Abstract

CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br and Cl) crystals have been successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with different acids as halogen sources. Reaction conditions including concentration of the precursor, reacting temperature, time, and halogen sources, have been investigated. The results showed that CH3NH3PbI3 crystals exhibit tetragonal phase and the crystals change from normal cuboids to concave-faced cuboids by different reaction conditions. The CH3NH3PbBr3 and CH3NH3PbCl3 crystals show cubic phase structure and normal cuboid. Moreover, the photoluminescence spectra of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br and Cl) crystals obtained with different halogen sources also were discussed in detail.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Fuqiang Guo, Baohua Zhang, Junjun Wang, Haineng Bai, Renqing Guo, Yineng Huang, and Pinyun Ren, "Facile solvothermal method to synthesize hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) crystals: publisher’s note," Opt. Mater. Express 8, 210-210 (2018)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-8-2-210

21 December 2017: Typographical corrections were made to the author listing and funding section.


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References

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  3. S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
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    [PubMed]
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  13. D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).
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    [PubMed]
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  19. D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).
  20. E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).
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2017 (2)

E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

2015 (9)

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

N.-G. Park, “Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology,” Mater. Today 18, 65–72 (2015).

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. H. Im, H. S. Kim, and N. G. Park, “Morphology-photovoltaic property correlation in perovskite solar cells: One-step versus two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” APL Mater. 2, 081510 (2014).

2013 (3)

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. A. Laban and L. Etgar, “Depleted hole conductor-free lead halide iodide heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 3249–3253 (2013).

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Amer. Chem, Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

2004 (1)

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

1999 (1)

I. Sunagawa, Growth and morphology of crystals,” Forma 14, 147–166 (1999).

1995 (1)

P. Hartman and W. G. Perdok, “On the relation between structure and morphology of crystals,” Acta Crystallogr. 8, 525–529 (1995).

1961 (1)

I. M. Lifshitz and V. V. Slyozov, “The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 35–50 (1961).

Alcocer, M. J. P.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Alias, M. S.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Bai, S.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Bakr, O. M.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Benson, E. E.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Cai, B.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Cai, J.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Cao, W.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Chandiran, A. K.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chang, W. H.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chang, Y. H.

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

Chen, D.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Chen, L.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Chen, Y. L.

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

Cheng, L.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dai, X.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dou, L.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Du, H.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Dursun, I.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Eperon, G. E.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Etgar, L.

W. A. Laban and L. Etgar, “Depleted hole conductor-free lead halide iodide heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 3249–3253 (2013).

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Gao, P.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gao, S.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Grancini, G.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Grätzel, M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Guo, F.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Hartman, P.

P. Hartman and W. G. Perdok, “On the relation between structure and morphology of crystals,” Acta Crystallogr. 8, 525–529 (1995).

He, H.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Herz, L. M.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hong, Z.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hou, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Huang, W.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Im, J. H.

J. H. Im, H. S. Kim, and N. G. Park, “Morphology-photovoltaic property correlation in perovskite solar cells: One-step versus two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” APL Mater. 2, 081510 (2014).

Ishihara, T.

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

Jeon, N. J.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Jia, X.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Jin, Y.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Johnston, M. B.

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ke, X. H.

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

Kim, H. S.

J. H. Im, H. S. Kim, and N. G. Park, “Morphology-photovoltaic property correlation in perovskite solar cells: One-step versus two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” APL Mater. 2, 081510 (2014).

Kim, Y. C.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kojima, A.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Amer. Chem, Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

Laban, W. A.

W. A. Laban and L. Etgar, “Depleted hole conductor-free lead halide iodide heterojunction solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 3249–3253 (2013).

Lai, M. L.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Leijtens, T.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Li, C.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Li, G.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Li, Y. H.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Li, Z.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lifshitz, I. M.

I. M. Lifshitz and V. V. Slyozov, “The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 35–50 (1961).

Lim, S. S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Liu, B.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lu, H.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Luther, J. M.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Mathews, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Matsuishi, K.

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

Melnikov, V. A.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Menelaou, C.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Mhaisalkar, S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Miao, S.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Miyasaka, T.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Amer. Chem, Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

Mohammed, O. F.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Ng, T. K.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Noh, J. H.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Onari, S.

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

Ooi, B. S.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Park, C. H.

K. Matsuishi, T. Ishihara, S. Onari, Y. H. Chang, and C. H. Park, “Optical properties and structural phase transitions of lead-halide based inorganic–organic 3D and 2D perovskite semiconductors under high pressure,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241, 3328–3333 (2004).

Park, N. G.

J. H. Im, H. S. Kim, and N. G. Park, “Morphology-photovoltaic property correlation in perovskite solar cells: One-step versus two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” APL Mater. 2, 081510 (2014).

Park, N.-G.

N.-G. Park, “Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology,” Mater. Today 18, 65–72 (2015).

Peng, Q.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Perdok, W. G.

P. Hartman and W. G. Perdok, “On the relation between structure and morphology of crystals,” Acta Crystallogr. 8, 525–529 (1995).

Petrozza, A.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Priante, D.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Ryu, S.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sabba, D.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Seo, J.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Seok, S. I.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shi, D.

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 081902 (2015).

Shirai, Y.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Amer. Chem, Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

Si, J.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Slyozov, V. V.

I. M. Lifshitz and V. V. Slyozov, “The kinetics of precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 19, 35–50 (1961).

Snaith, H. J.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[PubMed]

Stranks, S. D.

S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, “Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber,” Science 342(6156), 341–344 (2013).
[PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

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I. Sunagawa, Growth and morphology of crystals,” Forma 14, 147–166 (1999).

Tan, Z. K.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tang, F.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Teshima, K.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Amer. Chem, Soc. 131, 6050–6051 (2009).

Tosado, G. A.

E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

van de Lagemaat, J.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, N.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, X. L.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Wang, Y.

L. Chen, F. Tang, Y. Wang, S. Gao, W. Cao, J. Cai, and L. Chen, “Facile preparation of organometallic perovskite films and high-efficiency solar cells using solid-state chemistry,” Nano Res. 8, 263–270 (2015).

Xiao, C.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Xie, Z.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Xing, G.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xing, Y. D.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Xue, Z.

L. Etgar, P. Gao, Z. Xue, Q. Peng, A. K. Chandiran, B. Liu, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, “Mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3/TiO2 heterojunction solar cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(42), 17396–17399 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yan, J.

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

Yan, Y.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yang, H. G.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Yang, L.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Yang, M.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yang, S.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Yang, W. S.

W. S. Yang, J. H. Noh, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, S. Ryu, J. Seo, and S. I. Seok, “High-performance photovoltaic perovskite layers fabricated through intramolecular exchange,” Science 348(6240), 1234–1237 (2015).
[PubMed]

Yang, Y.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, Y. M.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yang, Z.

D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Yantara, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ye, Z.

J. Wang, N. Wang, Y. Jin, J. Si, Z. K. Tan, H. Du, L. Cheng, X. Dai, S. Bai, H. He, Z. Ye, M. L. Lai, R. H. Friend, and W. Huang, “Interfacial control toward efficient and low-voltage perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(14), 2311–2316 (2015).
[PubMed]

You, J.

L. Dou, Y. M. Yang, J. You, Z. Hong, W. H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Solution-processed hybrid perovskite photodetectors with high detectivity,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5404–5410 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yu, Q.

E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

Yuh, B.

E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

Zeng, H. D.

Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

Zhang, A.

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

Zhang, B.

B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

J. Yan, X. H. Ke, Y. L. Chen, A. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Effect of modulating the molar ratio of organic to inorganic content on morphology, optical absorption and photoluminescence of perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 351, 1191–1196 (2015).

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B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

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Zhao, Y.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
[PubMed]

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E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

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B. Zhang, F. Guo, L. Yang, X. Jia, B. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Chen, H. Lu, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Shape-Evolution Control of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 crystals via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Cryst. Growth 459, 167–172 (2017).

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Y. Chen, S. Yang, C. Xiao, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Hou, Y. H. Li, H. D. Zeng, and H. G. Yang, “Direct insight into crystallization and stability of hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 via solvothermal synthesis,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 15854–15857 (2015).

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D. Zhong, B. Cai, X. L. Wang, Z. Yang, Y. D. Xing, S. Miao, W. H. Zhang, and C. Li, “Synthesis of oriented TiO2 nanocones with fast charge transfer for perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 11, 409–418 (2015).

Zhu, K.

T. Zhang, M. Yang, E. E. Benson, Z. Li, J. van de Lagemaat, J. M. Luther, Y. Yan, K. Zhu, and Y. Zhao, “A facile solvothermal growth of single crystal mixed halide perovskite CH3NH3Pb(Br1-xClx)(3),” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(37), 7820–7823 (2015).
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E. Zheng, B. Yuh, G. A. Tosado, and Q. Yu, “Solution-processed visible-blind UV-A photodetectors based on CH3NH3PbCl3 perovskite thin films,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5, 3796–3806 (2017).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern (a), TEM image (b) and SAED pattern (c) of products obtained at 130°C for 6 h.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of products obtained at 130°C for 6 h with different amounts of Pb(Ac)2: 10 mg (a), 20 mg (b), 30 mg (c), 40 mg (d), 50 mg (e) and 60 mg (f), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the products obtained with HI at 130°C ((a)-(d)) and 150 °C ((e)-(h)) for different reaction time: 1 h (a) and (e), 6 h (b) and (f), 10 h (c) and (g), 15 h (d) and (h), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

XRD patterns of products obtained at 150°C for 6 h with different halogen sources: HI (a), HBr (b) and HCl (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of products obtained at 150°Cfor 6 h with different halogen sources: HI (a), HBr (b) and HCl (c).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photoluminescence spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 (a), CH3NH3PbBr3 (b) and CH3NH3PbCl3 (c) crystals obtained at 150°C for 6 h with different halogen sources.

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