Abstract

Optical phase change materials (O-PCMs) are being explored for a variety of photonic applications due to the extraordinarily large changes in optical properties that occur during electronic and/or structural phase transitions. Here, recent work integrating O-PCMs in integrated silicon photonic devices is presented. Conceptually proposed and experimentally realized thermo-optic, electro-optic, and all-optical Si/O-PCM devices are described and perspectives on the potential for Si/O-PCM electro-optic and all-optical modulators are outlined.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

2016 (5)

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Karvounis, B. Gholipour, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “All-dielectric phase-change reconfigurable metasurface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109(5), 051103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, P. Absil, and D. Van Thourhout, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 307–316 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Sánchez, S. Lechago, A. Gutierrez, and P. Sanchis, “Analysis and design optimization of a hybrid VO2/silicon 2×2 microring switch,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(2), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. F. Brady, K. Appavoo, M. Seo, J. Nag, R. P. Prasankumar, R. F. Haglund, and D. J. Hilton, “Heterogeneous nucleation and growth dynamics in the light-induced phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(12), 125603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (14)

L. Waldecker, T. A. Miller, M. Rudé, R. Bertoni, J. Osmond, V. Pruneri, R. E. Simpson, R. Ernstorfer, and S. Wall, “Time-domain separation of optical properties from structural transitions in resonantly bonded materials,” Nat. Mater. 14(10), 991–995 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sánchez, S. Lechago, and P. Sanchis, “Ultra-compact TE and TM pass polarizers based on vanadium dioxide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1452–1455 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photonics 2(8), 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Joushaghani, J. Jeong, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. Stewart Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wavelength-size hybrid Si-VO2 waveguide electroabsorption optical switches and photodetectors,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3657–3668 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Markov, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Hybrid Si-VO(2)-Au optical modulator based on near-field plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6878–6887 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Simulations of Silicon-on-Insulator Channel-Waveguide Electrooptical 2×2 Switches and 1×1 Modulators Using a Ge2Sb2Te5 Self-Holding Layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(9), 1805–1813 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Choe and J. T. Kim, “Design of vanadium dioxide-based plasmonic modulator for both TE and TM modes,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 27(5), 514–517 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Electro-optical phase-change 2 × 2 switching using three- and four-waveguide directional couplers,” Appl. Opt. 54(19), 5897–5902 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soref, J. Hendrickson, H. Liang, A. Majumdar, J. Mu, X. Li, and W.-P. Huang, “Electro-optical switching at 1550 nm using a two-state GeSe phase-change layer,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1536–1546 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi and M. Notomi, “Phase-change memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 712–714 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elder, B. Baeuerle, Y. Salamin, A. Josten, U. Koch, C. Hoessbacher, F. Ducry, L. Juchli, A. Emboras, D. Hillerkuss, M. Kohl, L. R. Dalton, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “All-plasmonic mach–zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 525–528 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Ríos, M. Stegmaier, P. Hosseini, D. Wang, T. Scherer, C. D. Wright, H. Bhaskaran, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Integrated all-photonic non-volatile multi-level memory,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 725–732 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Peter, K. Martens, G. Rampelberg, M. Toeller, J. M. Ablett, J. Meersschaut, D. Cuypers, A. Franquet, C. Detavernier, J.-P. Rueff, M. Schaekers, S. Van Elshocht, M. Jurczak, C. Adelmann, and I. P. Radu, “Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 679–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, X. Zheng, D. Feng, J. Lexau, J. F. Buckwalter, H. D. Thacker, F. Liu, Y. Luo, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, S. S. Djordjevic, J. H. Lee, S. Lin, H. Liang, A. Abed, R. Shafiiha, K. Raj, R. Ho, M. Asghari, and J. E. Cunningham, “A low-power, high-speed, 9-channel germanium-silicon electro-absorption modulator array integrated with digital CMOS driver and wavelength multiplexer,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12289–12295 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Youngblood, Y. Anugrah, R. Ma, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Multifunctional graphene optical modulator and photodetector integrated on silicon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2741–2746 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Brockman, L. Gao, B. Hughes, C. T. Rettner, M. G. Samant, K. P. Roche, and S. S. P. Parkin, “Subnanosecond incubation times for electric-field-induced metallization of a correlated electron oxide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 453–458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, “CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator based on vanadium dioxide insulator-metal phase transition,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3997–4000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhu, M. Xia, F. Rao, X. Li, L. Wu, X. Ji, S. Lv, Z. Song, S. Feng, H. Sun, and S. Zhang, “One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4086 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

J. D. Ryckman, K. A. Hallman, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Ultra-compact silicon photonic devices reconfigured by an optically induced semiconductor-to-metal transition,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10753–10763 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rudé, J. Pello, R. E. Simpson, J. Osmond, G. Roelkens, J. J. G. M. Tol, and V. Pruneri, “Optical switching at 1.55 μm in silicon racetrack resonators using phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(14), 141119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pergament, G. Stefanovich, and G. Velichko, “Oxide Electronics and Vanadium Dioxide Perspective: A Review,” Journal on Selected Topics in Nano Electronics and Computing 1(1), 24–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. You, C. Xiaonan, K. Changhyun, Y. Zheng, C. Mouli, and S. Ramanathan, “Voltage-triggered ultrafast phase transition in vanadium dioxide switches,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 220–222 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (10)

Z. Tao, T. R. T. Han, S. D. Mahanti, P. M. Duxbury, F. Yuan, C. Y. Ruan, K. Wang, and J. Wu, “Decoupling of structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ryckman, V. Diez-Blanco, J. Nag, R. E. Marvel, B. K. Choi, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Photothermal optical modulation of ultra-compact hybrid Si-VO2 ring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 13215–13225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tanaka, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, T. Toyosaki, Y. Ikuma, and H. Tsuda, “Ultra-small, self-holding, optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 with a multi-mode Si waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10283–10294 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science 336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. L. Cocker, L. V. Titova, S. Fourmaux, G. Holloway, H. C. Bandulet, D. Brassard, J. C. Kieffer, M. A. El Khakani, and F. A. Hegmann, “Phase diagram of the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 85(15), 155120 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Wall, D. Wegkamp, L. Foglia, K. Appavoo, J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, J. Stähler, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast changes in lattice symmetry probed by coherent phonons,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Pashkin, C. Kübler, H. Ehrke, R. Lopez, A. Halabica, R. F. Haglund, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Ultrafast insulator-metal phase transition in VO2 studied by multiterahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195120 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kana Kana, J. M. Ndjaka, G. Vignaud, A. Gibaud, and M. Maaza, “Thermally tunable optical constants of vanadium dioxide thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Commun. 284(3), 807–812 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, Y. Gao, L. Kang, J. Du, Z. Zhang, H. Luo, H. Miao, and G. Tan, “VO2-based double-layered films for smart windows: Optical design, all-solution preparation and improved properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2677–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Yang, S. Hart, C. Ko, A. Yacoby, and S. Ramanathan, “Studies on electric triggering of the metal-insulator transition in VO2 thin films between 77 K and 300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033725 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Wu, A. Zimmers, H. Aubin, R. Ghosh, Y. Liu, and R. Lopez, “Electric-field-driven phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 84(24), 241410 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (10)

A. L. Pergament, P. P. Boriskov, A. A. Velichko, and N. A. Kuldin, “Switching effect and the metal–insulator transition in electric field,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 71(6), 874–879 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11192–11201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J. F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. D. Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical Behavior of Phase-Change Memory Cells Based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Small-sized optical gate switch using Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change material integrated with silicon waveguide,” Electron. Lett. 46(5), 368–369 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ikuma, Y. Shoji, M. Kuwahara, X. Wang, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, D. Tanaka, and H. Tsuda, “Reversible optical gate switching in Si wire waveguide integrated with Ge2Sb2Te5 thin fim,” Electron. Lett. 46, 368–369 (2010).
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D. A. B. Miller, “Are optical transistors the logical next step?” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 3–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Kim, B.-J. Kim, S. Choi, B.-G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
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K. Nozaki, T. Tanabe, A. Shinya, S. Matsuo, T. Sato, H. Taniyama, and M. Notomi, “Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 477–483 (2010).
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A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, J. Martí, and R. Spano, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
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2009 (2)

C. Husko, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, Q. V. Tran, F. Raineri, and C. W. Wong, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021111 (2009).
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C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
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D. Lencer, M. Salinga, B. Grabowski, T. Hickel, J. Neugebauer, and M. Wuttig, “A map for phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(12), 972–977 (2008).
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W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, K. G. Lim, H. K. Lee, T. C. Chong, and Y. H. Wu, “Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 043121 (2008).
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Y. Ikuma, T. Saiki, and H. Tsuda, “Proposal of a small self-holding 2×2 optical switch using phase-change material,” IEICE Electron. Express 5(12), 442–445 (2008).
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M. Rini, Z. Hao, R. W. Schoenlein, C. Giannetti, F. Parmigiani, S. Fourmaux, J. C. Kieffer, A. Fujimori, M. Onoda, S. Wall, and A. Cavalleri, “Optical switching in VO2 films by below-gap excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(18), 181904 (2008).
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2006 (1)

H. T. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B. J. Kim, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, K. Y. Kang, K. J. Han, K. J. Yee, and Y. S. Lim, “Monoclinic and correlated metal phase in VO2 as evidence of the Mott transition: coherent phonon analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 266401 (2006).
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2005 (2)

M. Wuttig, “Phase-change materials: towards a universal memory?” Nat. Mater. 4(4), 265–266 (2005).
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T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
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2001 (1)

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Laser induced crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(6), 3168–3176 (2001).
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2000 (3)

V. Weidenhof, N. Pirch, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Minimum time for laser induced amorphization of Ge2Sb2Te5 films,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 657–664 (2000).
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K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
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G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J Phys-Condens. Mat. 12, 8837 (2000).

1998 (1)

M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, “Metal-insulator transitions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(4), 1039–1263 (1998).
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1997 (1)

D. A. Miller, “Physical reasons for optical interconnection,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 155–168 (1997).

1982 (1)

N. D. Arora, J. R. Hauser, and D. J. Roulston, “Electron and hole mobilities in silicon as a function of concentration and temperature,” IEEE T. Electron Dev. 29(2), 292–295 (1982).
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1959 (1)

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
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Abed, A.

Ablett, J. M.

A. Peter, K. Martens, G. Rampelberg, M. Toeller, J. M. Ablett, J. Meersschaut, D. Cuypers, A. Franquet, C. Detavernier, J.-P. Rueff, M. Schaekers, S. Van Elshocht, M. Jurczak, C. Adelmann, and I. P. Radu, “Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 679–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Y. Hu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, S. Brems, I. Asselberghs, C. Huyghebaert, P. Absil, and D. Van Thourhout, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photonics Rev. 10(2), 307–316 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adelmann, C.

A. Peter, K. Martens, G. Rampelberg, M. Toeller, J. M. Ablett, J. Meersschaut, D. Cuypers, A. Franquet, C. Detavernier, J.-P. Rueff, M. Schaekers, S. Van Elshocht, M. Jurczak, C. Adelmann, and I. P. Radu, “Metal-Insulator Transition in ALD VO2 Ultrathin Films and Nanoparticles: Morphological Control,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(5), 679–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H.-C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(11), 1617–1619 (2000).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. H. de Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5(10), e16173 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alain, D.

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, T. Zwick, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e173 (2014).
[Crossref]

Amberg, P.

Annunziata, R.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J. F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. D. Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical Behavior of Phase-Change Memory Cells Based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anugrah, Y.

N. Youngblood, Y. Anugrah, R. Ma, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Multifunctional graphene optical modulator and photodetector integrated on silicon waveguides,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2741–2746 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appavoo, K.

N. F. Brady, K. Appavoo, M. Seo, J. Nag, R. P. Prasankumar, R. F. Haglund, and D. J. Hilton, “Heterogeneous nucleation and growth dynamics in the light-induced phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 28(12), 125603 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Markov, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Hybrid Si-VO(2)-Au optical modulator based on near-field plasmonic coupling,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6878–6887 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wall, D. Wegkamp, L. Foglia, K. Appavoo, J. Nag, R. F. Haglund, J. Stähler, and M. Wolf, “Ultrafast changes in lattice symmetry probed by coherent phonons,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbaoui, E.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J. F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. D. Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical Behavior of Phase-Change Memory Cells Based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Morin, “Oxides which show a metal-to-insulator transition at the Neel temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[Crossref]

D. Wegkamp, M. Herzog, L. Xian, M. Gatti, P. Cudazzo, C. L. McGahan, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, A. Rubio, M. Wolf, and J. Stähler, “Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(21), 216401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B. J. Kim, B. G. Chae, S. J. Yun, K. Y. Kang, K. J. Han, K. J. Yee, and Y. S. Lim, “Monoclinic and correlated metal phase in VO2 as evidence of the Mott transition: coherent phonon analysis,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(26), 266401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Imada, A. Fujimori, and Y. Tokura, “Metal-insulator transitions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 70(4), 1039–1263 (1998).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

V. R. Morrison, R. P. Chatelain, K. L. Tiwari, A. Hendaoui, A. Bruhács, M. Chaker, and B. J. Siwick, “A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction,” Science 346(6208), 445–448 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Loke, T. H. Lee, W. J. Wang, L. P. Shi, R. Zhao, Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, and S. R. Elliott, “Breaking the Speed Limits of Phase-Change Memory,” Science 336(6088), 1566–1569 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

Z. Chen, Y. Gao, L. Kang, J. Du, Z. Zhang, H. Luo, H. Miao, and G. Tan, “VO2-based double-layered films for smart windows: Optical design, all-solution preparation and improved properties,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(9), 2677–2684 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

S. Raoux and M. Wuttig, Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications (Springer US, 2009).

K. J. Miller, P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Hybrid silicon-vanadium dioxide electro-optic modulators,” in Proc. of SPIE OPTO,9752, 975203–975207 (2016).

J. Nag, J. D. Ryckman, M. T. Hertkorn, B. K. Choi, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Ultrafast compact silicon-based ring resonator modulators using metal-insulator switching of vanadium dioxide,” in Proc. of SPIE OPTO, 7587, 759710 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. F. Shackelford and W. Alexander, CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook, Third edition (CRC Press, 1999).

K. J. Miller, K. A. Hallman, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optical modulation in silicon-vanadium dioxide photonic structures,” in Proc. of SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering, 10345, 103451D (2017).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Selected transition metal oxide O-PCMs and the temperatures at which they demonstrate a change in their optical properties. Figure reprinted with permission from [21]. © 2011 Annual Reviews. (b) Ternary phase diagram for Te, Ge, and Sb, showing selected chalcogen-based O-PCMs. Figure reprinted with permission from [22]. © 2008 Nature Publishing Group.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Atomic structures and optical properties of VO2 and GST. (a) Three-dimensional schematics of the low temperature (T < 68°C), monoclinic (left) and high temperature (T > 68°C), rutile (right) crystal structures of VO2. Vanadium atoms are shown in light blue. The orange shadows highlight the V-V dimers exhibited in the monoclinic structure. Oxygen atoms are not shown. The monoclinic and rutile states of VO2 are labeled VO2:M and VO2:R, respectively. Figures adapted and reprinted with permission from [32] © 2012 American Physical Society. (b) Two-dimensional schematics (Te atoms in blue; Ge and Sb atoms in gold) of the amorphous (left) and crystalline (right) states of GST. The amorphous and crystalline states of GST are labeled GST:A and GST:C, respectively. Figures adapted and reprinted with permission from [33] © 2015 Nature Publishing Group. (c) Refractive indices of VO2 and GST. (d) Extinction coefficient of VO2 and GST. For (c) and (d), optical properties were taken and replotted from [34] and [28] for VO2 and GST, respectively. In both cases, the change in optical properties was thermally induced.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of VO2 coated silicon ring resonator. (b) Temperature-dependent transmission of Si/VO2 ring resonator in (a), demonstrating the change in optical response as VO2 undergoes its OPC. Figures in (a) and (b) reprinted with permission from [42] © 2010 The Optical Society. (c) Optical transmission of 1.5 µm radius Si/VO2 ring resonator (SEM inset top left with VO2 false colored maroon). At the selected wavelength (dashed line), optical transmission is low with no laser-induced photothermal heating (“laser off” inset) while transmission is high with laser induced photothermal heating (“laser on” inset) due to the resonance shift induced by the OPC of VO2. Small scale bar in SEM image inset is 250 nm. Figures adapted and reprinted with permission from [44] © 2012 The Optical Society. (d) Proposed 2 × 2 Si/VO2 microring switch. Figure reprinted with permission from [46] © 2016 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (e) SEM images of design showing VO2 (false colored green) embedded within a silicon waveguide. Each bifurcated silicon waveguide (false colored navy) splits into a control waveguide (blue box) and VO2 embedded waveguide (orange box). The left side of the figure shows tilted (top) and normal incidence (bottom) SEM images of the VO2 embedded waveguide. The integrated heaters are false colored gold. Figure reprinted with permission from [45] © 2017 The Optical Society. (f) Schematics of proposed pass polarizer using VO2 on a silicon waveguide (blue). Purple and grey blocks represent VO2:M and VO2:R, respectively. Quasi TE and TM light are represented by blue and red arrows, respectively. Figure reprinted with permission from [47] © 2015 The Optical Society.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) SEM image of Si/VO2 electro-optic waveguide device. VO2 and Au are false colored purple and gold, respectively. Figure reprinted with permission from [48] © 2015 American Chemical Society. (b) Optical microscope image of Si/VO2 electro-optic waveguide device which delocalizes the optical mode to increase interaction with VO2:R. Figure reprinted with permission from [49] © 2015 The Optical Society. (c) Proposed Si/VO2 electro-optic modulator design based on directional coupler theory. Figure reprinted with permission from [57] © 2014 The Optical Society. (d) Proposed Si/VO2 electro-optic design including a vertically embedded VO2 section within the silicon waveguide. Figure reprinted with permission from [58] © 2017 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (e) Proposed Si/Au/VO2 electro-optic modulator design based on near field plasmonic coupling. Figure adapted and reprinted with permission from [59] © 2015 The Optical Society. (f) Proposed Si/GST electro-optic device whereby a thin ribbon of GST embedded within a silicon waveguide is electrically actuated. Figure reprinted with permission from [60] © 2015 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transient response of Si/VO2 ring resonator as a function of increasing pump fluence from 0.45 to 4.74 mJ/cm2 (blue to red). SEM image of Si/VO2 ring resonator in top right (VO2 is colored maroon). Small scale bar in SEM image inset is 250 nm. Figure adapted and reprinted with permission from [44, 67] © 2012, 2013 The Optical Society. (b) Schematic and optical microscope image of Si/GST ring resonator. Figure reprinted with permission from [68]. © 2013 American Institute of Physics. (c) Schematic of Si/GST multimode waveguide device. Figure reprinted with permission from [69] © 2012 The Optical Society. (d) Schematic (top) and SEM images (bottom) of a 2 µm long GST patch embedded inside of a silicon waveguide. Bottom left SEM shows device cross section (A-B) perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Bottom right SEM shows device cross section (C-D) parallel to the direction of propagation. Out-of-plane optical pulses (660 nm, 89 mW peak power, 500 nanoseconds) crystallize the GST, and the change in optical propagation through the silicon waveguide is measured. Figure reprinted with permission from [70] © 2010 Institute of Engineering and Technology. (e) Schematic for proposed 2 × 2 switch implementing a chalcogen-based O-PCM with low optical loss (GSST) as the active component. Figure reprinted with permission from [73] © 2018 The Optical Society. (f) Schematic for proposed Si/Au/VO2 all-optical modulator. Figure reprinted with permission from [74] © 2018 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of device used for probing voltage-induced electrical dynamics of VO2. (b) Current density response of device in (a), demonstrating the increase in current in response to a voltage pulse. Figures reprinted with permission from [51] © 2013 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

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