Abstract

Ce doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Ce:YAG) is an important photonic material that is used as a yellow phosphor for white light emitting diodes. In this work, the physical and optical properties of Ce:YAG nanophosphors are investigated and the effects of high-temperature thermal treatments and annealing atmospheres on the particle size and luminescence intensity are discussed. Furthermore, photo-luminescence (PL) was measured as a function of temperature and compared with PL from Ce:YAG single crystals and transparent ceramics to understand the mechanism of luminescence decay with temperature. While the characteristics of PL emission as a function of temperature for single crystals and NPs are similar and follow common decay trends, Ce:YAG transparent ceramics exhibit an interesting unusual increase in PL with temperature. We explained this unique novel behavior by a 4-step mechanism involving localized states in the band gap, and provided evidence from thermo-luminescence measurements to support this interpretation. The work reveals a new luminescence phenomenon arising from the overlap of PL and TL emissions; this phenomenon is most likely characteristic of transparent ceramics.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Zych, C. Brecher, and H. Lingertat, “Scintillation properties of YAG: Ce optical ceramics,” Mater. Sci. Forum 239-241, 257–260 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. McKittrick, L. Shea, C. Bacalski, and E. Bosze, “The influence of processing parameters on luminescent oxides produced by combustion synthesis,” Displays 19(4), 169–172 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  29. B. Sundarakannan and M. Kottaisamy, “Sol–gel derived flux assisted synthesis of fine particles YAG: Ce3+ phosphor for remote phosphor converted white light emitting diodes,” Mater. Res. Bull. 74, 485–490 (2016).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  33. C. Yang, G. Gu, X. Zhao, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “The growth and luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ single crystal by doping Gd3+ for W-LEDs,” Mater. Lett. 170, 58–61 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. J. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221110 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. M. Reda, C. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results Phys. 2, 123–126 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  37. C. H. Lu, H. C. Hong, and R. Jagannathan, “Sol–gel synthesis and photo luminescent properties of cerium-ion doped yttrium aluminum garnet powders,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(8), 2525–2530 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  38. P. Husband, I. Bartošová, V. Slugeň, and F. A. Selim, “Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 674, 012013 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  40. E. Zycha and C. Brecher, “Temperature dependence of Ce-emission kinetics in YAG: Ce optical ceramic,” J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 495–499 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  41. V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “‘Temperature Quenching of Yellow Ce3+ Luminescence in YAG: Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  42. D. J. Robbins, “The Effects of Crystal Field and Temperature on the Photoluminescence Excitation Efficiency of Cd + in YAG,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 126(1550), 9 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  43. D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  44. C.R. Varney, D.T. Mackay, A. Pratt, S.M. Reda, and F.A. Selim, ‘Energy levels of exciton traps in YAG single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 063505 (2012).
  45. F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2016 (11)

M. Gong, X. Liang, Y. Wang, H. Xu, L. Zhang, and W. Xiang, “Novel synthesis and optical characterization of phosphor-converted WLED employing Ce: YAG-doped glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 664, 125–132 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. He, X. Liu, R. Li, B. Yang, K. Yu, M. Zeng, and R. Yu, “Effects of local structure of Ce(3+) ions on luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22238 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Rajan and S. V. Manorama, “Formation of hierarchical macro porous YAlO: Ce multifunctional nanophosphors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(11), 114902 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Sundarakannan and M. Kottaisamy, “Sol–gel derived flux assisted synthesis of fine particles YAG: Ce3+ phosphor for remote phosphor converted white light emitting diodes,” Mater. Res. Bull. 74, 485–490 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, F. Zhao, M. Zhang, T. Hou, Z. Li, and H. Huang, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG: Ce3+ phosphors by a series of amines assisted co-precipitation method,” J. Alloys Compd. 661, 148–154 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chung, S. Chen, K. Wang, and C. Siao, “Promotion of solid-state lighting for ZnCdSe quantum dot modified-YAG-based white light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 6(57), 51989–51996 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, G. Gu, X. Zhao, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “The growth and luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ single crystal by doping Gd3+ for W-LEDs,” Mater. Lett. 170, 58–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Husband, I. Bartošová, V. Slugeň, and F. A. Selim, “Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 674, 012013 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. A. Selim, A. Khamehchi, D. J. Winarski, and S. Agarwal, “Synthesis and characterization of Ce:YAG nano-phosphors and ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3704–3715 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce: YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 661–665 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Shi, Q. Liu, J. Wan, and Y. Pan, “Ce: YAG transparent ceramics for applications of high power LEDs: Thickness effects and high temperature performance,” Mater. Lett. 139, 480–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Guerbous and A. Boukerika, “Nanomaterial host bands effect on the photoluminescence properties of Ce-doped YAG nanophosphor synthesized by sol-gel method,” J. Nanomater. 2015, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Cho, Y. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221110 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, H. Wei, C. L. Melcher, and Y. Wu, “Spectroscopic properties of transparent Y3Al5O12: Eu ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(12), 2022–2027 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. M. Reda, C. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results Phys. 2, 123–126 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Yadav, C. Joshi, and S. Moharil, “Combustion synthesis of multicomponent ceramic phosphors for solid state lighting,” Int. J. Self-Propag. High-Temp. Synth. 21(1), 32–37 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Ogi, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, W. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG: Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

2009 (2)

W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Comparative studies of Lu3Al5O12: Ce and Y3Al5O12: Ce scintillators for gamma‐ray detection,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2599–2605 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “‘Temperature Quenching of Yellow Ce3+ Luminescence in YAG: Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. Mihokova, M. Nikla, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG: Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091114 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

C. H. Lu, H. C. Hong, and R. Jagannathan, “Sol–gel synthesis and photo luminescent properties of cerium-ion doped yttrium aluminum garnet powders,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(8), 2525–2530 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Zycha and C. Brecher, “Temperature dependence of Ce-emission kinetics in YAG: Ce optical ceramic,” J. Alloys Compd. 300-301, 495–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. McKittrick, L. Shea, C. Bacalski, and E. Bosze, “The influence of processing parameters on luminescent oxides produced by combustion synthesis,” Displays 19(4), 169–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Cheng, K. Qi, Q. Wang, and J. Wan, “Kind of electrovacuo glass in a YAG display tube,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 3560, 227–232 (1998).

1997 (1)

E. Zych, C. Brecher, and H. Lingertat, “Scintillation properties of YAG: Ce optical ceramics,” Mater. Sci. Forum 239-241, 257–260 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high‐Performance polycrystalline Nd: YAG ceramics for solid‐State lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(4), 1033–1040 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

1987 (1)

K. Ohno and T. Abe, “Bright green phosphor, Y3Al5−xGaxO12: Tb, for projection CRT,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134(8), 2072–2076 (1987).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

D. J. Robbins, “The Effects of Crystal Field and Temperature on the Photoluminescence Excitation Efficiency of Cd + in YAG,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 126(1550), 9 (1979).
[Crossref]

Abe, T.

K. Ohno and T. Abe, “Bright green phosphor, Y3Al5−xGaxO12: Tb, for projection CRT,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134(8), 2072–2076 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, S.

Aoki, K.

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arjoca, S.

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Aung, Y. L.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Bacalski, C.

J. McKittrick, L. Shea, C. Bacalski, and E. Bosze, “The influence of processing parameters on luminescent oxides produced by combustion synthesis,” Displays 19(4), 169–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, V.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “‘Temperature Quenching of Yellow Ce3+ Luminescence in YAG: Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bartošová, I.

P. Husband, I. Bartošová, V. Slugeň, and F. A. Selim, “Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 674, 012013 (2016).
[Crossref]

Beil, K.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Beitlerova, A.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikla, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG: Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blazek, K.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikla, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG: Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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Boatner, L. A.

J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bosze, E.

J. McKittrick, L. Shea, C. Bacalski, and E. Bosze, “The influence of processing parameters on luminescent oxides produced by combustion synthesis,” Displays 19(4), 169–172 (1999).
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Boukerika, A.

L. Guerbous and A. Boukerika, “Nanomaterial host bands effect on the photoluminescence properties of Ce-doped YAG nanophosphor synthesized by sol-gel method,” J. Nanomater. 2015, 1–10 (2015).
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E. Zych, C. Brecher, and H. Lingertat, “Scintillation properties of YAG: Ce optical ceramics,” Mater. Sci. Forum 239-241, 257–260 (1997).
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Burlich, J.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

Buscher, J.

D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
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Cheetham, A.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
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Chen, H.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce: YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 661–665 (2015).
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Chen, S.

S. Chung, S. Chen, K. Wang, and C. Siao, “Promotion of solid-state lighting for ZnCdSe quantum dot modified-YAG-based white light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 6(57), 51989–51996 (2016).
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Chen, X.

X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
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J. Cheng, K. Qi, Q. Wang, and J. Wan, “Kind of electrovacuo glass in a YAG display tube,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 3560, 227–232 (1998).

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W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Comparative studies of Lu3Al5O12: Ce and Y3Al5O12: Ce scintillators for gamma‐ray detection,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2599–2605 (2009).
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Cho, I. S.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
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Cho, Y.

Y. Cho, Y. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
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Chung, S.

S. Chung, S. Chen, K. Wang, and C. Siao, “Promotion of solid-state lighting for ZnCdSe quantum dot modified-YAG-based white light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 6(57), 51989–51996 (2016).
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Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
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Collins, G. S.

F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
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D’Ambrosio, C.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikla, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG: Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
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Deng, L.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
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Dieckmann, R.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

Do, Y. R.

Y. Cho, Y. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
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Dong, J.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091114 (2006).
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Engel, A.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Enoto, T.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier, J.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gong, M.

M. Gong, X. Liang, Y. Wang, H. Xu, L. Zhang, and W. Xiang, “Novel synthesis and optical characterization of phosphor-converted WLED employing Ce: YAG-doped glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 664, 125–132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

C. Yang, G. Gu, X. Zhao, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “The growth and luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ single crystal by doping Gd3+ for W-LEDs,” Mater. Lett. 170, 58–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: Failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3-4), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guerbous, L.

L. Guerbous and A. Boukerika, “Nanomaterial host bands effect on the photoluminescence properties of Ce-doped YAG nanophosphor synthesized by sol-gel method,” J. Nanomater. 2015, 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gundiah, G.

J. L. Wu, G. Gundiah, and A. Cheetham, “Structure–property correlations in Ce-doped garnet phosphors for use in solid state lighting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 441(4-6), 250–254 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, X.

X. He, X. Liu, R. Li, B. Yang, K. Yu, M. Zeng, and R. Yu, “Effects of local structure of Ce(3+) ions on luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22238 (2016).
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Heist, P.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Hirakuri, S.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hong, H. C.

C. H. Lu, H. C. Hong, and R. Jagannathan, “Sol–gel synthesis and photo luminescent properties of cerium-ion doped yttrium aluminum garnet powders,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(8), 2525–2530 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hou, T.

L. Wang, F. Zhao, M. Zhang, T. Hou, Z. Li, and H. Huang, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG: Ce3+ phosphors by a series of amines assisted co-precipitation method,” J. Alloys Compd. 661, 148–154 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce: YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 661–665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

L. Wang, F. Zhao, M. Zhang, T. Hou, Z. Li, and H. Huang, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG: Ce3+ phosphors by a series of amines assisted co-precipitation method,” J. Alloys Compd. 661, 148–154 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y.

Y. Cho, Y. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12: Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Husband, P.

P. Husband, I. Bartošová, V. Slugeň, and F. A. Selim, “Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 674, 012013 (2016).
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Ikesue, A.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high‐Performance polycrystalline Nd: YAG ceramics for solid‐State lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(4), 1033–1040 (1995).
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Inomata, D.

S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
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Iskandar, F.

T. Ogi, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, W. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG: Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
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Ito, T.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jagannathan, R.

C. H. Lu, H. C. Hong, and R. Jagannathan, “Sol–gel synthesis and photo luminescent properties of cerium-ion doped yttrium aluminum garnet powders,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(8), 2525–2530 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ji, J.

J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
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Joshi, C.

P. Yadav, C. Joshi, and S. Moharil, “Combustion synthesis of multicomponent ceramic phosphors for solid state lighting,” Int. J. Self-Propag. High-Temp. Synth. 21(1), 32–37 (2012).
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Jung, H. S.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high‐Performance polycrystalline Nd: YAG ceramics for solid‐State lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(4), 1033–1040 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kasama, D.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keuhn, H.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Khamehchi, A.

Kim, M. J.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, T.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, “Fabrication and optical properties of high‐Performance polycrystalline Nd: YAG ceramics for solid‐State lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78(4), 1033–1040 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kluge, M.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

Kokubun, M.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kong, D. S.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kottaisamy, M.

B. Sundarakannan and M. Kottaisamy, “Sol–gel derived flux assisted synthesis of fine particles YAG: Ce3+ phosphor for remote phosphor converted white light emitting diodes,” Mater. Res. Bull. 74, 485–490 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

D. S. Kong, M. J. Kim, H. J. Song, I. S. Cho, S. Jeong, H. Shin, S. Lee, and H. S. Jung, “Fine tuning of emission property of white light-emitting diodes by quantum-dot-coating on YAG: Ce nanophosphors,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 379, 467–473 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

X. He, X. Liu, R. Li, B. Yang, K. Yu, M. Zeng, and R. Yu, “Effects of local structure of Ce(3+) ions on luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22238 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

L. Wang, F. Zhao, M. Zhang, T. Hou, Z. Li, and H. Huang, “Preparation and photoluminescence properties of YAG: Ce3+ phosphors by a series of amines assisted co-precipitation method,” J. Alloys Compd. 661, 148–154 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

C. Yang, G. Gu, X. Zhao, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “The growth and luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ single crystal by doping Gd3+ for W-LEDs,” Mater. Lett. 170, 58–61 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Gong, X. Liang, Y. Wang, H. Xu, L. Zhang, and W. Xiang, “Novel synthesis and optical characterization of phosphor-converted WLED employing Ce: YAG-doped glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 664, 125–132 (2016).
[Crossref]

Limsuwan, P.

W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Comparative studies of Lu3Al5O12: Ce and Y3Al5O12: Ce scintillators for gamma‐ray detection,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2599–2605 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce: YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 661–665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce: YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649, 661–665 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lingertat, H.

E. Zych, C. Brecher, and H. Lingertat, “Scintillation properties of YAG: Ce optical ceramics,” Mater. Sci. Forum 239-241, 257–260 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, G.

G. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Shi, Q. Liu, J. Wan, and Y. Pan, “Ce: YAG transparent ceramics for applications of high power LEDs: Thickness effects and high temperature performance,” Mater. Lett. 139, 480–482 (2015).
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Liu, Q.

G. Liu, Z. Zhou, Y. Shi, Q. Liu, J. Wan, and Y. Pan, “Ce: YAG transparent ceramics for applications of high power LEDs: Thickness effects and high temperature performance,” Mater. Lett. 139, 480–482 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. He, X. Liu, R. Li, B. Yang, K. Yu, M. Zeng, and R. Yu, “Effects of local structure of Ce(3+) ions on luminescent properties of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanoparticles,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22238 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Lu, H. C. Hong, and R. Jagannathan, “Sol–gel synthesis and photo luminescent properties of cerium-ion doped yttrium aluminum garnet powders,” J. Mater. Chem. 12(8), 2525–2530 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mackay, D. T.

D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
[Crossref]

Makishima, K.

T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
[Crossref]

Manorama, S. V.

K. J. Rajan and S. V. Manorama, “Formation of hierarchical macro porous YAlO: Ce multifunctional nanophosphors,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(11), 114902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mares, J. A.

E. Mihokova, M. Nikla, J. A. Mares, A. Beitlerova, A. Vedda, K. Nejezchleb, K. Blazek, and C. D’Ambrosio, “Luminescence and scintillation properties of YAG: Ce single crystal and optical ceramics,” J. Lumin. 126(1), 77–80 (2007).
[Crossref]

Margraf, S.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mass, J.

A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

McCluskey, M. D.

F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
[Crossref]

McKittrick, J.

J. McKittrick, L. Shea, C. Bacalski, and E. Bosze, “The influence of processing parameters on luminescent oxides produced by combustion synthesis,” Displays 19(4), 169–172 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meijerink, A.

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Peters, R.

E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

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E. Pawlowski, M. Kluge, Y. Menke, U. Peuchert, A. Engel, Y. L. Aung, A. Ikesue, K. Beil, R. Peters, H. Keuhn, K. Petermann, and P. Heist, “Yb: YAG composite ceramic laser,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 1–8 (2010).

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A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

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X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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P. Husband, I. Bartošová, V. Slugeň, and F. A. Selim, “Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 674, 012013 (2016).
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F. A. Selim, A. Khamehchi, D. J. Winarski, and S. Agarwal, “Synthesis and characterization of Ce:YAG nano-phosphors and ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3704–3715 (2016).
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D. J. Winarski, C. Persson, and F. A. Selim, “Hydrogen in insulating Y3Al5O12 strongly narrows the energy gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(22), 221110 (2014).
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J. Ji, L. A. Boatner, and F. A. Selim, “Donor characterization in ZnO by thermally stimulated luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041102 (2014).
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F. A. Selim, C. R. Varney, M. C. Tarun, M. C. Rowe, G. S. Collins, and M. D. McCluskey, “Positron lifetime measurements of hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies in yttrium aluminum oxide garnets,” Phys. Rev. B 88(17), 174102 (2013).
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D. T. Mackay, C. R. Varney, J. Buscher, and F. A. Selim, “Study of exciton dynamics in garnets by low temperature Thermo-luminescence,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023522 (2012).
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S. M. Reda, C. Varney, and F. A. Selim, “Radio-luminescence and absence of trapping defects in Nd-doped YAG single crystals,” Results Phys. 2, 123–126 (2012).
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C. R. Varney, S. M. Reda, D. T. Mackay, M. C. Rowe, and F. A. Selim, “Strong visible and near infrared luminescence in undoped YAG single crystals,” AIP Adv. 1(4), 042170 (2011).
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A. Sennaroglu, C. R. Pollock, H. Nathel, J. Mass, J. Burlich, S. Margraf, and R. Dieckmann, “New Cr4 laser materials for the near infrared,” Proceedings of SPIE, (SPIE. Digital Library) 2216, 110–122 (1994).

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T. Yanagida, H. Takahashi, T. Ito, D. Kasama, T. Enoto, M. Sato, S. Hirakuri, M. Kokubun, K. Makishima, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, T. Shigeta, and T. Ito, “Evaluation of Properties of YAG (Ce) Ceramic Scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(5), 1836–1841 (2005).
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S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
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S. Chung, S. Chen, K. Wang, and C. Siao, “Promotion of solid-state lighting for ZnCdSe quantum dot modified-YAG-based white light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 6(57), 51989–51996 (2016).
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S. Arjoca, E. G. Víllora, D. Inomata, K. Aoki, Y. Sugahara, and K. Shimamura, “Temperature dependence of Ce: YAG single-crystal phosphors for high-brightness white LEDs/LDs,” Mater. Res. Express 2(5), 055503 (2015).
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W. Chewpraditkul, L. Swiderski, M. Moszynski, T. Szczesniak, A. Syntfeld-Kazuch, C. Wanarak, and P. Limsuwan, “Comparative studies of Lu3Al5O12: Ce and Y3Al5O12: Ce scintillators for gamma‐ray detection,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(11), 2599–2605 (2009).
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S. Chung, S. Chen, K. Wang, and C. Siao, “Promotion of solid-state lighting for ZnCdSe quantum dot modified-YAG-based white light-emitting diodes,” RSC Advances 6(57), 51989–51996 (2016).
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T. Ogi, A. B. D. Nandiyanto, W. Wang, F. Iskandar, and K. Okuyama, “Direct synthesis of spherical YAG: Ce phosphor from precursor solution containing polymer and urea,” Chem. Eng. J. 210, 461–466 (2012).
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Wang, X.

X. Chen, H. Qin, X. Wang, C. Yang, J. Jiang, and H. Jiang, “Sintering and characterization of Gd3Al3Ga2O12/ Y3Al5O12 layered composite scintillation ceramic,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 36(10), 2587–2591 (2016).
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M. Gong, X. Liang, Y. Wang, H. Xu, L. Zhang, and W. Xiang, “Novel synthesis and optical characterization of phosphor-converted WLED employing Ce: YAG-doped glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 664, 125–132 (2016).
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Winarski, D. J.

F. A. Selim, A. Khamehchi, D. J. Winarski, and S. Agarwal, “Synthesis and characterization of Ce:YAG nano-phosphors and ceramics,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(12), 3704–3715 (2016).
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M. Gong, X. Liang, Y. Wang, H. Xu, L. Zhang, and W. Xiang, “Novel synthesis and optical characterization of phosphor-converted WLED employing Ce: YAG-doped glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 664, 125–132 (2016).
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P. Yadav, C. Joshi, and S. Moharil, “Combustion synthesis of multicomponent ceramic phosphors for solid state lighting,” Int. J. Self-Propag. High-Temp. Synth. 21(1), 32–37 (2012).
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J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091114 (2006).
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J. Dong, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Efficient Yb3: Y3Al5O12 ceramic microchip lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091114 (2006).
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C. Yang, G. Gu, X. Zhao, X. Liang, and W. Xiang, “The growth and luminescence properties of Y3Al5O12: Ce3+ single crystal by doping Gd3+ for W-LEDs,” Mater. Lett. 170, 58–61 (2016).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of Ce: YAG nanophosphors annealed in various temperatures from 1000 to 1500°C. All YAG orientations are labelled on the graph.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Grain size of Ce: YAG nanophosphors annealed at various temperatures from 1000 to 1500°C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PL intensity of Ce: YAG nanophosphors as a function of wavelength: (a) for different annealing temperatures, (b) for different annealing atmospheres.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PL emission intensity as a function of wavelength. The graph compares the emission of Ce: YAG NPs with single crystals and transparent ceramics.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) Temperature dependent PL emission measurement of NP as a function of wavelength over temperature range of 83K-623K. b) PL emission intensity of NP at T = 623K. c) Integrated PL peak intensity as a function of temperature for NP. It shows that the luminescence intensity sharply decays with rising temperature up to 200 K where it undergoes a little increase, then decays again.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) Temperature dependent PL measurements of Ce: YAG single crystal. b) Integrated PL intensity of Ce:YAG single crystal as a function of temperature.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Temperature dependent PL emission spectra of Ce: YAG transparent ceramics as a function of wavelength over a temperature range of 83 to 633 K. b) Integrated PL peak intensity of Ce: YAG transparent ceramics as a function of temperature.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 a) Thermo-luminescence contour plot of Ce: YAG transparent ceramics as function of temperature and wavelength. Excitation was carried out using sub-band gap light of 456 nm (2.72 eV). b) Glow curve of TL emission of Ce: YAG transparent ceramics.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Diagram illustrating the mechanism behind TL emission and its contribution to PL spectrum. a) Excitation of electron from defect center to the conduction band by 456 nm light, b) trapping of electron by another defect center, c) thermal stimulation, d) recombination of charge carriers and light emission.

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