Abstract

A InGaN/GaN micro-square array light-emitting diode (LED) chip (micro-chip) has been successfully fabricated by the focused ion beam (FIB) etching technique, which can reduce ohmic contact degradation in the fabrication process of three-dimensional (3D) structure devices. Our results show that the micro-chip exhibits a similar current–voltage performance compared to the corresponding InGaN/GaN planar LED chip (planar-chip). At the driving current of 20 mA, the output power of the micro-chip is improved by 17.8% in comparison to that of the planar-chip. A relatively broad emission and enhanced emission intensity in the perpendicular direction are obtained in angular-resolved EL (AREL) measurements for the micro-chip. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations have also proven enhanced emitted optical energy distribution. The enhancement mechanism is correlated to the increased light extraction efficiency (LEE) of the micro-chip, mainly owing to more photons from the exposed MQWs surfaces that can be efficiently extracted by the micro-square array.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
  17. L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Matsui, T. Kaito, J. Fujita, M. Komuro, K. Kanda, and Y. Haruyama, “Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 3181–3184 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H.-C. Kuo, and T.-C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  26. J.-M. Lee, K.-S. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proceedings of the IRE 45(9), 1228–1243 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. Perlin, M. Osiński, P. G. Eliseev, V. A. Smagley, J. Mu, M. Banas, and P. Sartori, “Low-temperature study of current and electroluminescence in InGaN/AlGaN/GaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(12), 1680–1682 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, C.-G. Tu, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Structure variation of a sidewall quantum well on a GaN nanorod,” Nanotechnology 28(4), 045203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-S. Huang, S.-W. Feng, Y.-H. Weng, Y.-S. Chen, C.-T. Kuo, M.-Y. Lu, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-P. Hsieh, and H.-C. Wang, “Nanostructure analysis of InGaN/GaN quantum wells based on semi-polar-faced GaN nanorods,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(2), 320–328 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (9)

B. Damilano, S. Vézian, J. Brault, B. Alloing, and J. Massies, “Selective area sublimation: A simple top-down route for GaN-based nanowire fabrication,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1863–1868 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, Y. Bai, Y. Han, H. Li, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. Sun, Z. Hao, and B. Xiong, “Light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based blue LEDs based on ITO/ InxO ohmic contacts with microstructure formed by annealing in oxygen,” Opt. Express 24(10), A797–A809 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Jung, J.-B. Seol, C.-M. Kwak, and C.-G. Park, “Three-dimensional indium distribution in electron-beam irradiated multiple quantum wells of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113111 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W.-J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lieten, P. M. Vereecken, R. Langer, and G. Borghs, “Impact of plasma-induced surface damage on the photoelectrochemical properties of GaN pillars fabricated by dry etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(21), 11261–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-T. Lin, T.-W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
[Crossref]

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H.-C. Kuo, and T.-C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

J.-M. Lee, K.-S. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Matsui, T. Kaito, J. Fujita, M. Komuro, K. Kanda, and Y. Haruyama, “Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 3181–3184 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Perlin, M. Osiński, P. G. Eliseev, V. A. Smagley, J. Mu, M. Banas, and P. Sartori, “Low-temperature study of current and electroluminescence in InGaN/AlGaN/GaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(12), 1680–1682 (1996).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proceedings of the IRE 45(9), 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Ajia, I. A.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alloing, B.

B. Damilano, S. Vézian, J. Brault, B. Alloing, and J. Massies, “Selective area sublimation: A simple top-down route for GaN-based nanowire fabrication,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1863–1868 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allsopp, D. W. E.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alyamani, A. Y.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Banas, M.

P. Perlin, M. Osiński, P. G. Eliseev, V. A. Smagley, J. Mu, M. Banas, and P. Sartori, “Low-temperature study of current and electroluminescence in InGaN/AlGaN/GaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(12), 1680–1682 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barea, L. A. M.

D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

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J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
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E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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B. Damilano, S. Vézian, J. Brault, B. Alloing, and J. Massies, “Selective area sublimation: A simple top-down route for GaN-based nanowire fabrication,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1863–1868 (2016).
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X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
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Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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Chen, S.

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
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Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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Chen, Y.-S.

Cheng, Y.-C.

Cherns, D.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
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Choi, J.-Y.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
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Choi, W. M.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
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A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
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Chu, J. Y.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
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Chu, Y.-C.

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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Consiglio, G. B.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
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X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Damilano, B.

B. Damilano, S. Vézian, J. Brault, B. Alloing, and J. Massies, “Selective area sublimation: A simple top-down route for GaN-based nanowire fabrication,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1863–1868 (2016).
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Y.-T. Lin, T.-W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
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K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
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Demir, H. V.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
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B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
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S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
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Dickson, W.

J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
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Edwards, P. R.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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Eid, J.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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Einsle, J. F.

J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
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ElAfandy, R. T.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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El-Desouki, M. M.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
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Fichtenbaum, N. A.

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Figueira, D. S. L.

D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
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F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
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Frateschi, N. C.

D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
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F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
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L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
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S. Matsui, T. Kaito, J. Fujita, M. Komuro, K. Kanda, and Y. Haruyama, “Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 3181–3184 (2000).
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Gîrgel, I.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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Göbelt, M.

A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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Griffiths, I.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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Han, Y.

Hao, Z.

Haruyama, Y.

S. Matsui, T. Kaito, J. Fujita, M. Komuro, K. Kanda, and Y. Haruyama, “Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 3181–3184 (2000).
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Hasanov, N.

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heilmann, M.

A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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Hernandez-Martinez, P. L.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
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Hsieh, C. E.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H.-C. Kuo, and T.-C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
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Hsieh, Y.-P.

Hsueh, T. H.

F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H.-C. Kuo, and T.-C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
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C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
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Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
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Huang, Y.-S.

Huh, C.

C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
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Humphreys, C. J.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
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Hwang, H.

C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
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Jang, L.-W.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jarschel, P. F.

D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeon, D.-W.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. R.

Jeong, H.

Jeong, M. S.

Ji, Y.

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
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Jiang, D.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
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Jung, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Jung, J.-B. Seol, C.-M. Kwak, and C.-G. Park, “Three-dimensional indium distribution in electron-beam irradiated multiple quantum wells of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113111 (2016).
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T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
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A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
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X. Zhang, C.-G. Tu, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Structure variation of a sidewall quantum well on a GaN nanorod,” Nanotechnology 28(4), 045203 (2017).
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C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
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C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
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Kim, J. K.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
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Kim, S.-W.

C. Huh, S.-W. Kim, H.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H. Hwang, and S.-J. Park, “Effects of sulfur treatment on electrical and optical performance of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(12), 1766–1768 (2001).
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D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
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K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
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Kuo, H. C.

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T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
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Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
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W.-Y. Jung, J.-B. Seol, C.-M. Kwak, and C.-G. Park, “Three-dimensional indium distribution in electron-beam irradiated multiple quantum wells of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113111 (2016).
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F.-I. Lai, S. C. Ling, C. E. Hsieh, T. H. Hsueh, H.-C. Kuo, and T.-C. Lu, “Extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by microhole array and roughened surface oxide,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(5), 496–498 (2009).
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S. Matsui, T. Kaito, J. Fujita, M. Komuro, K. Kanda, and Y. Haruyama, “Three-dimensional nanostructure fabrication by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(6), 3181–3184 (2000).
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K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
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K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
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S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
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Y.-T. Lin, T.-W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
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S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
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Park, H. J.

Park, S.-J.

J.-M. Lee, K.-S. Lee, and S.-J. Park, “Removal of dry etch damage in p-type GaN by wet etching of sacrificial oxide layer,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22(2), 479–482 (2004).
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Razeghi, M.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roqan, I. S.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sah, C. T.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proceedings of the IRE 45(9), 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Sartori, P.

P. Perlin, M. Osiński, P. G. Eliseev, V. A. Smagley, J. Mu, M. Banas, and P. Sartori, “Low-temperature study of current and electroluminescence in InGaN/AlGaN/GaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(12), 1680–1682 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, C.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schaake, C.

S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seol, J.-B.

W.-Y. Jung, J.-B. Seol, C.-M. Kwak, and C.-G. Park, “Three-dimensional indium distribution in electron-beam irradiated multiple quantum wells of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sharma, I.

A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, C.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T.-L.

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheu, J. K.

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shields, P. A.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shiell, D.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shin, H.-J.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shockley, W.

C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proceedings of the IRE 45(9), 1228–1243 (1957).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

A. Kumar, M. Heilmann, M. Latzel, R. Kapoor, I. Sharma, M. Göbelt, S. H. Christiansen, V. Kumar, and R. Singh, “Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 27553 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smagley, V. A.

P. Perlin, M. Osiński, P. G. Eliseev, V. A. Smagley, J. Mu, M. Banas, and P. Sartori, “Low-temperature study of current and electroluminescence in InGaN/AlGaN/GaN double-heterostructure blue light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(12), 1680–1682 (1996).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

Speck, J. S.

S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.

Sun, X. W.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tadatomo, K.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Taguchi, T.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. T.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Teetsov, J. M.

X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsai, Y.-L.

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, W.-J.

W.-J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lieten, P. M. Vereecken, R. Langer, and G. Borghs, “Impact of plasma-induced surface damage on the photoelectrochemical properties of GaN pillars fabricated by dry etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(21), 11261–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tu, C.-G.

X. Zhang, C.-G. Tu, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Structure variation of a sidewall quantum well on a GaN nanorod,” Nanotechnology 28(4), 045203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueki, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vajargah, S. H.

E. D. L. Boulbar, P. R. Edwards, S. H. Vajargah, I. Griffiths, I. Gîrgel, P.-M. Coulon, D. Cherns, R. W. Martin, C. J. Humphreys, C. R. Bowen, D. W. E. Allsopp, and P. A. Shields, “Structural and optical emission uniformity of m-plane InGaN single quantum wells in core-shell nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(4), 1907–1916 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vallini, F.

D. S. L. Figueira, L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, P. F. Jarschel, R. Lang, and N. C. Frateschi, “a-SiOx<Er> active photonic crystal resonator membrane fabricated by focused Ga+ ion beam,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18772–18783 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Dorp, D. H.

W.-J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lieten, P. M. Vereecken, R. Langer, and G. Borghs, “Impact of plasma-induced surface damage on the photoelectrochemical properties of GaN pillars fabricated by dry etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(21), 11261–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vaz, A. R.

L. A. M. Barea, F. Vallini, A. R. Vaz, J. R. Mialichi, and N. C. Frateschi, “Low-roughness active microdisk resonators fabricated by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(6), 2979–2981 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vereecken, P. M.

W.-J. Tseng, D. H. van Dorp, R. R. Lieten, P. M. Vereecken, R. Langer, and G. Borghs, “Impact of plasma-induced surface damage on the photoelectrochemical properties of GaN pillars fabricated by dry etching,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(21), 11261–11266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vézian, S.

B. Damilano, S. Vézian, J. Brault, B. Alloing, and J. Massies, “Selective area sublimation: A simple top-down route for GaN-based nanowire fabrication,” Nano Lett. 16(3), 1863–1868 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Von Zuben, A. A. G.

F. Vallini, D. S. L. Figueira, P. F. Jarschel, L. A. M. Barea, A. A. G. Von Zuben, and N. C. Frateschi, “Effects of Ga+ milling on InGaAsP quantum well laser with mirrors milled by focused ion beam,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 27(5), L25–L27 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.-C.

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. H. Hsueh, J. K. Sheu, H. W. Huang, J. Y. Chu, C. C. Kao, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Enhancement in light output of InGaN-based microhole array light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1163–1165 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weng, Y.-H.

Wu, Y.

S. Keller, N. A. Fichtenbaum, C. Schaake, C. J. Neufeld, A. David, E. Matioli, Y. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and U. K. Mishra, “Optical properties of GaN nanopillar and nanostripe arrays with embedded InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi 244(6), 1797–1801 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xiong, B.

Xu, J.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, Y.

S. Watanabe, N. Yamada, M. Nagashima, Y. Ueki, C. Sasaki, Y. Yamada, T. Taguchi, K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, and H. Kudo, “Internal quantum efficiency of highly-efficient InxGa1-xN-based near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 4906–4908 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yan, C. H.

X. A. Cao, J. M. Teetsov, M. P. D’Evelyn, D. W. Merfeld, and C. H. Yan, “Electrical characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on GaN and sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 7–9 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

X. Zhang, C.-G. Tu, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Structure variation of a sidewall quantum well on a GaN nanorod,” Nanotechnology 28(4), 045203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G. M.

Yang, H.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yasan, A.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046–1048 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yeh, T.-W.

Y.-T. Lin, T.-W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.-M.

D.-W. Jeon, W. M. Choi, H.-J. Shin, S.-M. Yoon, J.-Y. Choi, L.-W. Jang, and I.-H. Lee, “Nanopillar InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes integrated with homogeneous multilayer graphene electrodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(44), 17688–17692 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, P.

Y.-L. Tsai, C.-Y. Liu, C. Krishnan, D.-W. Lin, Y.-C. Chu, T.-P. Chen, T.-L. Shen, T.-S. Kao, M. D. B. Charlton, P. Yu, C.-C. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and J.-H. He, “Bridging the “green gap” of LEDs: giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1192–1199 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

J. F. Einsle, J. S. Bouillard, W. Dickson, and A. V. Zayats, “Hybrid FIB milling strategy for the fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures on semiconductor substrates,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6(1), 572 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C.-G. Tu, Y.-W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Structure variation of a sidewall quantum well on a GaN nanorod,” Nanotechnology 28(4), 045203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

C. Zhao, T. K. Ng, R. T. ElAfandy, A. Prabaswara, G. B. Consiglio, I. A. Ajia, I. S. Roqan, B. Janjua, C. Shen, J. Eid, A. Y. Alyamani, M. M. El-Desouki, and B. S. Ooi, “Droop-free, reliable, and high-power InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes for monolithic metal-optoelectronics,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4616–4623 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Y. Zhang, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, P. L. Hernandez-Martinez, B. Zhu, S. Lu, X. J. Kang, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Investigation of p-type depletion doping for InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 033506 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, N. Hasanov, X. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, H. Liu, and H. V. Demir, “Decoupling contact and mirror: an effective way to improve the reflector for flip-chip InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(26), 265106 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, S. Lu, Y. Zhang, S. Chen, N. Hasanov, X. Kang, and H. V. Demir, “Modulating ohmic contact through InGaxNyOz interfacial layer for high-performance InGaN/GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photonics J. 8(3), 1600808 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, L. Wang, S. Zhang, H. Wang, D. Zhao, J. Zhu, Z. Liu, D. Jiang, and H. Yang, “The fabrication of GaN-based nanopillar light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(7), 074302 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y.-T. Lin, T.-W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

W.-Y. Jung, J.-B. Seol, C.-M. Kwak, and C.-G. Park, “Three-dimensional indium distribution in electron-beam irradiated multiple quantum wells of blue-emitting InGaN/GaN devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(11), 113111 (2016).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams. (a) Layer structures of planar-chip. (b) Fabrication process of the micro-chip by FIB with stream patterning project. (c) The accomplished micro-chip. (d) Cross-sectional view of micro-square array. The etching depth of micro-square array exceeds the location of multiple quantum wells (MQWs), as shown in Fig. 1(d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The (a) top view and (b) tilted-view SEM images of micro-square array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The current–voltage curves of the micro-chip compared to the corresponding planar-chip plotting in semi-log scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light output power and the relative EQE as a function of current of the planar-chip and the micro-chip, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular distributions of EL intensities for the two chips plotting in the polar coordinate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a)-(b) 3D-FDTD simulations of the calculated electric field distributions of micro-chip and planar-chip at 450 nm, respectively. (c)-(d) Far-field radiation patterns at 450 nm for the micro-chip and the planar-chip, respectively.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I= I S [exp(q V D /nkT)1]
V D =VI R S
V=I R S + nkT q ln( I I S +1)
E(I)=I dV dI =IRS+ nkT q
η e = η int * η ext ,

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