.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cloutier, S. G.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dabidian, N.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, N.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

Dutta-Gupta, S.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emani, N. K.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fallahazad, B.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fountaine, K. T.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fozdar, D. Y.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frank, B.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabbay, A.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajic, R.

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene Induced Spectral Tuning of Metamaterial Absorbers at MidInfrared Frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Garcia, J. C.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gokkavas, M.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonzales, E.

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s Functions and Guided Surface Waves for a Surface Conductivity Model of Graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, Y.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, Q.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hon, P. W. C.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, F.

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iijima, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, M.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

Kafesaki, M.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kapitanova, P. V.

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khanikaev, A. B.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kholmanov, I.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. R.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kinkhabwala, A. A.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kossyrev, P. A.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, K.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, T.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lygagnon, D. S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Magnuson, C.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Manceau, J. M.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maslovski, S. I.

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Massaouti, M.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, Z.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

Moerner, W. E.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mousavi, S. H.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mullen, K.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neubrech, F.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okyay, A. K.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozyilmaz, B.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponti, S. M.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purtseladze, D.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, M. Q.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, C.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, W.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reno, J. L.

Ruoff, R. S.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraswat, K. C.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shadrivov, I. V.

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaner, E. A.

Shankar, R.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, N. H.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sherrott, M. C.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

Son, H.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y. I.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suk, J. W.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tatar, K.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trendafilov, S.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tutuc, E.

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzortzakis, S.

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasic, B.

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene Induced Spectral Tuning of Metamaterial Absorbers at MidInfrared Frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wan, X.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Xiao, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J. M.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, A.

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of Mid-Infrared Light Using Graphene-Metal Plasmonic Antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zettl, A.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J.

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhaoyi, L.

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of Mid-Infrared Light Using Graphene-Metal Plasmonic Antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zharov, A. A.

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Cataldo, J. Zhao, F. Neubrech, B. Frank, C. Zhang, P. V. Braun, and H. Giessen, “Hole-mask colloidal nanolithography for large-area low-cost metamaterials and antenna-assisted surface-enhanced infrared absorption substrates,” ACS Nano 6(1), 979–985 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical Switching of Infrared Light Using Graphene Integration with Plasmonic Fano Resonant Metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of Mid-Infrared Light Using Graphene-Metal Plasmonic Antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene Induced Spectral Tuning of Metamaterial Absorbers at MidInfrared Frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s Functions and Guided Surface Waves for a Surface Conductivity Model of Graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (11)

N. Dabidian, S. Dutta-Gupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, F. Lu, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental Demonstration of Phase Modulation and Motion Sensing Using Graphene-Integrated Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. A. Kossyrev, A. Yin, S. G. Cloutier, D. A. Cardimona, D. Huang, P. M. Alsing, and J. M. Xu, “Electric field tuning of plasmonic response of nanodot array in liquid crystal matrix,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 1978–1981 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Huang and J. J. Baumberg, “Actively tuned plasmons on elastomerically driven Au nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1787–1792 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J. S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. R. Kim, Y. I. Song, Y. J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J. H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(8), 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D. S. Lygagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-Scale Germanium Photodetector Enhanced by a Near-Infrared Dipole Antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kinkhabwala, K. Mullen, S. Fan, W. E. Moerner, Y. Avlasevich, and Z. Yu, “Large Single-Molecule Fluorescence Enhancements Produced by a Bowtie Nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental Demonstration of Frequency-Agile Terahertz Metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(3), 037401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Shen, M. Massaouti, M. Gokkavas, J. M. Manceau, E. Ozbay, M. Kafesaki, T. Koschny, S. Tzortzakis, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Optically implemented broadband blueshift switch in the terahertz regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(3), 037403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, P. V. Kapitanova, S. I. Maslovski, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Metamaterials controlled with light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(8), 083902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H. J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Functionalities of Metasurfaces Based on a Complete Phase Diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of a dynamically tunable grating with normal incident light and two scattering beams. The single phase bit, which is composed of a split ring resonator and a graphene square patch, is designed to possess switchable 0/π phase response with unchanged reflectivity. The comparison between (a) and (b) reveals the influence of grating period (each period is composed of 12 and 20 phase bits, respectively) on the polar angle of scattering beams. (c) and (d) illustrates the tunable azimuthal angle of scattering beams through grating orientation modification, which is based on arranging 0/π phase bits in different spatial orders.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of a single phase bit of the tunable plasmonic grating, and the components are split ring resonator/electrode, graphene, dielectric layer and gold reflector from top to bottom. (b) Transition from underdamped resonance to overdamped resonance by changing the graphene chemical potential from 0.2 ev to 0.6 ev with dielectric layer thickness of h = 400 nm. (c) The center working wavelength is decided to be 5.14 μm with h = 500 nm and (d) the reflection phase difference is 180° at this wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized electric field distribution on the interface of SRR and dielectric layer (a) without and (c) with graphene (chemical potential of 0.2 ev). Charge density distribution on the interface of SRR and dielectric layer (b) without and (d) with graphene (chemical potential of 0.2 ev).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Tunable infrared grating with dynamic period of (a) P1 = 12L and (d) P2 = 20L. (b) Analytical and (c) numerical radiation pattern with grating period P1. (e) Analytical and (f) numerical radiation pattern with grating period P2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Tunable infrared grating with dynamic phase bite displacement of (a) D = 3L and (d) D = 9L. (b) Analytical and (c) numerical radiation pattern with displacement D = 3L. (e) Analytical and (f) numerical radiation pattern with displacement D = 9L.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Wavelength dependent beam scattering with P2 = 20L.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Absorption and (b) phase response of single phase bit with graphene chemical potential of 0.2ev/0.7ev and dielectric layer thickness of h = 560 nm. (c) Absorption and (d) phase response of single phase bit with graphene chemical potential of 0.2ev/0.8ev and dielectric layer thickness of h = 650 nm.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f(θ,φ)= m=1 120 n=1 120 exp{i{φ(m,n)+kLsinθ[(m1/2)cosφ+(n1/2)sinφ]}}